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Full text of "Resources of the southern fields and forests, medical, economical, and agricultural : being also a medical botany of the Confederate States; with practical information on the useful properties of the trees, plants and shrubs"

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RESOURCES 



mtfan Jf^lds aiti (Jurats, 



MEDICAL, ECONOMICAL, AND AGRICULTURAL. 



BEING ALSO A 



MEDICAL BOTANY OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES | 



PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON THE USEFUL PROPERTIES OF THE TREES, PLANTS, 

AND SHRUBS. 



BY FRANCIS PEYRE PORCHER, 

SURGEON P. A. C. S. 



PREPARED AND PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE SURGEON-GENERAL, 
RICHMOND, VA. 



CHARLESTON : 

STEAM-POWER PRESS OF EVANS fc COGSWELL, 
No. 3 Broad Street. 

1863. 




Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by 

FRANCIS PEYRE PORCHER, M. D., 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States, for the District of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. 

Printed by Evans & Cogswell, No. 3 Broad sireex, Charleston, S. C. 



r 



PREFACE. 



MEDICINAL AND USEFUL PLANTS AND TEEES OF 
/ THE CONFEDERATE STATES — INDIGENOUS 
AND INTRODUCED. 

The following paper is prepared by direction of the Surgeon- 
General, for which purpose the author was released tempora- 
rily from service in the field and hospital. 

It is intended as a repertory of scientific and popular knowl- 
edge as regards the medicinal, economical, and useful properties 
of the trees, plants, and shrubs found within the limits of the 
Confederate States, whether employed in the arts, for manufac- 
turing purposes, or in domestic economy, to supply a present as 
well as a future want. Treating specially of our medicinal 
plants and of the best substitutes for foreign articles of vegeta- 
ble origin, my aim has been to spare no exertions, compatible 
with the limits assigned me, to make it applicable as well to 
the requirements of the Surgeon as of the Planter and Farmer; 
and I trust that after the war shall have ceased there will 
still be no diminution in the desire of every one to possess a 
source from whence his curiosity may be satisfied on matters 
pertaining to our useful plants. The Regimental Surgeon in 
the field, the Physician in his private practice, or the Planter on 
his estate may themselves collect and apply these substances 
within their reach, which are frequently quite as valuable as 
others obtained from abroad, and either impossible to be pro- 
cured or scarce and costly. But information scattered through 
a variety of sources must needs be firs j collected to be available 
in any practical point of view. 

I have, therefore, inserted whatever I thought would throw 
light upon the vegetable productions of the Confederate States, 




IV PREFACE. 

to enable every one to use the ample material within his reach. 
I have searched, through the various catalogues and systematic 
works on botany, and noticed in almost every instance the 
habitat and precise locality of plants, that each one may be 
apprised of the proximity of valuable species. 

Catalogues of the trees and plants growing in special local- 
ities thus become of great service, as they indicate precisely 
where valuable species may be procured. Those interested 
may obtain the localities of many plants found in the Confeder- 
ate States by consulting Elliott's Botany, Darby's, and the 
recent work by Chapman, of Florida, " The Flora of the South- 
ern United States." Among the catalogues issued at the South 
are one by Dr. Jno. Bachman of " Plants growing in the vicin- 
ity of Charleston," published in the Southern Agriculturist; 
one by Prof. Louis B. Gribbes of those found in Bichland dis- 
trict, S. C.j "Plants found in the vicinity of Newbern, 1ST. C," 
by H. B. Croomj an unfinished paper, by W. Wragg Smith, 
Esq., published in the Transactions of the Elliott Society of 
Charleston ; and "A Medico-Botanical Catalogue of the Plants 
of St. John's, Berkley, S. C," by the writer. Also my " Sketch 
of the Medical Botany of South Carolina," published in the 
Transactions of the An . Med Association, vol. ii, 1849, and 
" Besources of the Southern Fields and Forests," De Bow's 
Beview, August, 1861. The extensive collection in the Charles- 
ton Museum by my friend, Mr. H. W. Bavenel, as well as the 
several publications of himself and Mr. M. A. Curtis, of Hills- 
borough, 1ST. C, might also be consulted with profit. I have 
availed myself of Dr. Chapman's work in ascertaining the 
names of plants added by botanists since the time of Walter 
and Elliott, and not contained in the catalogues referred to. 
The plants have been arranged after the Natural system, 
adopting for the most part the views of Lindley. 

The reference to information contained in books* serves the 
purpose of showing those interested in any production or manu- 
facture where fuller details, which are too long to insert, can 
be procured. It will be seen from inspecting the list of author- 

*I take this occasion to express my indebtedness to Col. J. B. Moore, of State- 
burg, S. C, for the use of a valuable library of agricultural and chemical books, 
and for many facilities afforded me in the prosecution of this work; also, to Prof. 
L. R. Gribbes, for the loan of the catalogues in his possession. 



PREFACE. V 

ities, that the labor of searching through the large number of 
medical and other authorities has been very great. I have not 
hesitated to draw largely from any quarter, appending the 
name of the author, whenever I thought the matter applicable 
to our present condition and requirements. Thus, on the sub- 
ject of the Grape, Vine, Sugar, Sorghum, Tannin, Opium, Flax, 
Mustard, Castor oil, Oils, Turpentine, Starch, Potash, Soda, 
"Wood for engraving and for domestic purposes, Medicinal sub- 
stances, etc., I have been profuse in my selections from a multi- 
plicity of sources. 

I have avoided more than a cursory mention of the Crypto- 
gamic plants, Fungi, etc., as the space occupied would be too 
great. I would refer the reader to my paper in the Transac- 
tions of the Am. Med. Association, vol. vii, on " The Medicinal, 
Dietetic, and Poisonous Properties of the Cryptogamic Plants 
of the United States/' where the subject is treated in extenso, 
and a description of several hundred useful or poisonous species 
furnished. 

The older as well as the more recent works on the Materia 
Medica, Therapeutics, and Medical Botany — from Johannes 
Eay and- Bergius to Pereira, Griffith, and Stille — have been 
consulted. That complete and extensive work, the Diction- 
naire de Matiere Medicate, by Merat and De Lens, including the 
supplementary volume, has been freely translated when neces- 
sary. I have also examined the Agricultural journals, the 
Patent Office Reports, the " Rural Cyclopaedia," edited by Wil- 
son, of Edinburgh, and excerpts from the journals and newspa- 
pers of the day, which have since the beginning of the present 
contest been particularly full in information on the economical 
resources of our Confederacy. From these I have been care- 
fully collecting. 

In our present exigency many topics are appropriately intro- 
duced which would hardly have place in a strictly medical 
work. 

Information of this kind is generally referred to under sub- 
jects with which it is closely allied. Thus, Potash, Ashes, and 
Soap are classed under "Carya" and "Quercus" (Hickory and 
Oak), Soda and Soda Soaps under "Salsola" and "Fucus," 
Charcoal under "Pinus" and " Salix " (Pine and Willow), Oils 
under " Sesamum " (Bene), Starch and Arrow-root under " Ma- 



VI PREFACE. 

ranta " and " Convolvulus/' etc., as these plants are character- 
istically rich in such products. The index, however, will con- 
tain full references. 

The mode of action of medicinal plants infinitely varies ; 
their selection, consequently, for the several purposes required 
by the physician is not in my opinion a matter of mere acci- 
dent, the result of guesswork, or of popular reputation. Each is 
distinguished by the composition of its principal constituents ; 
these are generally astringent principles, narcotics, stimulating 
vegetable oils, cooling, refrigerant acids, bitter tonics, cathar- 
tics, etc., etc. Some, as the Cinchonacese and the less active 
antiperiodics, contain principles still more rarely met with 
and more obscure in their mode of operation, which have con- 
trol in warding off the access of malarial attacks. But once in 
possession of the main active principles furnished by a plant, it 
is easy to see ivhy it gains credit as a remedy in certain classes 
of disease. This power it may share in comniCn with many 
others, and several properties may be combined in various 
degrees in each, which it is necessary to know, preliminary to 
a judicious ajoplication of them. Many plants, for example, 
are reputed efficacious in arresting the profluvise, diarrhoeas, 
and discharges from the mucous surfaces generally; this should 
excite no surprise when it is suspected or ascertained that they 
contain tannin simply. In some others, as in the Uva ursi, for 
example, the tannin is associated with a stimulating diuretic 
oil, which further adapts it to the relief of chronic renal affec- 
tions. So with those Avhich experience teaches us produce a 
carthartic, emetic, narcotic, sedative, irritant, or vermifuge 
action on the human system. It is always in virtue of the 
well known principles they contain that they prove serviceable 
and are preferred, and chemical analysis subsequently reveals 
precisely what it is upon which their powers depend. The 
ignorant, whether credulous or incredulous, know only by 
memory the name of the plant and the disease which it is 
said to suit — as in the manner of charlatans and herb doctors. 

In a notice by my distinguished friend, W. Gilmore Simms, 
Esq., of the article in De Bow's Eeview, by the writer, pub- 
lished in the Charleston Mercury, Sept. 1861, he speaks thus 
of the preparations necessary to the great issues then at 
stake : 



PKEFAOE. Vll 

"Now is the time when all the art and science that we pos- 
sess, and all the suggestions that we can make, should be put 
in requisition, to the great end of our sectional independence. 
Every citizen who thinks himself in possession of a truth or a 
fact which he deems to be not generally recognized, should 
make it public — put it to challenge — that it may be subjected 
to investigation. In this way, and this only, with our 'Doubts 
and Queries/ shall we bring about that searching investigation 
which will develop our sectional resources." 

He refers in discursive language to the " resources of the 
Southern fields and forests, the natural productions in brief of 
the South — her resources in the woods, and swamps, and 
fields, the earth and rocks ; for purposes of need, utility, med- 
icine, art, science, and mechanics; hints to the domestic man- 
ufacturer ; to the workers in wood and earth ; and rock and 
tree; and shrub and flower; hints, clues, suggestions, which 
may be turned to the most useful purposes ; not merely as 
expedients during the pressure of war and blockade, but contin- 
uously, through all time, as affording profit, use, interest, and 
employment to our people." 

From an inspection of the large amount of material em- 
braced in this volume it will be seen that our Southern Flora is 
extraordinarily rich. 

It is the teeming product of every variety of soil and climate, 
from Maryland to Florida, from Tennessee to Texas. The 
Atlantic slopes with their marine growth, the Mountain ridges 
of the interior, the almost infra-tropical productions of South 
Florida, with the rich alluvia of the Eiver courses — all contrib- 
ute to swell the lists and produce a wonderful exuberance of 
vegetation. These a bounteous Providence has vouchsafed to 
a Confederacy of States, starting forth Upon their career under 
new and happier auspices, and with independence and self- 
reliance forced upon them by an almost sacred necessity. 

I here introduce a notice of upwards of four hundred sub- 
stances, possessing every variety of useful quality. Some will 
be rejected as useless, others may be found upon closer exam- 
ination to be still more valuable. The most precious of all 
Textile Fibres, and Grains, Silks, Seeds, Oils, Gums, Caout- 
chouc, Eesins, Dyes, Fecula, Albumen, Sugar, Vegetable Acids, 
Starch, Liquors, Spirit, Burning Fluid, material for making 



Vlll PREFACE. 

Paper and Cordage, Barks, Medicines, Wood for Tanning and 
the production of Chemical Agencies, for Timber, Ship-build- 
ing, Engraving, Furniture, Implements and Utensils of every 
description — all abound in the greatest munificence, and need 
but the arm of the authorities or the energy and enterprise 
of the private citizen to be made sources of utility, profit, or 
beauty. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



RESOURCES OF THE, SOUTHERN FIELDS AND FORESTS," 



INDEX TO THE, COMMON NAMES OF PLANTS, 



GENERAL INDEX 



Acacia, false, 188. 
" rose, 189. 

" substitute for, 310, 352; see de- 
mulcents. 
Acetic acid, from pine, 498. 
Acids, vegetable in plants, 369, 405, 534. 
Acorn, bearing, to raise, 265 ; substitute 

for coffee, 535 ; for bread, 541 
Adam's needles, a substitute for flax and 

hemp, 531. 
Adder'.s tongue, 530. 

Agaric, substitute for, 130; see styptics. 
Agave, Virginian, 522; Mexican, in Fla., 
drink from, 522 ; alcohol and materials 
for paper from, 522. 
Agrimony, 145, 271. 

Albumen, plants yielding, uses of, 92, 42. 
Alder, 266; for tanning, 267; oil and 

wine from, 268; black, 389. 
Alcohol (see Liquors), in grape, 222; from 

sap of birch, 266; from agave, 522 
Ale (see Beer), 279. 
Algee, 591. 
Alkaline salts in weeds (see Potash and 

Soda), 504, 590. 
Alkanet, 439. 

Allspice, 199; substitute fov, 354. 
Aloa (see Zostera), a substitute for cot- 
ton, 547. 
Alumina in plants, 266. 
Alum root, 138. 
Alteratives, vegetable, 33, 121, 385, 419, 



American centaury, 479. 
" Colombo, 480. 
" cranberry, 383- 
" hemlock, 44. 
" olive, 493. 
" orchard grass,, 587. 

" spearmint, 440; 

" silver fir, 576. 
" spikenard, 51. 
Ammonia, plants yielding, 80, 364, 474'. 
Amulet, plant used as, 437. 
Amy root, sudorific and alterative, and 

use in asthma, 483. 
Anassthetics, influence on plants, 197; 

local, 417; singular native, 475. 
Anemone, 16, 17. 
Animals, list of plants avoided by, 563 ; 

food for, 563. 
Angelica, 46; tree, 50. 
Aniscsced tree, 39. 
Anodyne, (see Narcotics), local, 44, 380, 

417. 
Antimony, substitute for, 486. 
Antiperiodics, native, 38, 40, 43, 59, 96, 
136, 238, 267, 372, 389, 390, 404, 412, 
420, 427, 428, 436, 441, 446, 464, 480, 
484, 494. 
Antiscorbutics, sorrel as, 369, 370, 385. 
Antispasmodics, native, 424, 425, 440,442, 

444, 446, 448,' 525, 533, 544. 
Antiseptics, vegetable, 356, 424, 43S, 442; 
powder, 502; sugar as, 569. 



428,429,437, 460, 465, 528, 537, 538, Anthelmintics, native (see "Vermifuge), 

591. 22, 106, 362, 481, 404, 448, 527, 587. 

Ambrosia, 419. Aphrodisiacs, native, 440, 443, 410,470, 

American arbor vitas, 507. | 524, 546. 



INDEX. 



Apple, 150: cider from, 151, • liquor from, 
160; wood for printing, 150; to store 
up, 149; insects on, to prevent, 150; 
substitute for dried, 65. 

Apple, May, 77. 

Aphis on apple and peach, to destroy, 
150, 173. 

Apocyne, 483. 

Arbor vitae, for engraving and for hedges, 
507, 173. 

Aromatics, native, 38, 39, 45. 46, 47, 352, 
•354, 357, 380, 416, 424, 426, 444, 447, 
522, 532, 539, 546, 561, 585, 588. 

Arnica, 426. 

Arrow-head, 536. 

Arrow-root, method of preparation and 
cultivation, 512; Indian, 510; machine 
for rasping, 513; to dry, 514; to pre- 
pare and cultivate on plantations, 515, 
536. 

Artichoke, 420, 417; cultivation and uses, 
421; burr, 428. 

Arum, 542. 

Asarin, 357. 

Ash, 168, 167, 494. 

Ashes, strength of and yield, 259 ; Potash, 
etc., in, 260 ; use in soap making, 259, 
326, 333, 590. 

Asafoetida, substitute for, 424. 

Asparagus (see Salads), 535, 175 : subst. 
for, 275, 488, 535, 537, 538; subst. for 
coffee, to prepare, 535. 

Asparagine, 537, 535. 

Aster, 414. 

Astragalus, 177. 

Astringents, native, 17, 18, 19, 20, 35, 58, 
59, 71, 109, 138, 140, J 41, 144, 145, 146, 
193, 199, 200, 201 to 208, 237, 238, 239, 
257, 262, 266, 269, 271, 316, 345, 368, 
:369, 370, 372, 380, 384, 387, 388, 389, 
390, 415, 416, 424, 436, 437, 438, 439, 
441, 444, 447, 463, 467, 522, 545, 590, 
591. 

Atamasco lily, 522. 

Avens, white, 145. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral, 600. 

Bald cypress, 508. 

Balm, 440; of Gilead tree, 506. 

Baling cotton, wood for, 325. 

Bands for cotton bales, 325. 

Balsam, tree, 130 ; balsam plants yielding, 

506, 507, 509. 
Barbe de capucin, 433. 
Barley, liquor from, 164. 
Barberry, 51. 
Barilla, plants yielding, 133, 360 (see 

potash); to manufacture from fuci, 593. 
Barks, to dry, 5; for cordage 103; see fibre, 

yielding tannin (see Quercus), 241, et 

seq. 
■ Barometer, natural, 136, 177, 384, 590. 
Bastard alkanet, 438. 
Baskets, material for making, 62, 63, 380; 

to prepare, 339. 



Bas-s wood, 103. 

Bay, singular properties ascribed to, 36, 

3S0. 
Beaver tree, 36; poison, 44. 
Bear grass, to cultivate and prepare fibre 

as substitute for hemp, 530, 531. 
Bee pasture, plants for, 423, 440. 
Beer, native plants yielding, to make, 195, 
276, 279, 280, 353? 421, 479 ; French 
army,353; persimmon, 387; to strength- 
en, 425; spruce, 507; from China briar, 
537; from corn, 552; small, 552. 
Beech, ashes rich in potash, 236 ; oil from, . 
237 : leaves for stuffing beds, 237 ; drops, 
462. 
Beds, material to stuff, 237, 4S8; see mat- 
tresses. 

Beet, vinegar from, 374; to extract sugar 
from, 375 ; cultivation of, 375 ; to crys- 
tallize, 571. -. 

Belladonna, substitute for, 470J 477. 

Bene, oil and mucilage from, 450 ; sub- 
stitute for castor and olive oil, 450 ; to 
extract,, 452. 

Benzoic acid in plants, 561. 

Benzoin, 354. 

Bermuda arrow-root, to prepare, 512; 
grass, 565. 

Birch, red, 266; cherry, 265; sweet, 265. 

Bird, catching, 392 ; lime, 64, 390 ; to 
prepare, 391; to intoxicate, 528. 

Bitters (see tonics), substitute for, 380, 
478, 532, 546. 

Biting knotweed, 370. 

Black alder, 339; oak, 238; gum, 347; 
drink, 393; walnut, 318; oil from in 
toothache, 368 : spruce, 505, 507 ; root, 
467, 419. 

Blackberry, 140, 141; wine, to prepare, 
141, 142 ; syrup, 143 ; cordial, 143 ; in 
tanning leather, 242. 

Blade tea, 548. 

Bladder nut, 130. 

Blazing star, 527. 

Bleaching plants, method, 90. 

Blistering plaster, substitute for, 16, 17, 
IS, 19, 397; blistering fly, 16; to col- 
lect, 398 ; see, also, Eseharotics. 

Blood root, 30. 

Blue flag, as a diuretic in dropsy, 523 ; 
tripterella, 523; dyes, to extract, 179, 
182; plants yielding, 187, 310, 316. 

Boats, timber for, 306, 509 : bark, 508. 

Bog rush, 589. 

Boneset, 410. 

Books, consulted, 1. 

Bots. native remedy, 41, 107. 

Box, 111 ; boxes, material for packing, 
545. 

Bougie, material for making, 310. 

Bows, from Osage orange, 103. 

Brake, 590. 

Brandy, native material for making, 65 ; 
from persimmon, 386. 

Bread, substitute for, 177 ; from persim- 



INDEX. 



mon, 386; potato, 397; from roots of Carrot, 47. 

plants, 541; hygienic, from corn, 549; Cartridge-boxes, material for, 349. 



Indian loaf, 599 ; from rice, 580 

Brewing (see Liquors), 280. 

Brooklime, 468. 

Brook pimpernel, 468 ; weed, 385. 

Broom rape, 462. 

Brooms, material for, 266, 508, 526 ; from 
doura corn, 566, 567. 

Brushes, native material for, 526. 

Buckeye, 84. 

Buckwheat, substitute for, 373. 

Buffalo clover, 177; berry tree, 174. 

Bugle weed, 441. 

Bulrush, 537. 

Burdock, 419. 

Burning fluid, see Oil. 

Burr, 419 ; artichoke, 428. 

Butterfly weed, 485. 

Butternut, 317. 

Button, snakeroot, 43, 410 ; bush, 405. 

Buttons, native materials for, 65, 84. 

Byram's plan of cultivation and manu- 
facture of silk, 282 

Cabbage tree, 526; palmetto, 526; for 

forts, wharves, thatch, etc., 526; skunk. 

544. 
Cabinet work, woods suited for, 11, 62, 

41, 79, 80, 103, 104, 107, 120, 197, 150, 

171. 188, 189, 311, 312, 318, 320, 321, 

323, 343, 347, 392, 460, 494, 499, 505, 

506, 507, 508, 509, 511, 590. 
Cactus, 66. 
Calabash, 65. 

Calamus, an aromatic, 545. 
Calico printing, plants used in, 406 ; 

bush, 381. 
Calomel, substitute for (see Deobstru- 

ents and Alteratives), 431, 487. 
Cake, plants yielding oil, 67, 69, 73, 118, 

423. 
Cammelina., an oil plant, 67. 
Camphor, plants yielding, 199. 
Canada, leatherwood, 350 ; snakeroot, 

357 ; balsam, 506. 
Canadian collinsonia, 201, 208, 444. 
Cancer root, 462, 463; weed, 442. 
Candles, to harden, 66, 501; from myr- 
tle berries, 314; for war times, 500. 
Cane, and reed, 587; see Chinese and 

sugar-canes. 
Cantharis vesic, 397; to collect, 398. 
Cantharides, substitute for, 16, 19, 28, 40, 

131, 176, 350, 510, 424; to prepare from 

potato fly, 397. 
Caoutchouc, plant producing, 120, 127, 

128, 417, 539; to prepare, 487 (Inuline), 

485. 
Capers, 75 ; substitute for, 18. 
Cardinal flower, 404. 
Carmine ink, substitute for, 367. 
Carminatives (see Aromatics), 416, 539, 

546. 
Carolina potato, 397 ; jalap, 397. 



Casks, cider, 156 ; material for caulking, 

545, 589. 
Cassia, 196. 
Cassina, 393. 

Castor oil plant, mode of cultivation, 
expression of oil, uses, etc., 112, 114, 
115; self-hulling, 117; stearine from, 
118; cake for manure, 118. 

Catechu (seo Astringents), 147, 438. 

Cataleptic power in plant, 447, 483. 

Cathartic bromus, 587. 

Cathartics, substitute for, 21, 29, 37, 65, 
66, 126. 129, 139, 173, 175, 195, 305, 
317, 358, 361, 370, 372, 376, 395, 396, 
397, 407, 408, 411, 428, 431, 449, 465, 

1 466, 467, 480, 484, 490, 523, 533, 565, 
582, 587. 

Catnip, 447 ; cattail, 57, 544 ; catweed, 
426; catfoot, 427. 

Cattail, as a substitute for cotton, and to 
stuff mattresses, 544. 

Caulking, material for, 545. 

Caustic properties, plants possessing (see 
Escharotics), 16, 18, 582. 

Cedar, 507, 510 ; oil from, 510. 

Celery, 45. 

Cement for cisterns, 259. 

Centaury, Am. 479. 

Chairs, wood suited for making, 41, 79, 
104, 257, 266, 311, 323, 589. 

Chamomile, wild, 424; substitute for, 
424, 425, 60. 

Champagne, substitute for, 387. 

Charcoal, qualities of, 241, 339, 497; 
plants yielding for gunpowder, 267, 
273, 339, 340, 362; to prepare, 339, 
498 ; to purify water, 342 ; to clarify 
vinegar, 498. 

Cherokee rose, as hedge plant, 103. 

Cherry, liquor from, 161, 170; birch, 265; 
cordial and syrup, 170, 171. 

Cheese, plants to flavor, 176, 406. 

Chess, dye from, 587. 

Chestnut, uses of, 238. 

Chiccory, cultivation of, and admixture 
with coffee, uses of, 431. 

Chickweed, 136, 347, 384. 

China briar, 537; grass, 272; vegetable 
to cement, 532. 

Chinese tea plant, cultivation and prep- 
aration, 104. 

Chinese sugar-cane, sugar, molasses, and 
syrup from, to manufacture, value of, 
567, et seq.; vinegar, paper, and coffee 
from, 576, 577. 

Chinquapin, astringency of, 237. 

Chloroform, substitute for, 44 ; influence 
on plants, 197. 

Cider, manufacture of, 150 ; from mul- 
berry, 305; persimmon, 387. 

Cigars, pis. to flavor, 410; pectoral, 422. 

Circhonine in Georgia, bark, 405; sub- 
stitute for, 59. 



INDEX. 



Circulation, plants acting on; see Seda 

tives. 
Cisterns, cement for, 259. 
Citric acid, mode of extracting, 108, 306, 
Cloth from fibre, 272; plants yielding, 
484, 488, 489; to render water-proof, 
500; from mulberry, 307; plants to 
wash, 590. 
Clover, rabbit-foot, 177; buffalo, 177; 

yellow, 176; red, 177; white, 177. 
Club rush, 589. 

Cob, corn, analysis of, 550; potash, lye, 
and soda, soap from, 551. 

Cochineal insect, 66, 67. 

Cockle, 145. 

Cocoons, method of treating, 280. 
Coffee, 405; substitute for, 91, 435; from 
cotton seed, 96; substitute suggested,' 
177, 407, 195, 196; from potato, 400; 
from chiccory, 431 ; Florida, 196; from 
asparagus, 535; from acorns, 535; from 
corn, 552; from Chinese sugar-cane, 
577; from rice, 580; from wheat, 584. 

Cohosh, 19. 

Collinsonia, 445. 

Colocynth, substitute for, 200, 485. 

Colombo, American, 480. 

Colt's-tail, 415. 

Concentrated lye, to prepare, 259 ; potash 
in, 327, 332 ; from corn, 551. 

Confederate flax, 531. 

Conium, substitute for, 44. 

Consumption weed, 418. 

Contrayerva, substitute for, 425. 

Copaiba, substitute for, 378. 

Copal varnish, plants yielding, 208 ; Co- 
palm oil and resin, 344. 

Corn, Indian, oil, sugar, paper, beer, soda, 
soap, potash, bread, etc. from, 548, et 
teq ; cobs, prod, of, 549; anal, of, 560 
as food for horses, 550 ; soap from 
shucks, 551; Guinea and doura, 566 

Coral, Indian, 538. 

Cordage, plants yielding, 350, 429, 435, 
103, 271, 273 ; from mulberry, 305 ; wa- 
hoo, 311 ; golden-rod, 417 ; Indian hemp, 
484; spruce, 507; from bear grass, 530. 

Cordial, cherry to make, 171; blackberry, 
143. 

Cork, substitute for, 347; tree, 265. 

Cosmetic, plant used as, 534. 

Cotton, 93 ; fibre in surgery, 95 ; subst. 
for quinine, 95 ; substitute for coffee, 
96, 544; soap from, 96, 100; gun cotton, 
96 ; to decorticate seed, 97 ; cotton seed 
oil and cake, 97; as a manure, 100; 
wooden slats for baling, 259 ; recent 
substitute for, 547 ; woody fibre unfitted 
for, 547 ; microscop. exam. 548. 

Counter irritants, see Escharotics. 

Cow-pea, 194. 

Crab apple, 149. 

Cranberry, value, cultivation, and preser- 
vation of, 383. 

Cranesbill, 138. 



Creosote, from pine, 498, 504. 

Creeping cucumber, 65. 

Cress, 71 ; see Salad, Virginian, 67. 

Croton oil, substitute for, 28. 

Crow foot, 13S. 

Cryptogamous genera, 589. 

Cucumber, tree, 38 ; creeping, 65 ; Indian, 

529. 
Culpepper, extracts from Nicholas, 37. 
Cunilla, 445. 

Currants, 174; wild, 168. 
Custard, apple, 41. 
Cutworm, to prevent, 107. 
Cypress, 508, 509 ; powder, 543. 
Cyperus, jointed, 588. 



Daisy, ox-eyed, 426. 

Dandelion, 429 ; substitute for coffee, ca- 
outchouc in, 430. 

Darnel, bearded, poisonous to wheat, 564. 

Deadly nightshade, 468. 

Deafness, plants relieving, 444. 

Deer-grass, 57. 

Delirium, caused by plants, 565. 

Demulcents, native, 35, 76, 176, 310, 345, 
352, 390, 418, 436. 

Dentrifice, vegetable, 368. 

Deobstruents, 145, 369, 429, 465, 528, 
540; gee Alteratives. 

Devil's fig, 28; wood, 493. 

Dewberry, 141. 

Diaphoretics, 446. 

Digitalis, 461; substitute for, 465, 441. 

Dill, 47. 

Discutients, native, 78, 334, 537; see Es- 
charotics. 

Dittany, 445. 

Diuretics, native, 39, 42, 43, 47, 64, 86, 
120, 144, 272, 347, 356, 359, 368, 371, 
377, 395, 403, 405, 408, 410, 415, 416, 
419, 428, 435, 444, 468, 470, 510, 523, 
530, 535, 542, 565. 

Dock, 368, 370. 

Dog's-tooth violet, 530. 

Dog's-bane, 483, 484; pi, vomiting, 588. 

Dogwood, 59; dog-fennel, 414; tested for 
tannin, 346: to tan leather, 414. 

Dollar plant, 193. 

Doura corn, 566; subst. for wheat, 567. 

Dragon's blood, 370; root, 540. 

Dried fruit, substitute for, 65; fig, 309. 

Drinks from native plants (see Liquors), 
23, 157. 

Duckweed, 21, 548. 

Dwarf-nettle, 268; milk-weed, 488; pal- 
metto, 527. 

Dye from native plants, blue, 19, 131 
178, 179, 183, 189, 316, 372, 494, 523 
536; green, 18, 21, 262, 494, 534, 587 
yellow, 16, 18, 21, 29, 52, 79, 103, 149 
146, 173, 175, 188, 233, 239, 271, 322 
371, 388, 389, 395, 406, 417, 419, 429j; 
red, 33, 178, 367, 406; black, 55, 80 
122, 204, 210, 240, 316, 319, 386, 442 
484, 494, 310, 598; scarlet, 60, 63, 79 



INDEX. 



Xlll 



cinnamon, 509, 267; purple, 80, 178? 
262,379; crimson, 367: dove color, 80; 
brown, 367; drab, 21; saffron, 173," 
in'oZet, 187; olive, 262; indelible, 367; 
for bank notes, 598; </o/d, 308; solfe- 
rino, 367; straw, 444. 

Ebony, substitute for, 392. 

Edible, psoralea, 177; plants (see Salad), 

526, 529, 530, 536, 538, 542, 544, 599. 

578, 594. 
Eel grass, recent subst. for cotton, 547. 
Elain, plants yielding, 547. 
Elder, 408; spirits from, 409. 
Elecampane and Inuline in native pi., 417. 
Elm, slippery, 310. 
Eggs, rearing silk worm, 291, 297. 
Emmenagogues, native, 46, 47, 87, 94, 

371, 426, 444, 476, 527. 
Emetic, holly, 393; root, 401. 
Emetics, native, 20, 29, 31, 42, 50, 57, 65, 

85, 126, 127, 139, 147, 175, 267, 350, 

365, 372, 401, 403, 407, 408, 411, 427, 

444, 447, 448, 450, 465, 467, 4S0, 483, 

484, 4S8, 489, 522, 528, 532, 533, 539. 
Emollient plants; see Mucilaginous. 
Endive, 431; substitute for, 433. 
Engraving, wood for, see wood, ink for 

from fuci, 598. 
Ergot, cotton seed a substitute, 94. 
Errhines, 358, 379, 38], 528. 
Escharotics, native, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 31, 

33, 43, 74, 77, 79. 120,121, 128, 139, 168, 

201, 350, 366, 424, 471, 482, 486, 510, 

523, 536, 541, 582, 585. 
Essence of flowers to extract, 461. 
Evaporation, singular, in sunflower, 422. 
Expectorants, 486. 
Experiments with nettle (Urtica) to check 

bleeding, 269; with leaves of plants for 

tannin, 346. 
Eye-bright, 128, 401. 

Eagine from beech, 235. 

False acacia, 188. 

Fans from palmetto, 527. 

Farcle berry, 384. 

Febrifuge ; see Antiperiodics and Quinine. 

Fecundation in plants, 166. 

Fennel, 46. 

Fermentation, process of, 158, 165, 234. 

Ferns, 589; royal, 591. 

Fescue grass, value for swards, 586; for 
materials for hats, 586. 

Fetid plants, 544. 

Fever root, 407; bush, 354; weed, 43. 

Fever and ague, Dutch remedy for, 61. 

Fibre, use of cotton in surgery, 95 ; plants 
yielding useful, 68, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 
272, 273, 274, 276, 417, 484, 489, 522, 
524, 531, 582; substitute for cotton 
exam., 547. 

Fibrine in plants, 41. 

Fig tree, 308; vinegar from, 308; molas- 
ses from, 309; method of drying, 309, 



blue and red color from, 309, 310; 
devil's, 28. 

Fiorin, for wet meadows, 563. 

Fir, silver, 505, 506. 

Fish, plants stupefying, 84, 175, 464; food 
for, 585. 

Fit root, 378. 

Flag, blue, 523 ; as a diuretic and cathar- 
tic, 523 ; sweet, 545. 

Flax, cultivation and preparation of, oil 
from, 88; subst. for, 423, 582; moun- 
tain, 85 ; water, 548. 

Flea bane, 415. 

Flesh, antiseptics for, 356. 

Flies, plants hostile to, see Insects. 

Flowerless plants, 589. 

Flowering fern, 591. 

Flowers to collect and dry, 7; oil of, to 
collect, 461, 466. 

Fly, poison, 527; trap, examined, 53. 

Fodder, prepare, 550. 

Food, pi. to supply dur'g scarcity of, 541. 

Formula} for native pi., 599. 

Forty knot, 359. 

Foxglove, 465. 

Frankincense, 200, 506. 

Fringe tree, 494. 

Frost root, 415. 

Fuci, iodine and kelp to man'f, 592, 593. 

Fuel, excellent material for, 421. 

Fumitory, 33. 

Fungi, subterranean, 599; edible, cultiva- 
tion, uses, etc., 594; parasitical, 598. 

Gall of the earth, 435. 

Gallic acid (see Astringents), 20, 202, 203. 

Gamboge, substitute for, 29. 

Garlic, 531; wild, 532. 

Gelseminine, 461. 

Gentian, 478; subst. for hops, 387, 479, 
comp. tr., 546. 

Georgia bark, subst. for quinine, 404. 

Geranium, 138. 

Ginger, substitute for, 357. 

Ginseng, 48. 

Glasswort, 361. 

Glass, vegetable cement for, 532; plan to 
make, 591. 

Glue, substitute for, 149, 150, 525. 

Gluten from wheat, to manufacture, 5S3; 
plant yielding, 583. 

Goat's rue, 187. 

Gold of pleasure, as an oil plant, 67. 

Golden, cassia, 196; granadilla, 23; club, 
544; rod, 416, 417; seal, 18. 

Gourd, 65. 

Grape, native, cultivation, wine from, 213, 
etseq.; rot in, 218; varieties, 229. 

Grasses, best varieties, 561, et seq. 

Grass, eel, recent subst. for cotton, 547 ; 
best cultivated for food and pasture, 
561, et seq.; benzoic acid in, 561; to 
procure a double crop 562 ; avoided by 
animals, 563 ; timothy, 565 ; period to 
cut, 565 ; poisonous, 564; sugar in, 562; 



INDEX. 



couch, 561; best for hay, 562; to pre- 
vent encroachment of water, 562; lime, 
562; Bermuda, 565 ; vomiting dogs, 565; 
Walter's, 581; marsh, 582; reed bent, 
582; true blue, 585; meadow, 585; 
fescue, 586 ; Am. orchard, 587 ; nut 
grass, 588. 

Ground-nut, 194 ; oil from, 195, 423. 

Ground cherry, 473. 

Guaiacum, substitute for, 111, 137. 

Guano, substitute for, 504. 

Guinea corn, value of, 566 ; brooms from 
566. 

Gulver root, 467. 

Gum, resembling honey, 418; plants exud 
ing, 466 ; Arabic, subst. for, 149, 173, 
525; sour, 347; sweet, 344; leaves rec- 
ommended in place of oak bark in 
tanning, 345 ; black, 347. 

Gun, powder, native wood for making, 61, 
267, 273, 338, 339, 362; stocks, wood 
for, 320, 323. 

Hsemastatic virtues of nettle, 268 ; see 

styptics. 
Hair tonic, vegetable, 17. 
Hardhack, 146. 
Harvest drink, 166. 
Hats, plants for making, 343, 526, 544, 

586. 
Hazel nut, 234. 
Hay, substitute for, and securing of, 551 ; 

best grasses for, 562, 586. 
Heal all, 446. 
Heartsease, 76. 

Heat evolved by plants, 541, 544. 
Hedges, plants for making, 148, 172, 102, 

189, 195, 235, 508. 
Hedge mustard, 71 ; hyssop, 465. 
Hellebore, white, 528. 
Hemlock, spruce, 506 ; American, 44. 
Hemp, uses of to plant, 272 ; substitute 

for, 273, 417, 484, 531 (see, also, fibre); 

intoxicating, 273; substitute for, 67, 

91, 489 ; beargrass for, 530. 
Herbemont's ever bearing mulberry, 304. 
Hercules' club, 137. 
Hickory, uses of, 322; as a dye, 322; for 

potash, in making soaps, 325 ; bands 

for baling cotton, 325. 
Hides, to prepare and dress, 245, et seq. 
Hippo, Carolina, 126, 127; wild, 126. 
Hogs, fat of, fed on beech, 235, 237; mul- 
berry for, 304. 
Holly, mucilage and bird lime in, 390, 

393. 
Honey, plants yielding poisonous, 379, 

381, 418, 460; locust, 195; suckle, 

408 ; dew on plants, 103, 276. 
Hoodwort, 446. 
Hoops for casks, wood for, 238, 323, 338, 

335 ; set; Wood. 
Hop, uses and cultivation of, 275, 277 ; 

substitute for, 280, 421, 424; formula 

for, 600. 



Horehound, 448 ; in catarrhs, 449 ; water, 
449. 

Horse chestnut, 84; as suitable for opium, 
used in place of soap, and for produc- 
tion of starch, 84; horse gentian, horse 
mint, 443; nettle, 470; weed, 444; 
tails, 590. 

Hound'stongue, 439. 

Huckleberry, 384. 

Hydrocyanic acid, plants yielding, 170, 
171, 173. 

Hydrophobia, native remedy for, 446, 
447. 

Hygrometer, rustic, 177, 136, 3S4, 590. 

Hyssop, 465. 

Indelible ink, from plants, 201, 202, 368, 
441 ; for bank notes, 598. 

Indian, cucumber, 529 ; mallows, 91 ; 
physic, 147 ; tobacco, 401 ; poke, 528 ; 
hemp in asthma, 484 ; meal, 538 ; coral, 
538 ; turnips, 540 ; corn, oil paper, su- 
gar, bread, soap, soda, potash, etc., 
from, 548, et seq. ; bread, '599; loaf, 
599 ; millet, 566. 

Indigo, method of extracting blue color 
from, 179; wild, 175; sowing of seeds, 
180 ; to obtain . indigo on plantations, 
185; for family use, 186; indigo vat, 
184; bastard, 187; substitute for, 188, 
372 ; see Dyes. 

Infection, plant preservative against, 546. 

Ink berry, 390 ; indelible, 368, 441, 201, 
202 ; sympathetic, 308 ; red, carmine, 
367; black, 309; indestructible for bank 
notes, 598. 

Insects, plants noxious to, 409, 414, 426, 
466, 107, 362, 532 ; on cotton plant, 96 ; 
on orange, 109; to relieve bite, 401; 
powder to destroy, 362. 

Instinct in trees, 460. 

Intoxication, plants inducing, 425, 564 ; 
ee Liquors. 

Inuline, curious properties of, 417. 

Iodine, in plants to manufacture, 592. 

Ipecacuanha, substitute for, 29, 120, 147, 
358 ; wild, 126, 407, 485. 

Iris. 523. 

Irish potato, starch from, 471. 

Iron wood, 233, 3S5. 

Irritability in plants, 197, 460, 35. 

Itch, weed, 382, 528; plants applied to 
relief of itch and mange, 382, 527. 

Ivy bush, 381. 

Jalap, 397; substitute for, 407, "396, 397; 
wild, 21 ; formula for, 600, 601. 

Jamestown weed, 474. 

Jerusalem oak, 361, 363; artichoke, 417, 
420 ; as food, substitute for potato, cul- 
tivation, for pickles and starch, 420 ; 
potash in, 421. 

Jessamine, sedative and poisonous prop- 
erties of, 461 ; substitute for digitalis, 
461 ; in yellow fever, 461. 



INDEX. 



XV 



Jewel weed, 139. 
Jointed Gyperus, 588. 
Judas tree, 197. 
Juniper, to season liquors, 162; formula, 
599. 

Kalmia, 381. 

Kelp, plants yielding, 133, 134; to man- 
ufacture, 593. 
Kino, see Catechu. 
Knot grass, 372 ; weed, 444. 
Kyanizing wood, method of, 503. 

Lady's slipper, 425. 

Lampblack, from turpentine, 497. 

Larkspur, 19. 

Laudanum, (see Opium) subst. for, 275. 

Laurel, swamp, 36. 

Laxatives, see Cathartics. 

Leather, to tan, (see Tannin) 202, 203, 204, 
208, 242, 146 ; tanning on plantations, 
249, et seq.; experiments with leaves of 
gum and myrtle, and dog fennel, 345, 
414 ; substitute for, 349 ; preparation to 
preserve, 497 ; to make water-proof, 
500; wood, 350. 

Leaves, to dry, 7 ; influence of ohloroform 
on, 197 ; to be collected for cavalry 
horses, 563. 

Lee, Dr. Daniel, method of tanning leath- 
er, 245. 

Lemon, to procure citric acid from, 107; 
oil from, 108. 

Leptandrine, 468. 

Lettuce, 43 ; wild, 435. 

Lichens, 589. 

Life-everlasting, 426. 

Light, influence on leaves, 198. 

Lily, water, 35 ; of the valley, 533. 

Lime tree, tea from, and cordage, 103. 

Lime, phosphate of, in plants, 544. 

Linseed oil, uses of, 89 ; substitute for, 
423 ; see, also, Oils. 

Liquorice, substitute for, 49, 51 ; cultiva- 
tion and preparation of, 49; wild, 51. 

Liquors, from fruit, 42, 48, 23, 156, 157, 
142, 162, 189, 195, 266, 305, 386,409; 
to prepare, 157, 162, 166; to flavor, 
380 ; to strengthen, 425. 

Liriodendrine, in fever, 40. 

Liver, wort, 17 ; plants acting on (see De- 
obstruents and Alteratives), 413, 42S, 
429, 465. 

Live oak, 263. 

Live fences, 102; (see Hedges). 

Lizard's tail, 334. 

Lobelia, 401 ; as a relaxant, 402. 

Lobelic acid, 402. 

Locust tree, yellow, 188; honey, 195; 
clammy, 193 ; cultivation of for ship 
building, 190. 

Long moss, 524. 

Love apple, vine, 395. 

Lucerne, 176. 

Lungwort, 464. 



Lupulin, 275. 

Lye, concentrated, to make, 259; to ex- 
tract from ashes, and to use in soap 
making, 261, 327, 332; see Potash and 
Soda. 

Machine for rasping arrow-root, 513; 

making sugar, 572, et seq. 
Madder, import., cultiv., and uses of as a 

dye plant, 406 ; subst. for, 407. 
Madeira nut, for oil and oil cake, 321. 
Mad dog skullcap, 446. 
Maiden hair, 591. 
Magnolia, 36, 38, 39. 
Mahogany, 87; substitute for, 171,321; 

mountain, 265. 
Maize, oil, sugar, beer, potash, soda, bread, 

paper from, 548, et seq. 
Malaria, plants neutralizing, 56; harrier 

against, 422; influence of pine on 422; 

see, also, Antiperiodics. 
Malate of lime, 167. 

Malic acid, 150; plants yielding and pre- 
paration of, 167. 
Mallows, 90, 91. 
Mandrake, 21. 
Mangle, 55. 

Manna, subst. for, 565, 585; croup, 585. 
Maple, red, 79; sugar, mode of ext'g, 80. 
Maritime scirpus, 589. 
Marcet's exp. on sensibility in plants, 197, 

198. 
Marsh, club rush, 589; mallow, 90; rose- 
mary, 437 ; grass, 582. 
Mate, or Paraguay tea, 394. 
Mattresses, material for, 237, 489, 524, 525, 

544. 
Maryland cunilla, 445. 
May-apple, vinegar from, 21, 77, 577; 

weed, 424. 
Meadow garlic, for pickling, and subst. 

for garlic, 531; grass, 585. 
Meal, white and red, 538, 541; hygienic 

bread from corn, 549; pi. poisoning, 564. 
Meat, plants to preserve, 42, 552; subst. 

for, 195. 
Meekweed, 467. 
Medeola, Virginian, 529. 
Melilot clover, 176. 
Methylene, plants yielding, 380. 
Mezereon, substitute for, 350. 
Milfoil mint, 424. 
Milk, subst. for, 64; to coagulate, see 

Rennet; sickness, remedy for, 148; 

vetch, 177. 
Mississippi nut, 333. 
Mistletoe, 63. 
Mitchella, 404. 
Mock moccason, 425. 
Molasses, subst. for, 64; plants yielding, 

309 ; from Ch. sugar-cane, 567, et seq. 
Monarda, 443. 
Moonseed, 376. 
Moss, long, in stuffing beds, cushions, etc., 

524. 



INDEX. 



Mosses, 589. 

Motherwort, 448. 

Moth mullein, 464. 

Mountain, ash, 167, 168; berry, 380 ; flax, 
85; laurel for engraving, 380; mahog- 
any, 265 ; sumach, 207. 

Mouse ear, 414. 

Moxa, prep, from cotton, 96 ; from sun- 
flowers, 422. 

Mucilaginous plants, native, 56, 66, 90, 
91, 140, 149, 176, 310, 332, 345, 390, 
391, 405, 418, 439, 451, 463, 466, 502, 
534, 537, 565, 589. 

Mucuna, substitute for, 234. 

Mulberry, to feed silk worms, 280 ; ever- 
bearing, 304; propagation of, 283; syrup 
from, 305; paper from, 305; French, 
449. 

Mullein, 463; moth, 464. 

Murrain, to relieve, 20. 

Mushroom, edible, to select, 594 ; to prop- 
agate, 595 ; plan in S. C, 597 ; anti- 
dote to poisonous, 597. 

Muskmelon, 64. 

Musk, substitute for, 533. 

Musical instruments, wood for making, 
312. 

Mustard, 72 ; cult, and prep, of, 73. 

Myope, rice diet upon, 579. 

Myrtle, sea, 418 ; wax from, 312 ; leaves 
for tanning, 313, 345; for soap and 
eandles, 314 ; to make, 315 ; leaves in 
place of oak bark in tanning, 345. 

Narcotics, native, 18, 23, 31, 44, 129, 350, 
380, 382, 383, 401, 40S, 410, 426, 435, 
437, 439, 448, 461, 463, 469, 474, 481, 
4S3, 494, 525, 528, 532, 564. 

Nausea, to allay, 416; nauseants, see 
Emetics. 

Nearsightedness, influence of food upon, 
579. 

Neckweed, 467. 

Nettle, dwarf, 268 ; hsernastatic virtues of, 
269; stinging, 119; red, 270 ; leaf ver- 
vain, 450. 

New Jersey tea tree, an astringent, and 
subst. for foreign tea, 109; cider, 151. 

Nightshade, 468. 

Nine bark, 147. 

Nitrate of potash, plants yielding, 363,340. 

Nitre, plants yielding, 326, 340, 376, 428; 
to prepare, 340 ; see Potash. 

Nonesuch, 176. 

Nut, oil, to procure, 234 ; grass, 588. 

Oak, bark, to collect for tanning, 240, et 
seq,- white, 257; black, 238; red, 263; 
quercitron, 238; balls, 238?'of Jerusa- 
lem, 361, 363; Spanish, 256; poison, 
200 ; live, 263 ; scrub, potash in, 504. 

Oat, 5S3. 

Oil, nut, 317: to procure, 234; olive, cult. 
and prep, of, 490; nature and mode of 
extracting, 457; to clarify, 457, 461 ; of 



flowers to extract, 460, 461 ; press, 455 ; 
volatile, 416 ; to extract, 459, 481, 485 ; 
for food, 422, 453, 490 ; essential, 533, 
380 ; blue, 425, 440, 445 ; from cotton 
seed, 494; aromatic, 199, 200, 351, 507, 
510, 363, 416 ; to cultivate, 440 ; to ex- 
tract, 459 ; styptic, 415, 416 ; painter's 
234; from beech, 237; for soaps, 457; 
for burning, etc., 24, 63, 67, 72, 78, 94, 
122, 135, 188, 194, 235,' 273, 313, 322, 
422 ; amount yielded by different seeds, 
453; subst. for olive, 24, 29, 63, 74, 194, 
234, 235, 422, 451; subst. for castor, 29, 
111, 451 : cake, 67, 73, 88, 94, 118, 124, 
322, 422, 423 ; peculiar volatile, 546 ; 
from corn, 553; poisonous from darnel, 
564. 

Okra, 91; substitute for, 76. 

Old man's beard, 494. 

Olive oil, subst. for, 24, 29, 63, 74, 490 ; 
European; to cultivate and extract oil, 
etc., 490. 

Ooze, to prepare in tanning, 256. 

Onion, tree, 531 ; subst. for, 532. 

Opium, poppy (see Narcotics), 23, 27; cul- 
ture, 28; gum, to collect and prepare. 
25, 27; subst. for, 29, 84, 18, 147, 275J 
276. 

Orach, 361. 

Orange and lime in Florida, 107; essence 
and wine from, 10S. 

Orange root, 18; wild, 171; Osage, 102; 
grass, 79. 

Orchard grass, 587. 

Orchis, 524. 

Origanum, 443. 

Osage orange, as hedge plant, 101; as dye 
stuff, 103. 

Osier willow, for baskets, 335 ; to culti- 
vate and dress, 336. 

Oxalate of potash, 140, 369. 

Oxalic acid in plants, 369. 

Ox-eyed daisy, 426. 

Packing, material for, 545. 

Palma Christi, uses, cultivation, and ex- 
pression of oil from, 112. 

Palmetto, 526 ; saw, for mattresses, pil- 
lows, hats, 525; potash in, 526: for 
wharves, dates from, 526; dwarf, fans 
from, 527. 

Painters, oil for, to procure, 234, 273. 

Panicum, spiked, 565. 

Papaw, influence on meat, 41. 

Paper, native material for making, 16, 70, 
93, 545 ; from cotton plant, 96 ; from 
mulberry, 305, 307 ; from sunflower, 
443 ; from agave, 522 ; Chinese paper 
from typha, 545; from corn leaves, 558; 
from sugar-cane, 573. 

Parmentier, on conversion of starch from 
roots into food, 542. 

Parsley, 45. 

Parilla, 376. 

Partridge berry, 380, 405. 



INDEX. 



Passion flower, 77. 

Pea, 194. 

Peach, 173; to dry, aphides on, 173. 

Pear, 149, 166; to store, 149; to make 
productive, 166. 

Pecan nut, 333. 

Pennyroyal, 446. 

Pepper, 468; grass, 67; mint, 440. 

Persimmon, tannin in, 385 ; beer from, 
387; vinegar and syrup from, 3S8, 577. 

Perspiration extraordinary in plants, 422. 

Peruvian bark, substitute for, 59, 88. 

Perry, to prepare, 149. 

Peterwort, 78. 

Pbasnogamous species, 15. 

Picromar, 504. 

Pillows (see Mattresses). 

Pimpernel, 384, 468. 

Pindar, oil from, 194. 

Pine, long leaved, varied uses of, turpen- 
tine, pj'roligneous acid from, etc., 495 ; 
influence on ozone, malaria, 495 ; pitch 
pine, uses of tar from, 504, 505 ; white, 
505; Spanish gum, uses of, 505; north- 
ern, 505 ; substitute for, 506; weed, 79 ; 
"Walter's pine, substitute for northern, 
506; mucilaginous, 506; Weymouth, 
export of, 505. 

Piuk root, 481. 

Pipes, material for, 537. 

Pipe stems, plants furnishing, 130, 310, 
379. 

Pipsissewa, 377 ; diuretic tonic, 378. 

Piquette, to manufacture, 159. 

Plane stocks, materials for, 150 (see Cabi- 
net work). 

Plantain, 436 ; water, 536. 

Plants (see Wood), to collect and dry, 5 ; 
for cabinet purposes, 11; easily pro- 
curable, medicinal, 8, 412 ; for wood 
engraving, 11, 59, 168; soft woods, 13; 
luminous property in, 55 ; intox. fish 
84; yielding thread (see "Fibre"), ma- 
terial for paper, 16, 70, 93, 274, 305; 
potash in, see "Potash;" oil from, see 
"Oil;" sugar in, 321, 81,318; yield 
ing liquors, 159, 161; see "Liquors;" 
for tanning, see "Tanning;" yielding 
charcoal, see "Charcoal;" see "Poison- 
ous Plants," discovery of new medici- 
nal, 529, 563; evolving heat, 541, 544; 
list of those avoided by animals, 563 ; 
yielding gluten, 483. 

Pleurisy root, substitute for antimony and 
calomel, 485. 

Poisonous plants, 380, 382, 383, 3S4, 404, 

460, 469, 476, 485, 527, 528, 564. 
Poison, ash, 494 ; oak, 200 ; sumach, 206 
Pokeweed, 365 ; crimson, dye from, 367 ; 

potash from, 366; to color wine, 366 
Pomegranate, 58. 
Pond lily, 35; spice, 355. 
Poppy, opium, 23, 28 ; preparation and 
cultivation of, 27 ; Mexican, 28 ; prick- 
ly, 28. 



Potash, binox. of, 140, 369 ; plants yield- 
ing, 34, 47, 80, 84, 526> 359, 360, 421, 
423, 473, 236 ; to extract, 260, 325, 360 ; 
to prepare, 326, 328 ; from weeds, 328, 
421, 504; nitrate of, 363, 376, 590, from 
fuci, 594. 

Potato, sweet, 397; coffee from, 400 ; starch 
from, 400; blistering flies on, 400; to 
cleanse silk, 400, 472; Irish, starch 
from, 471 ; yam, a substitute for, 539. 

Prickly, ash, 136, 137 ; pear, to harden 
tallow, 66 ; poppy, 28. 

Pride of India, 106; as vermifuge, and 
for cabinet purposes, 107. 

Printing blocks, material for, 122 ; see 
wood engraving, 150, 168. 

Prussic acid, plants yielding, 170, 171, 
172. 

Puccoon, 30; formulas for, 599, 601. 

Purgatives, plants supplying, see Cathar- 
tics. 

Pyroligneous acid from pine, 498; vinegar 
from, 498. 

Pumpkin, 64. 

Pupil, plants dilating, 470, 476. 

Purslane, 131. 

Putty root, substitute for gum arabio, 525, 

Quass, manufacture, 164. 
Quassia, 137. 
Queen's delight, 121. 
Quercitron, 239 ; oak, 239. 
Quinine (see Antiperiod.), substitute for, 
•S3S, 334, 372, 405, 412. 

Rabbit-foot clover, 177. 

Radish, water, 71. 

Rag weed, 419 ; root, 429. 

Raspberry, wild, 144. 

Rattlesnake's master, 50, 522 ; plants hos- 
tile to, 494. 

Reed mace, 544; burr, 545. 

Red-bird salad, 197 ; chickweed, 384; clo- 
ver, 177. 

Refrigerants, 139, 140, 368, 369, 383, 437, 
534, 536. 

Reeling of silk, 300. 

Rennet, plant acting as, 77, 131, 139, 406, 
482. 

Rhubarb, substitute for, 368, 370, 396, 
480 ; culture of, in Confederate States, 
373; preparation of roots, 374. 

Rhus, antidote for, 201. 

Ribwort, 437. 

Rice, Carolina, uses of, effect in producing 
myope, 578; starch from, 578; bread 
from, 580 ; substitute for coffee, 580. 

Roots, to dry, 7; furnishing starch and 
food, 541, 542, 544. 

Rope, wahoo, for baling cotton, 311; 
material for, 350. 

Rose, 460, 461 ; water to prepare, 460 ; oil 
to prepare, 461; acacia, 189; rose- 
mary, 437. 

Rosaries, seeds for making, 130. 



XV1U 



INDEX. 



Rosin from pine, 497 ; from cypress, 509. 

Rouge, substitute for, 439. 

Royal fern, 591. 

Rubefacients (see Escharotics), 17, 31, 33, 

74. 
Rue, Turkey, 187. 
Rush, white, 582. 
Rye, substitute for coffee, 5S4. 

Saccharine matter in grasses, 225; see, 

also, Wine and Sugar. 
Sage, 442 ; cultivation of, 443. 
Sago from potato, 397 ; from arum, 543. 
Salad, substitute for, 56, 57, 67, 72, 73, 

131, 136, 276, 369, 430, 529, 544. 
Saliein, 335. 
Salivation caused by plants, 128, 136, 137, 

177, 410, 436, 447, 486; plants arrest- 
ing, 420 ; see Alteratives. 
Saliva, plants tinging, 436. 
Salt, economy in, 332, 503. 
Saltwort, 359; yielding soda, SCO; marsh 

grass, 582. 
Sap of tree?, liquors from, 163; sugar 

from, 318, 321. 
Saponine, 132. 
Sampson's snakeroot, 478. 
Sand-paper, substitute for, 415. 
Sanguinaria, 599. 
Sanicle, 42. 
Sarsaparilla, 51, 132, 376; substitute for, 

460, 537. 
Sassafras, 350; substitute for gum arabic, 

351, 352; beer from, 353. 
Savin, substitute for, 510. 
Saw palmetto for mattresses and hats, 525. 
Scabish, 55. 
Scarlet pimpernel, 3S4. 
Scouring rush, 582. 
Skullcap, 446. 
Sea myrtle, 418; grape, 376; orach, 361 : 

weed, soda, iodine, and potash from, 

593; as manure, 594. 
Sedatives, plants acting as, 19, 20, 30, 44. 

47, 5S, 103, 169, 172, 173, 382, 383, 401, 

441. 465, 469, 525. 528, 535. 
Seneka snakeroot, 85. 
Senna, wild, 195. 
Sensibility in plants, 197. 
Sensitive plant, 197. 
Serpentaria, 355, 357. 
Service tree, 161, 168; drink from, 162. 
Side-saddle flower, 53. 
Silk, making of, 280 ; rearing of worms and 

processes, 281,e/ xeq.; substitute for, 489. 
Silkweed for cloth, thread, cushions, etc., 

489; cultivation of, 489. 
Silica in plants, 415, 590. 
Silver fir, 506. 
Simpler's joy, 450. 
Sisal hemp, to cultivate and prepare, 58 : 

to cleanse, rot, the fibre, 519, et seq. 
Skunk cabbage, 544. 
Sheep laurel, 381; sorrel, 308; plants 

poisonous to, 379. 



Ship building, timber for, 188, 189, 236, 
263, 505, 507; see wood for cabinet 
work. 

Shoe wax, to make, 206; wooden shoes, 
343. 348. 

Shrub, 199. 

Shucks, soap, paper, soda, manufactures 
from, 551, et seq.; yarn from, 561. 

Smart-weed,370. 

Smilacine, 538. 

Smith, Dr. J. L. on crystal, sugar, 570. 

Smut caused by barberry, 52 ; to prevent, 
598. 

Snake-head, 465; plantain, 437; weed, 44; 
root, 43, 85, 355, 357, 358; Sampson's 
snakeroot, 478: black snakeroot, 19. 

Snuff, plants to flavor, 546. 

Soapwort, 132. 

Soap, plants furnishing, 69, 83, 84, 96, 107, 
132, 325, 423 ; soft, to make, 134, 332, 
hard, 259. 331 ; to make with lye, 261, 
316; economical, 262, 331, 332; from 
myrtle berries, 314 ; from resin without 
grease, 501 ; from corn shucks, 551, 
561; plants acting as, 590; from sea- 
weed, 593. 

Soda, plants yielding, 133, 359, 551 ; to 
manufacture, 133, 134, 360; from kelp, 
590, 593. 

Soft rush, 537. 

Solanina, 469, 471, 472. 

Solferino, color, 367. 

Solomon's seal, 534. 

Sorghum and sorgho suere, sugar and 
syrup from, to manufacture, 567, et seq. ; 
mill for, 568. 

Sorrel, 3H8, 374. 

Sour wood, 379 ; gum, 347. 

Sow thistle, 436. 

Soup, plant to make, 195, 585. 

Sparterie, for baskets, 343. 

Spearmint, 440. 

Speedwell, 466. 

Spice bush, 354. 

Spicy wintergreen, 3S0. 

Spiders, to relieve sting of, 401. 

Spigeline, 4S2. 

Spikenard, American, 51. 

Spinach, substitute for, 136. 

Spirits, from plants (see Liquors). 

Spotted wintergreen, 377. 

Spruce, 505 ; bemlock, for tanning, 506 ; 
black, 507 ; essence of, 507; white, 507; 
beer, 279. 

Spurge, 128. 

Spurry, 135 ; to improve soils, 561. 

Squaw root, 462. 

St. John's wort, 78. 

Staggers, plant causing, 522. 

Starch, plants yielding, 53, 84, 524, 537; 
from potato, 397, 400, 422; to extract 
and prepare, 516 ; by fermentation, 
517; to wash and pack for sale, 518, 
534, 536, 539; from Indian turnip, 541, 
from roots, to be converted into bread. 



INDEX. 



542 ; from corn, 553 ; from rice, 578 ; 
from wheat, to manufacture, 584. 

Star-flower, 532 ; grass, 532, 533. 

Stearine, plant yielding, 122, 124. 

Steeple bush, 146. 

Sternutatories, native 31, 483, 358, 533. 

Stitchweed, 136. 

Stimulants, plants yielding, 85, 427, 542, 
543. 
" Stomachics, native, 39, 479. 480, 532. 

Stramonium, 474. 

Strawberry, 144. 

Styptic weed, 130, 196, 424; styptics, 
424, 426. 

Sugar-cane, 577, 570 ; et seq.; paper and 
syrup from, 573 ; wax from, 578. 

Sugar maple, 80 ; to extract sugar from, 
81. 

Sugar, to manufacture, 81, 567; et seq.; 
berry, 312; plants producing, 79, 80, 
92, 539 ; to clarify with vegetable albu- 
men, 92 ; from sap of walnut, 318, 
321 ; from beet, 375; from sap of trees, 
318, 321, 396; from potato, 400; from 
silkweed, 488 ; to prepare and manufac- 
ture from corn, 553 ; Naudain and 
Webb's method, 553, 558; large amount 
in lime grass, 562 ; Chinese sugar, mo- 
lasses, and syrup from, to manufacture, 
567; et seq.; mill for, 268; antiseptic 
power of, 569; to crystallize, 570, 577. 

Sumachs, 201, 202, 204, 206, 207; anti- 
dote to poisoning by, 201, 273, 450, 
541; cultivation of for tannin, 209; and 
for calico printing in Sicily, 209. 

Sun, dew, 73 ; flower, extraordinary evap- 
oration in, oil, cigars from, cultivation 
of, 422 ; paper from, 423 ; potassa and 
oil from, 423. 

Swallowwort, 488. 

Swamp laurel, 36 ; dogwood, 62. 

Sweet, birch, 265, 380 ; gum, for tanning, 
344; leaf, 388, 3S9; shrub, 199; potato, 
397. 

Syrup, of wild cherry, 171 ; astringent, 
388 ; to manufacture from Ch. sugar- 
cane, 567, et seq., 591. 

Tallow tree, 122; candles and soap to ob- 
tain from it, 123. 

Tannin, plants yielding (see Astringents); 
to extract, 209, 210, 379, 380, 415, 438, 
445, 591 ; leaves tested for, 345 ; (see 
Khus, Quercus, and Liquidambar). 

Tanning leather, plants for, 146, 201 to 211, 
240, 243, 267, 316, 345, 384, 494, 546; 
method described by Dr. Lee, 245 ; easy 
method on plantations, 249 ; method 
from So. Cultivator, 255 ; leaves sug- 
gested to be used in, 345 ; dogfennel 
and gum for, 346. 

Tansy, 425. 

Tanya, indelible dye from, 367. 

Tar water, 504. 

Taraxacum, uses of, 428. 



Tare, 194. 

Tea, antispasmodic from Tilia, 103, 525; 
Chinese tea plant, cult, and subst. for, 
104, 140, 144, 380, 389, 390, 391, 393, 
417, 482; New Jersey tea tree, 109; 
demulcent and aromatic, 352, 354; flavor 
of green tea, 523 ; blade, 553. 

Telegraph poles, wood for, 510. 

Terebene and turpentine, 501. 

Textile plants, see '< Fibre." 

Thatch, pi. for, 590. 

Thirst, plants allaying, 379. 

Thistles, 436. 

Thorn-apple, 28, 474, 477. 

Thoroughwort, 410, 413. 

Thread from pi. (see Fibre), 88, 272, 489. 

Thyme, 444. 

Tickweed, 446. 

Tilleul, subst. for soothing tea from, 103. 

Timber, best time to fell, 241 ; to season, 
258; relative strength of, 258; density 
of, 264; effect of soil and season upon 
263; selection of, 264; height of, 264. 

Timothy grass, peculiarity of seed, 566. 

Titi, for pipe stems, 130. 

Tobacco, 473; subst. for, 29, 62, 358; to 
flavor, 410, 439, 473, 546. 

Tomato, 472. 

Tonics, native, 18, 21, 33, 36, 39, 54, 61, 
63, 136, 138, 146, 169, 344, 356, 376, 
377, 389, 390, 413, 415, 427, 428, 435, 
445, 448, 466, 478, 480, 524, 527, 532, 
546. 

Tool handles, wood for, see "Cabinet," 235. 

Toothache, remedy for, 447; bush, 50, 136, 
137. 

Torchwood, 200. 

Touch-me-not, 139. 

Traveller's joy, 16. 

Trees, height, strength, etc.; see "Timber." 

Trefoil, 177. 

Tripterella, blue, 523. 

True blue grass, value in enriching lands, 
585. 

Trumpet flower, 460. 

Tuckahoe, 599. 

Tulip tree, 39; poplar, 39. 

Tupelo, 347 ; for making utensils, shoes, 
etc., 348. 

Turkey pea, 187. 

Turmeric, IS. 

Turnsole, 438. 

Turpentine, extraction, uses, etc., 495, 
499; soap from, 496; effects upon sys- 
tem, 499; to render leather and cloth 
water-proof, 500; terebene from, 501; 
as a burning fluid, 501. 

Twine, material for, 531 ; (see Cordage). 

Twin-leaf, 21. 

Ultramarine blue from plants, 536. 
Umbrella tree, 38; wood for handles of, 

235. 
Unicorn root, 532. 
Uterus, influence of cotton seed on, 94. 



XX 



INDEX. 



Valerian, substitute for, 525. 

Vanilla, substitute for, 173; wild, 410. 

Varnishes, pl.yielding, 200, 202, 207, 208. 

Vegetable stearine, 125; wax, 313; see Oil. 

Veneering, material for, 16, 79, 80. 

Venus fly-trap, 35. 

Veratrum viride and ver^atria, 528; mode 

of using as a sedative, 529. 
Vermifuges, native, 22, 39, 41, 48, 106, 

132, 234, 280, 361, 363, 404, 449, 466, 

481, 507, 510, 588, 590. 
Veronica, 467. 
Vervain, 450. 

Vesicants; see Escharotics. 
Vetch, 194. 
Violet, common, 75; hand-leaved, 76; 

dog's-tooth, 530. 
Vinegar, native material for (see Sumach), 

64, 150,308; from honey, 308; from 

fig, 308; from beet, 374; persimmon, 

388; from pyroligneous aeid, 498; from 

Chinese sugar-cane, 576. 
Vine, grape, 213; wine from, to make, 

214, et seq. 
Virgin's bower, 16. 
Virginian veronica, 407; lycopus, 441; 

cress, 67; swallowwort, 488; silk, 488; 

medeola, 529. 
Vitality in plants, 395. 
Volatile oil, peculiar, 546. 
Vomiting, plants allaying, 440, 444, 527. 

Wake robin, 540. 

Walnut, 317, 318; sugar and oil from, 
318; leaves as alterative, 319 ; for gun 
stocks, 320; Persian, 321. 

Wahoo, 311; rope and cordage from, 311. 

Walter's pine, 506; grass, 581. 

Washing, economical mode of, 261. 

Water-proof material, 89; to purify, 342; 
chickweed, 347; cress, 71 ; fescue, 587; 
flax-seed, 548 ; horehound, 440 ; lily, 
35 ; melon, 64 ; pepper, 370 ; radish, 
witch-hazel, to detect, 59; plantain, 
536 ; grass to prevent encroachment 
of, 562. 

Wax, insect, 122; to obtain from myrtle, 
313; nature of, 313; myrtle, 312; from 
sugar-cane, 578. 

Weeds, as manure, and to prevent spread 
of, 564; alkaline salts in, 504. 

Weeping willow, 343. 

Weymouth pine, uses of, 505. 

Wheat, gluten, and starch from, 583; sub- 
stitute for, 235, 567; from doura corn, 
567; bitters, 587; smut in, 598; poi- 
soned, 564. 

White, hellebore, 312, 523 ; substitute for, 
67; ash, 494; cedar, 509 ; beech, 235; 
avens, 145 ; oak, baling for cotton, 25S ; 
and strength of fibre, 258 ; weed, 420 ; 
wood, 39; poplar, 343; spruce, 507; 
rush, 582. 



Whortleberry, 384. 

Wild chamomile, 424; carrot, 48; cherry, 
169; syrup of, 170, 179; coffee, 196; 
currant, 168; endive, 431; ginger, 357; 
rose-bay, 380 ; horehound, 413; hippo, 
126; indigo, 173, 178; ipecac, 127; 
jalap, 21 ; lettuce, 435 ; lemon, 21; liq- 
uorice, 51; orange, 171; potato vine, 
396; raspberry, 144; radish, 72; sarsa- 
parilla, 51 ; senna, 195 ; strawberry, 
144; yam, 334; vanilla, 410; garlic, 
532 ; yam, 539. 

Willow, 334; osier, 335; purple, 335; for 
baskets, 336 ; to cultivate, 336 ; red, 62. 

Wine, from native grape, to manufacture, 
213, el seq.; cellars for, 213 ; Prof. Jack- 
son's plan of making wine, 214; from 
grape leaves, 219; Hume's method, 222; 
in California, 225 ; red, 228 ; fermenta- 
tion, 165,232,234; from orange, 108; 
blackberry, to make, 141, 142 ; from 
sap of birch, 268 ; to color, 366. 

Wing-rib sumach, 207. 

Winterberry, 389; green, 377, 380. 

Witch-hazel, 58; in detecting water, 59 ; 
alder. 

Wood, substitute for, as dye wood, 417. 

Woodbine, 408; anemone, 16; sorrel, 139, 
140. . 

Wood, native, for engraving, 11, 62, 122, 
150, 168, 233, 266, 381, 386, 392, 508; 
soft and hard, 12, 62, 233, 358, 382, 384, 
493, 235, 266, 507; for cabinet and 
manufacturing purposes, 11, 62, 79, 80, 
103, 104, 107, 150, 171, 188, 189, 120, 
233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 257, 266, 306, 
310, 311, 312, 318, 320, 323, 343, 392, 
460, 494, 499, 505, 506, 507, 511; 
strength of fibre of, 257, 263 ; dye from, 
16, 18, 21, 182, 240 (see Dyes) ; relative 
density of wood, 263, 507, 511 ; influ- 
ence of soil upon, 263 ; for fuel, 421 ; 
duration impregnated with sulphate of 
copper, and method, 502, 511; to pre- 
serve by chemical agencies, 503; for 
ship building, 505, 507, 511; for gun- 
stocks, 320. 

Wormseed, 361. 

Wormwood, for supply of potash, 364. 

Woorari, from plant, 483. 

Xanthoxylin, 137. 

Yam root, wild, to cult, and store, 539. 

Yarrow, wild, 424. 

Yaupon, tea from, 393. 

Yellow grass, 533; clover, 176; lady's 
slipper, 525 ; locust tree, 188 ; moccason, 
525, parilla, 376;' root, 18, 21; star 
thistle, 28 ; star grass, 533 ; sarsaparilla, 
376,460. 



INDEX 



BOTANICAL NAMES OF GENERA AND SPECIES. 



Abies balsamea, 506. 

" Canadensis, 506. 

" Nigra, 507. 

" Alba, 507. 
Abutilon Avicennse, 91. 
Acalypha Virginica, 120. 
Acer rubrum, 79. 

" saccharinum, 80. 
Achillea millefolium, 424. 
Achyranthes repens, 359. 
Aconitum uncinatum, 441. 
Acorus calamus, 545. 
Actsea racemosa, 19. 
Adiantum, 590. 

" pedatum, 591. 

iEsculus pavia, 84. 
Agave Virginica, 522. 
" Sisalina, 518. 
" pulque, 522. 
Agaricus cainpestrls, 594. 
Agrimonia eupatoria, 145, 

271. 
Agrostis stolonifera, 563. 
" perennaris, 581. 
Aletris farinosa, 532. ' 

" aurea, 533. 
Algse, 592. 
Allium Canadense, 531. 

" Carolinianum, 532. 
Alisma plantago, 536. 

■* trivialis, 536. 
" parviflora, 536. 
Alnus serrulata, 266, 377. 
Amaryllis atamasco, 522. 
Ambrosia trifida, 420. 

" artemisifolia, 419 

Amelanchier, 161, 162, 168. 
Aniianthum muscaHoxicum, 

527. 
Ammi majus, 45. 
Amophila arenaria, 582. 
Amorpha frutieosa, 187. 
Amphicavpa monoica, 194. 
Amygdalus, 173. 
Amyris Floridana, 200. 
Anagallis arvensis, 384. 



Anchusa tinctoria, 126. 
Andromeda angustif., 379. 
" arborea, 379. 

" coriacca, 379. 

" mariana, 379. 

" nitida, 379. 

" speciosa, 379. 

Anemone nemorosa, 16. 

" hepatica, 17. 
Anethum foeniculum, 47. 
Angelica lucida, 46. 
Anona triloba, 41. 
Anthemis, 424. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum, 

354, 356. 
Antennaria Margaritacea, 

426. 
Apium graveolens, 45. 

" petroselinum, 45. 
Apocynum cannabinum,483 
" androsEemif.,484 

" pubescens, 483. 

Arcbangelica, 46. 
Aracbis hypogea, 194. 
Aralia spinosa, 50. 
" nudicaulis, 51. 
u racemosa, 51. 
Argemone Mexicana, 28. 
Arissema atroreubens, 540. 
Aristolochia serpent., 355. 
" hastata, 357. 

" sipho, 357. 

Arnipa nudicaulis, 426. 

" montana, 427. 
Aroniabotryapium, 161, 16S 
Artemisia eaudata, 362. 
Arrhenatherum, 586. 
Arundo arenaria, 582. 
Arundinaria a'igantea, 587. 
" macrosper.,587 

Arum niaculaturn, 542. 
" triphyllum, 540. 
" Virginicum, 542. 
I Asarum Virginicum, 358. 
" Canadense, 357. 
I " arii'olium, 358. 



Asclepias decumbens, 485. 

" incarnata, 48.S. 

" verticillata, 488. 

" tuberosa, 4S5. 

" cornuti, 488. 

" Syriaca, 488. 
Ascyrum Crux-Andrese, 78. 

" multicaule, 78. 

Asimina triloba, 41. 
Asparagus officinalis, 535. 
Aster tortifolius, 414. 
" cordifolium, 415. 
" linarifolius, 415. 
Atriplex laciniata, 361. 
Atropa physaloides, 473. 
Avena sativa, 583. 

Bacebaris halimifolia, 418. 
Baptisia bracteata, 175. 

" leucophasa, 175. 

" tinctoria, 175. 
Batschia canescens, 33. 
Benzoin odoriferum,352,354 
Berberis Canadensis, 51. 

" vulgaris, 51. 
Beta vulgaris, 374. 
Betula nigra, 266. 

" lenta, 265, 380. 
Bignonia, capreolata, 460. 

" catalpa, 460. 

u crucigera, 460. 

Bletia verecunda, 524. 

" aphylla, 424. 
Bcehmeria nivea, 272. 
Brassica oleracea, 454. 

" campestris, 454. 
Broussonetia papyrif., 307. 
Bromus secalinus, 587. 
" purgaus, 587. 
Bumelia lycioides, 3S5. 
Bursera gummifera, 200. 
Buxus sempcrvirens, 111. 

Cactus cochinilifer, 67. 

" opuntia, 66. 
Calamagrostis, 582. 



XXI 1 



INDEX. 



Callicarpa Americana, 449. 
Callitriche verna, 347. 

" heterophyl., 347 

Caltha palustris, 18. 
Calycanthus Floridus, 199. 
Camelina sativa, cultivation 

of, 67. 
Canella alba, 131. 
Cannabis sativa, 273. 
" Indica, 273. 
Canna flacida, 536. 
Capparis spinosa, 75. 

" Jamaicensis, 75. 
" cynophalloph., 75 
Caprifolium, 408. 
Capsella bursa-pastoris, 70. 
Capsicum annuum, 468. 
Carex acuta, 589, 544. 
Carpinus, (see Ostrya) 233. 
Carya amara, 322. 

" olivfeforniis, 333. 

" porcina, 322. 

" alba, 322. 

" myristicia3formis,333 
Cassia occidentalis, 196. 

" Caroliniana, 196. 

" ehamtecrista, 196. 

" hirsuta, 196. 

" Marylandica, 195. 

" tora, 197. 
Castanea pumila, 237. 

" vesca, 238. 
Catalpa cordifolia, 460. 
Ceanothus Americanus, 109 
Celtis occidentalis, 312. 
Centaurea benedicta, 427. 
Cephalanthus Occident., 405 
Cerasus serotina, 169. 

" Caroliniana, 171. 
Cercis Canadensis, 197. 
Cicuta maculata, 44. 

" virosa, 45. 
Cimicifuga racemosa, 19. 
Citrus aurantium, 107. 
Chamselirium Carolin.,427. 
Chamajrops palmetto, 526. 
" serrulata, 512, 

525. 
Chelone glabra, 465. 
Chenopodium anthelminti- 

cum, 361, 359. 

Chenopodium ambros., 363. 

" alb., 359,364. 

" botrys, 363. 

Chimaphila maculata, 377. 

" umbellata,378. 

Cbionanthus Virginica,494. 

Cliironia, (see Centaurea) 

479. 
Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 

muiii, 426. 
Cichorium intybus, 431. 
Citrus aurantium, 107. 

" limonium, 107, 109. 
Citrullus, 64. 



Cladrastis tinctoria, 175. 
Clematis crispa, 15. 
" viorna, 16. 
" Virginiana, 16. 
Clethra tomentosa, 379. 

" alnifolia, 379. 
Cliftonia ligustrina, 130. 
Clusia flava, 130. 
" rosea, 130. 
Cnicus, (see Centaurea) 427. 
Coccoloba urifera, 376. 

" Floridana, 376. 

Coffea Arabica, 405. 
Collinsonia Canadens., 201, 

208, 444. 
Collinsonia anisata, 445. 
" scabra, 445. 

Commelina communis, 536. 
Convalaria multiflora, 534. 
" biflora, 534. 

" majallis, 534. 

" polygonat., 534 

Convolvulus macror., 396. 
" batatas, 397. 

'• Jalapa, 397. 

" pandurat.,396. 

Cornus Florida, 59. 
" sericea, 62. 
" san guinea, 63. 
" stricta, 63. 
Corylus, rostrata, 234. 

" Americana, 234. 
Corypha palmetto, 426. 
Crataegus crus-galli, 148. 

" cordata, 148. 
Croton balsamiferum, 111. 

" maratimum, 111. 
Ctenium American, 585. 
Cucumis citrullus, 64. 
" pepo, 64. 
" melo, 65. 
" sativus, 65. 
Cucurbita lagenaria, 65. 
Cunilla mariana, 445. 
Cupressus disticha, 508. 
" thyoides, 509. 

Cuscuta Americana, 395. 
" compacta, 395. 
" cornuti, 395. 
" vulgivaga, 395. 
Cynara scolymus, 428. 
Cynoglossum Virginic.,439. 
" officinale,439. 

" amplex., 439. 

Cyperus articulatus, 588. 
" vireus, 58S. 
" odoratus, 588. 
" hydra, 588. 
Cypripcdum pubescens,425. 
Cyrilla racemiflora, 130. 

Dactylis glomerata, 5S7. 
Dasystoma pubescens, 466. 
Datura stramonum, 474. 
" tatula, 474. 



Daucus carota, 47. 
" pusilus, 48. 
Delphinium consolida, 19. 
Diervilla trifida, 408. 

" canadensis, 408. 
Digitaria dactylon, 565. 
Digitalis purpurea, 465. 
Dilatris tinctoria, 522. 
Dionoea muscipula, 35. 
Dioscorea battatas, 539. 

" villosa, 539. 

" sativa, 540. 

" alata, 540. 

Diospyros Virginiana, 335. 
Diplopappus linarif. 415. 
Dirca palustris, 350. 
Discopleura capillacea, 45. 
Dracocephalum variega- 

tum, 447. 
Dracocephalum Virgini- 

anum, 448. 
Dosera rotundifolium, 77. 

Echites difformis, 482. 
Eclipta ereeta, 420. 

" procumbens, 420. 
Eleocharis palustris, 589. 
Elymus arenarius, 562. 
Epiphagus Americana, 462. 
Equisetum lsevigatum, 590. 
" hiemale, 590. 

" arvense, 590. 

Erigeron annuum, 416. 

" eanadense.415,416 
" Philadelphic.,415. 
" pusilum, 416. 
" strigosum, 415. 
Eryngium aquaticum, 43. 
• " yuccaefolium, 43. 

" foetidum, 43. 

" aromaticum, 43. 

Erythronium Americ, 530. 

' ; lanceol. 530. 

Erysimum, 71. 
Eugenia, 199. 

Euonymus Americanus,129. 
" atropurpur. 129. 

Eupatorium perfoliat. 410. 
Eupatorium purpur. 412. 
Eupatorium rotundif. 413. 
Eupatorium teucrif. 413. 
Eupatorium verbenas. 413. 
Eupatorium foeniculaceum, 

345, 414. 
Euphorbia annua, 129. 
Euphorbia corollata, 126. 
Euphorbia helioscopea, 129. 
Euphorbia hypericif. 128. 
Euphorbia ipecacuan. 127. 
Euphorbia maculata, 128. 
" thymifolia, 129. 

Fagus sylvatica, 235. 
" Americana, 235. 
" feruginea, 246. 



INDEX. 



XX111 



Festuca, 585. 

" duriuscula, 586. 
Ficus carica, 308. 
Filices, 589. 

Foeniculum officinale, 46. 
Fosteronia diflbrmis, 482. 
Fragaria vesca, 144. 

" Virginiana, 144. 
Frasera Walteri, 480. 

" Caroliniensis, 480. 
Fraxinus acuminata, 494. 

" Americana, 494. 
Fuci, 593. 
Fucus serratus, 592. 

'* vesiculosus, 592. 
Fumaria officinalis, 34. 
Fungi, 594. 

Galium trifidum, 406. 
" hispidulum, 406. 
" tinctorium, 406. 
jSaultheria procumb. 380. 
Gelseminum sempervi. 461. 
Gentiana catesbaei, 478. 
" ochroleuca, 479. 
" lutea, 386, 479. 
" purpur. 386, 479. 
" Elliot tii, 478. 
" saponaria, 479. 
" quinqueflora, 479. 
Geranium maculatum, 138. 
Gerardia flava, 466. 
Geum Virginianum, 145. 
" Carolinianum, 145. 
Gillenia tomentosa, 146. 
" trifoliata, 147. 
" stipulacea. 148. 
Glyceria fluitans, 585. 

'"' tomentosa, 187. 
Gnaphalium margaritace- 

um, 426. 
Gnaphalium polycepb. 426. 
Gonolobus macrophyl. 485. 
Gossypium herbaceum, 93. 
Gratiola officinalis, 465. 
" aurea, 466. 
" Virginica, 465. 
Gyromia Virginica, 529. 

Hamamelis Virginica, 58. 
Hedeoma pulegioides, 446. 
Hedyotis, 407. 
Helianthus tuberosus, 417, 

420. 
Helianthus annuus, 422. 
Heliotropium indicum, 438. 
Helonias dioica, 527. 

" erythrosper., 527. 
Helosciadium, 45. 
Hepatica, triloba, 17. 
Heuchera Americana, 200. 
Hibiscus moscheutos, 91. 

" esculentis, 91. 
Hieracium gronovii, 442. 
Hippomane mancinella,120. 



Holcus odoratns, 561. 

" sorghum, 566. 

" lanatus, 586. 
Hopea tinctoria, 388. 
Houstonia, 407. 
Humulus lupulus, 275. 
Hydrastis canadensis, 18. 
Hydrolea quadrivalvis, 400. 
Hydrocotyle umbellata, 42. 
Hypericum sarothra, 79. 
" perforatum, 78. 

Ilex cassina, 393. 
" vomitoria, 393. 
" opaca, 390. 
" dahoon, 395, 
" myrtifolia, 395. 
Illicium Floridanum, 39. 
" parviflorum, 39, 
Impatiens pallida, 139. 

" noli me tan., 139. 

Indigophera Carolin., 178. 
" argentea, 179. 

" anil, 178. 

" tinctoria, 181. 

Inula helenium, 417. 
Ipomoea nil, 396. 

" panduratus, 396. 
Iris Virginica, 524. 
" versicolor, 523. 
Isatis tinctoria, 179. 

Jatropha stimulosa,119,578, 
Jeffersonia diphylla, 21. 
Juglans cinerea, 317. 

" nigra, 318. 

" regia, 321. 
Juncus effusus, 537. 

" communis, 537. 
Juniperus Virginiana, 510 
Jussiosa grandiflora, 57. 

Kalmia latifolia, 381. 
" angustifolia, 353. 
" hirsuta, 382. 

Lachnanthes tinctoria, 522. 
Lactuca elongata, 435. 

" longifolia, 435. 
Laurus sassafras, 350. 

" benzoin, 352, 354. 

" geniculata, 355. 
Leersia oryzoides, 581. 
Lemna polyrhiza, 548. 
Leontodon tarax., 428. 
Leonurus cardiaca, 448. 
Lepidium Virginicum, 67. 
Leptandra, 467. 
Leucanthemum vulgare, 426 
Liatris spicata, 410. 

" scai-iosa, 410. 

" squamosa, 410. 

" odoratissima, 410 
Limnetis, 582. 
Linum usitatissimum, 88 



Liquidambar styracif., 344. 
Liriodendron tulipifera, 39. 
Lithospermum canescens,33 
" arvense, 439. 

Lobelia inflata, 401. 
" syphilitica, 403. 
" cardinalis, 404. 
Lolium temulentum, 564. 
Lonicera sempervirens, 408 

diervilla, 408. 

caprifolium, 408. 
Lycopus Europeus, 440. 

angustifolius, 440. 

sinuatus, 440. 

Virginicus, 441. 
Ludwigia alternifolia, 57. 
Lycoperdon solidum, 599. 

Maclura auruntiaca, 101. 
Magnolia glauca, 36. 

" acuminata, 38. 

" grandiflora, 38. 

" macrophylla, 39. 

" tripetata, 38. 

« umbrella, 38. 
Malva rotundifolia, 90. 

" sylvestris, 90. 
Maranta aruudinacia, 511. 
Marubium vulgare, 448. 
Maranta cotula, 424. 
Medeola Virginica, 529. 
Medicago lupulina, 176. 
Melanthium Virginic, 527. 
Melia azedarach, 106. 
Melilotus officinalis, 176. 
Melissa officinalis, 440. 
Melothria pendula, 65. 
Menispermum Ganad., 376. 
Mentha tenuis, 440. 

" piperita, 440. 
Mercurialis annua, 129. 
Mimosa sensitiva, 197. 
Mitchella repens, 405. 
Monarda punctata, 443. 
Monocera aromatica, 585. 
Monotropa uniflora, 378. 
Morus alba, 280. 

" multicaulis, 284. 
" rubra, 305. 
Mylocarium, 130. 
Myrica Carolinensis, 316. 
" cerifera, 312. 

Nabalus Fraseri, 435. 
Nepeta cataria, 447. 
Nicotiana tabacum, 473. 
Nymphasa odorata, 35. 
Nyssa aquatica, 347. 

OEnothera biennis, 55. 
Oldenlandia, 407. 
Olea Europea, 490. 
Olea Americana, 493. 
Opuntia vulgaris, 66. 
Orchis, 524. 



XXIV 



INDEX. 



Orobanehe Virginiana, 462. 
" Amer., 462, 463. 

" uniflora, 462. 

Orontium aquaticum, 544. 
Oryza sativa, 578. 
Osmunda regalis, 591. 
Ostrya Virginica, 233. 

" carpinus, 233. 
Oxalis acetosella, 139. 

" violacea, 140. 

" acetosella, 139. 

" corniculata, 140. 

" furcata, 140. 
Oxycoccus, 383. 

Panax quinquefolium, 48. 
Pancratium maratim., 522. 
" Carolinian. 522 

Panicum dactylon, 565. 
" Italicum, 565. 
Passiflora lutea, 77. 

" incarnata, 77. 

Papaver somnifer., 23, 25. 

" " alba, 25 

Peltandra Virginica, 542. 
Phleum pratense, 565. 
Physalis viscosa, 473. 
*' obscura, 473. 
" pubescens, 473. 
Phytolacca decandra, 365. 
Pinckneya pubens, 404. 
Pinus nigra, 505. 
" australis, 495. 
" glabra, 506. 
" balsarnea, 506. 
" balsamifera. 506. 
" canadensis, 506. 
" palustris, 495, 504. 
" rigida, 504. 
"' strobus, 505. 
" tasda, 506. 
Piscidia erythrina, 175. 
Pisuui sativum, 194. 
Plantago major, 436. 

" lanceolata, 437. 
Poa, 585. 
" compressa, 585. 
" pratensis, 585. 
Podophyllum peltatum, 21, 

601. 
Polygala senega, 85. 
" paucifolia, 87. 
" polygama, 87. 
" sanguinea, 87. 
Polygonum punctatum, 370. 
" aviculare, 372. 

" convolvul., 373. 

" fagopyrum, 373 

" hydropiper. 370 

" polygama, 372. 

" parvifolia, 372. 

" scandens, 373. 

" tinctorium, 179 

" hydropiper, 370 

Polygonatum biflorum, 534. 



Polygonatum pubesc, 534. 
" multiflo., 534. 

Populus alba, 343. 

" heteroph., 344, 413 
Portulacea oleracea, 131. 
Potentilla canadensis, 140. 

reptans? 140. 
Prenanthes alba, 435. 
Prinos verticillatus, 389. 

" glaber, 390. 
Prunella vulgaris, 446. 
Prunus Virginiana, 169. 

" Caroliniana, 171. 
Psoralea esculenta, 177. 
Pteris aquilina, 590. 
Pterocaulon pycnost., 419. 
Puccinia, 598. 
Punica granatum, 58. 
Pyrethrum, 362. 
Pyrola maculata, 377. 

" umbellata, 378. 

" rotundifolia, 378. 
Pyrus coronaria, 149. 

" malus, 149. 

" cydonia, 149. 

" Americana, 167, 168. 

Quercus tinctoria, 238. 

" alba, 287. 

" falcata, 239,256. 

" montana, 263. 

" prinos, 264. 

" rubra, 262. 

" virens, 263. 

" suber, 264. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, 18. 
" repens, 19. 

" phragmites, 16. 

Rheum palmatum, 373. 

" emodii, 373. 
Rhexia, glabella, 57. 
Rhizophora mangle, 55. 
Rhododendron maxim., 380 
" pimctat. 3S1 

Rhus toxicodendron, 200; 

see Sumach, for antidote, 

201, 273. 
Rhus coriaria, 209. 

" copallina, 207. 

" glabra, 202. 

" pumila, 20S. 

" radicans, 200. 

" typnina, 203, 208. 

" vernix, 206. 

" venenata, 206. 
Rhyncosia tomentosa, 193. 
Ricinus communis, 111. 
Robinia pseudacacia, 188. 
" viscosa, 193. 
" hispida, 189. 
Rubia tinctorium, 406. 
Rubia Brownii, 406. 
Rubus villosus, 140. 

" occideutalis, 144. 



Rubus trivialis, 141. 
Ruellia, strepens, 462. 
Rumex crispus, 368. 

" acetosella, 368. . 

" Britannicus, 370. 

" sanguineus, 370. 

" acetosa, 369. 

" obtusifolius, 370. 

" divaricatus, 370. 

Sabal adansonii, 527. 

" pumila, 527. 
Sabbatia angularis, 479. 

" gracilis, 480. 

" stellaris, 480. 

Saccharum officinarum,577. 
Sagittaria sagittif., 57, 536. 

" latifolia, 536. 

Salicornia herbacea,361,594 
Salix nigra, 334. 

" viminalis, 337. 

" caprea, 336. 

" purpurea, 335. 

" triandra, 336. 

" alba, 334. 

" nigra, 187. 

" babilonica, 343. 
Salsola soda, 133, 359. 

" kali, 133, 359. 

" Caroliniana, 133. 
Salvia lyrata, 442. 

" officinalis, 442. 
Sambucus canaden., 30,408. 
Samolus valerandi, 385. 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 30, 

599, 601. 
Sanicula Marylandica, 42. 
Sapindus marginatus, 83, 

133. 
Saponaria officinalis, 132. 
Sarracenia variolaris, 53. 

" flava, 53. 

Sarothra, 79. 
Sassafras officinale, 350. 
Saururus cernuus, 334. 
Schoenolerion Michauxii, 

532. 
Schrankia uncinata, 197. 

" angustata, 197. 

Schubertia, 508. 
Scirpus maritimus, 588. 
" macrostachyus,588. 
" palustris, 589. 
Scrofularia Marylandica, 

465. 
Scrofularia nodosa, 465. 
Scutellaria integrifolia, 447 
" lateriflora, 446. 

Senecio aureus, 426. 
Sesamum Indicum, 450. 
" orientale, 450. 
Shepardia magnoides, 174. 
Sida abutilon, 91. 
Silene Virginica, 131. 
Simaruba glauca, 137. 



INDEX. 



XXV 



Sinapis nigra, 72. 
Sisymbrium amphibium,72. 
" nasturtium, 71. 

Sium nodiflorum, 45. 
Smilax sarsaparilla, 538. 
" caduca, 538. 
" glauca, 538. 
" herbacea, 539. 
" ovata, 539. 
" pseudochina, 537. 
" tamnoides, 539. 
Solarium Virginianum, 471. 

" lycopersicum, 472. 

" Carolinense, 470. 

" mammosum, 470. 

" dulcamara, 470. 

" nigrum, 468. 

" tuberosum, 471. 
Solidago odora, 416. 

" sempervirens, 417. 

" canadensis, 417. 

" procera, 417. 
Sonchus oleraceus, 436. 
Sorghum vulgare, 567. 

" saccharatum, 567. 
Sorbus Americana. 168. 

" aucuparia, 168. 

" microcarpa, 167. 
Spartina glabra, 582. 

" juncea, 582. 
Sparganium ramosum, 545. 
" Americanum,545. 
Spergula arvensis, 135, 561. 
Spigelia Marylandica, 481. 
Spiraea trifoliata, 146. 

" opulifolia, 147. 

" stipulacea, 146. 

" tomentosa, 146. 
Spirodelia polyrhiga, 548. 
Stapbylea trifolia, 130. 
Statice limonium, 360, 437. 

" Caroliniana, 361,437. 
Stellaria media, 136. 
Stillingia sylvatica, 121. 

" sebifera, 122. 

Styrax, 389. 



Swietenia mahogoni, 87. 
Symplocarpus foetidus, 544. 
Symplocas tinctoria, 389. 

Tanacetum vulgare, 425. 
Taraxacum densleonis, 428. 
Tepbrosia Virginiana, 187. 
Thea viridis, 104. 
Thlaspium bursapastoris,70 
Thuja occidentalis, 507. 
Thymus vulgaris, 444. 
Tilia glabra, 103. 
" Americana, 103. 
" Europea, 103. 
Tillandsia usneoides, 524. 
Tricodium perennans, 581. 
Trifolium pratense, 177. 

" arvense, 177. 

" reflexum, 177. 

" repens, 177. 
Trillium sessile, 530. 
Triosteum perfoliatum, 407. 

" angustifolium, 407. 
Tripterella ccerulea, 523. 
Triticum, 583. 

" repens, 561. 

Typha latifolia, 57, 544. 

Ulmus fulva, 310. 

" alata, 311. 

" Americana, 311. 
Uredo segetum, 598. 

" fetida, 598. 
Urtica urens, 268. 

" nivea, 272. 

" dioica, 270. 

" pumila, 273. 
Utricularia inflata, 577. 
Uvaria triloba, 41. 
Uvularia perfoliate, 534. 
" sessiliflora, 535. 

Vaccinium arboreum, 168, 

384. 
Vaccinium macrocarp., 383, 



| Valeriana scandens, 462. 
" pauciflora, 462. 
Veratrum viride, 528. 

" parvifolium, 529. 
" album, 528. 
" angustif., 529. 
Verbascum thapsus, 463. 
" blattaria, 464. 

" lychnites, 464. 

Verbena urticifolia, 208,450. 
" aubletia, 450. 
" hastata, 450. 
Verbesina Virginica, 419. 
Vernonia angustifolia, 409. 
Veronica officinalis, 466. 
" anagallis, 468. 
" peregrina, 467. 
" Virginica, 467. 
Vicia sativa, 194. 
Vitis, 213, et seq. 
" bipinnata, 212. 
" labrusca, aestivalis, 
etc. 214, et aeq. 
Viola tricolor, 76. 
" arvensis, 75. 
" cucullata, 76. 
" palmata, 76. 
" pedata, 75. 
Virgilia lutea, 175. 
Viscum verticillatum, 63. 

Xanthium strumarium, 419. 
Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, 21. 
Xanthoxylum American. 136 

" Carolinianum, 137. 

" clavaHerculis, 136. 

" fraxineum, 136. 

" ramiflorum, 136. 

" tricarpum, 137. 

Yucca filamentosa, 350. 

Zamia integrifolia, 512. 
Zea mays, 548. 
Zizania aquatica, 580. 
Zostera marina, 547. 



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Co., 1852. 



Flora of the Southern United States, containing abridgod description? of the 
flowering plants and ferns off Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Alabama., Mississippi, and Florida, arranged according to the natural system, by 
A. W. Chapman, M. I). The ferns by Daniel C. Eaton. Now York, I860.' 

Rural Economy, in its relations with chemistry, physics, and meteorology, or chem- 
istry applied to agriculture, by J. B. Boussingault, member of Institute of France, 
etc< ' Translated by George Law, Agriculturist. New York, C. M. Saxton, 1857. 

Saxton's Rural Hand Books. New York, 1852. 

Thornton's Southern Gardener, and Receipt Book. Camden, S. C. 

Enquire Within; 3,700 facts. New York, 1857. » 

The Fruit Gardener. Philadelphia, 1847. 

Downing's Fruit and Fruit Trees of America. New York, 1858. 

The Southern Farmer and Market Gardener, by Prof. F. S. Holmes, Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

The Art of Manufacturing Soaps and Candles. By P. Kurten. Philadelphia, 
Lindsay & Blakiston, 1854. 

Industrial Resources of the South and West,jby J. D. B. DeBow. New Or- 
leans, 1S53. ' 

Sorgho, and Imphoe, the Chinese and African Sugar Canes, by H. S. Olcott. 
New York, 1857. 

Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines. From 4th English edition. 
New York, 1853. 

A New Family Herbal, or popular account of the natures and properties of the 
plants used in Medicine, Diet, and the Arts, by R. J. Thornton, M. D. Lon- 
don, 1810. ' • 

Chemistry applied to Agriculture, by Count John Antony Chaptal. Boston, 
1835. 

Chemical Field Lectures, by J. A. Stockhardt. Translated from German. Cam- 
bridge, 1853. 

A Muck Manual, by Samuel L. Dana. New York, 1858. 

The Fruit Garden. A Treatise by P. Barry. New York, 1857. 

Practical' Treatise on Culture of Grape, by J. Fiske Allen. New York, 1858. 

Charlton on Culture of Exotic Grape under Glass. New York, 1853. 

Elements of Scientific Agriculture, by S. P. Norton, Professor in Yale College, 
New York, 1854. 

A Manual of Scientific and Practical Agriculture, for the School and the Farm, 
by J. L. Campbell, A. M., Professor Physical Science, Washington College, Va. 
Philadelphia, 1859. 

The American Grape Grower's Guide, intended especially for the climate of 
America. Illustrated by William Charlton. New York, A. 0. Moore, 1859. For 
full description of best modes of cultivating the grape. 

Sorgho and Imphee, the Chinese and African Sugar Canes. Manufacture of 
sugar, syrup, alcohol, wines, beer, cider, vinegar, starch, and dye stuffs, with trans- 
lations of French Pamphlets, etc., etc., and drawing of machinery, by H. S. Olcott. 
New York, A. 0. Moore, 1857. 

Patent Office Reports, Agriculture, 1848, '51, '53, '54, '55, '56, '57, '58. 

Rural Chemistry, by Edward Solly, F. L. S., Honorary Member of Royal Agri- 
cultural Society, England. Philadelphia, Henry C. Baird, 1S52. 

The Rural Cyclopaedia, or a General Dictionary of Agriculture, and of the. Arts, 
Sciences, Instruments, and Practice necessary to the Farmer, etc. Edited by Rev. 
Jno. M. Wilson. In four volumes. Edinburgh, 1852, A. Fullarton. 

General Directions for Collecting and Drying Medicinal Substances, with a list 
of Indigenous Plants. From the Surgeon-General's office, 1862. Richmond. A 
pamphlet. • 



The following works, published in England, may be referred to in case any are 
desirous of consulting them : 

Miller's Gardener's Dictionary, Marshall on Planting, Nichols' Planter's Calen- 
dar, Pontey's Profitable Planter, Phillips' Shrubbery, Treatise on Planting in the 
Library of Useful Knowledge, Loudon's Encyclopedia of Plants, Accum on the 
Adulterations of Food, Babbage on the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 
Thompson's Vegetable Chemistry, Knapp's Technology, Willich's Domestic Ency- 
clopaedia. See, also, Treatise by Dr. J. Harris, of Mass., on Insects injurious 
to Vegetation, and Townsend Glover's papers on same subject in Patent Office 
Reports. 

j5^"* Those interested in obtaining foreign seeds, plants, etc., can obtain them by 
applying to James Carter & Co., and Butler <fc McCulloch, of London; William 
Thompson, of Ipswich, England ; and Vilmorin, Andreux & Cie., Paris, France. 



INTRODUCTION. 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS 



COLLECTING AND DRYING MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES OF 
THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 



DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING. 

All leaves, flowers^ and herbs should be preferably gathered 
in clear, dry weather, in the morning, after the dew is exhaled. 

The roots of medicinal plants, although more advantageously 
gathered at certain periods, to be hereafter specified, do not 
lose their medicinal virtues in consequence of being dug in mid- 
summer. It is probable that most of those imported are thus 
collected by savages or ignorant persons, when the plant is in 
full leaf, it being then more easily recognized. 

Plants, Annual, should be gathered at the time when their 
vegetation is most vigorous, which is genei^ally from the time 
they begin to flower until their leaves begin to change. 

Plants, Biennial, should, in most instances, be gathered in 
the second season of their growth, and about the time of 
flowering. 

Roots of AnxN'uals are to be gathered just before the time of 
flowering. 

Roots of Biennials are to be gathered after the vegetation 
of the first vear has ceased. 



Roots of Perennials are to be gathered in the spiking, before 
vegetation has commenced. Roots should be washed, and the 
smaller fibres, unless they are the part employed, should be 
then separated from the body of the root, which, when of any 
considerable size, is to be cut in slices previous to being dried. 

Bulbs are to be gathered after the new bulb is perfected, and 
before it has begun to vegetate, which is at the time the leaves 
decay. Those which are to be preserved fresh should be buried 
in dry sand. 

Barks, whether of the root, trunk, or branches, should be 
gathered in the autumn, or early in the spring. The dead 
epidermis or outer bark, and the decayed parts, should be 
removed. Of some trees. (as the elm) the inner bark only is 
preserved. 

Leaves are to be gathered after their full development, before 
the fading of the flowers. The leaves of biennials do not attain 
their perfect qualities until the second year. 

Flowers should, in general, be gathered at the time of their 
expansion, before or immediately after they have' fully opened; 
some — as the. Rosa G-allica — while in bud. 

Aromatic Herbs are to be gathered when in flower. 

Stalks and Twigs should be collected in autumn. 

Seeds should be collected at the period of their full maturity. 



DIRECTIONS FOR DRYING. 

Medicinal products of the vegetable kingdom (as plants, roots, 
etc.) should be dried as rapidly as is consistent with their per- 
fect preservation, but not subjected to extreme heat. 

Those collected in the warm months and during dry weather 
may, except in a few instances, be dried by their spontaneous 



evaporation, in a well ventilated apartment ; some — as roots 
and barks — may be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. 

In spring and autumn, and in damp, foggy, or rainy weather, 
a drying-house should be resorted to; the temperature to range 
from 70° to 100° F. There should be an aperture above for the 
escape of warm, moist air. 

Fibrous Boots may be dried in the sun, or at a, heat of from 
65° to 80° F. in the drying-room. 

Fleshy Boots should be cut in transverse slices, not exceed- 
ing half an inch in length, and during the drying process should 
be stirred several times to prevent their moulding. 

Bulbs must have the coarse outer membrane peeled off. In 
other respects they are to be treated like fleshy roots. 

Barks, Woods and Twigs readily dry, in thin layers, in the 
open air. 

Leaves, after separation from the stalks, should be strewed 
loosely over hurdle-frames, and their position changed twice a 
day, until they become dry. When very succulent, they require 
more care to prevent their discoloration. For thin, dry leaves, 
the heat need not exceed 70° F.; for the succulent, it may 
gradually be raised to 100° F. 

Annual Plants and Tops. — If not too juicy, these may be 
tied loosely in small bundles, and strung on lines stretched 
across the drying-room. 

Flowers must be di-ied carefully and rapidly, so as to pre- 
serve their color. They should be spread loosely on the hurdles, 
and turned several times by stirring. When flowers or leaves 
owe their virtues to volatile oils, greater care is necessary. 

A carefully pressed specimen of the stem, leaf, and flower of 
each medicinal, substance collected, whether it be bark, root, or 



8 



herb, should be obtained and forwarded with each collection, 
for the purpose of aiding in its identification. From "General 
Directions" and List of Plants — a pamphlet issued from Sur 
geon-General's Office, 1862. Consult, also, U. S. Dispensatory. 



The two following papers, contributed by the writer to a 
periodical during the present war, are introduced before enter- 
ing upon the* systematic portion of the work, because they 
contain information, in a condensed shape, which may be prac- 
tically useful : 

BRIEF NOTICE OF EASILY PROCURABLE MEDICINAL PLANTS, TO BE 

COLLECTED BY SOLDIERS WHILE IN SERVICE IN ANY 

PART OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES. 

My attention having been occupied with the subject of the 
substitutes for imported Medicines, I have thought that if some 
hints were given the Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons in the 
field, with respect to the useful properties of a few articles 
(easily attainable in every part of the country), it would 
great!} 7 lessen the use of the more expensive medicines. One 
man detailed from each company, or from a regiment, could 
obtain a full supply of each substance fresh, for the use of the 
Surgeon, and this at less trouble and expense than if it was 
procured b} T the Medical Purveyors, to be distributed to the 
regiments. I will mention some of these substances. They 
are familiar to all, but still, without special recommendation, 
they are likely to escape attention : 

Sassafras (Laurus). — Whilst engaged in active duties as Sur- 
geon to the Ilolcombe Legion, whenever a soldier suffered 
from measles, pneumonia, bronchitis, or cold, his conrpanion or 
nurse was directed to procure the roots and leaves of Sassafras, 
and a tea made with this supplied that of Flax Seed or Gum 
Arabic. Each leaf of Sassafras contains a great amount of 
mucilage. 

Bene (Besamum). — The planters and farmers throughout the 
Confederate States should save and cure all the leaves of the 



9 



Ber^e now growing, to be used in camp dysentery, in colds, 
coughs, etc., among our soldiers, in place of Gum Arabic or 
Flax Seed. One or two leaves in a tumbler of water imparts 
their mucilaginous properties. 

Dogwood CCornus Florida). — Since the war, the bark has been 
employed with great advantage in place of quinine in fevers — 
by physicians in Sumter district. S. C, and elsewhere — par- 
ticularly in cases of low forms of fever, and in dysentery, on 
the river courses, of a typhoid character. It is given as a sub- 
stitute for Peruvian barks. In fact, in almost any case where 
the Cinchona bark was used. 

Thoroughwort, Bone-set (Eupatorium perfoliatum). — Thorough- 
wort, drank hot during the cold stage of fever, and cold as a 
tonic and antiperiodic, is thought by many physicians to he 
even superior to the Dogwood, Willow, or Poplar, as a sub- 
stitute for quinine. It is quite sufficient in the management of 
many of the malarial fevers that will prevail among our troops 
during the summer; and if it does not supply entirely the place 
of quinine, will certainly lessen the need for its use. These 
plants can be easily procured in every locality. 

Tulip Bearing Poplar (Liriodendron) and the Willow bark 
supply a remedy for the fevers met with in camp. Cold infu- 
sion given. 

Sweet Gum (Liquidambar Styraciflua). — The inner bark eon- 
tains an astringent, gummy substance. If it is boiled in milk, 
or a tea made with water, its astringency is so great that 
it will easily check diarrhoea, and associated with the use of 
other remedies, dysentery also. The leaf of the gum when 
green I have also ascertained to be powerfully astringent, and 
to contain as large a proportion of tannin as that of any other 
tree. I believe that the Cum leaf and the leaf of the Myrtle, 
and Blackberry can be used wherever an astringent is re- 
quired ; cold water takes it up. They can, I think, be also 
used for tanning leather, when green, in place of oak bark. 

Blackberry Boot (Bubus). — Wherever it can be obtained, a 



10 



decoction will check profuse diarrhoeas of any kind. The root 
of the Chinquapin (Castanea) is also astringent. 

Gentian. — Our native tonics' are abundant. Several varieties 
of Gentian, Sabbatia, etc., may be added to those mentioned,. 
The Pipsissewa, or Winter Green {Chwiapliila), is both an aro- 
matic tonic and a diuretic, and therefore selected in the con- 
valescence from low fevers followed by dropsical symptoms. 
These, the numerous aromatic plants, etc., are not intended 
to take the place of mercury, or any other drug which can be 
obtained and is required. It is not intended that a blind or 
exclusive reliance should be placed in them — but they are 
recommended to supply a great and present need. 

Holly {Ilex Opacd). — The bark of the holly root chewed, or a 
tea made with it, yields an excellent bitter demulcent, very 
useful in coughs, colds, etc. The bitter pi'inciple is also tonic. 
The Holly contains bird-lime. 

Wild Jalap {Podophyllum Peltattun). — If this can be found it 
can be used as a laxative in place of rhubarb or jalap, or 
wherever a purgative is required. Every planter in the Con- 
federate States can produce the opium, mustard, and flax seed 
that is required, either for the army or for home use. 

I think we stand most in need also of nitrate, chlorate, and 
bicarb, of potash, as we have no means of supplying these by 
vegetable substances. It has suggested itself to me that those 
in charge of our Nitre works might also produce other prepa- 
rations of potash with veiy little additional trouble. 

Potash, pearlash, and soda are easily procurable from the 
ashes of certain plants. Our Salsola Kali, growing on the sea 
coast, is rich in soda. Consult index for references to more 
detailed information. 



11 



SOUTHERN TREES ADAPTED TO THE PURPOSES OP THE MANUFAC- 
TURER AND WOOD ENGRAVER. 

A short time since, in answer to an inquiry of a correspond- 
ent, I gave the names of several trees growing at the South as 
j>robably suited for the purposes of the wood engraver. To 
these 1 will now add those noticed by subsequent correspond- 
ents, and also call attention to two or three other trees with 
wood of great fineness and density of structure, which may be 
tested as substitutes for the wood heretofore imported from the 
North; and which are also likely to prove serviceable when- 
ever a wood of hard, fine grain is required by the manufac- 
turer. 

Iron Wood, Horn Beam (Ostrya Virginica, Ell. Sk.) — It has 
often been employed by turners, and wrought into mill-cogs, 
wheels, etc. The wood is tough and white, and will prove an 
important acquisition to those interested in machinery, or in 
the construction of implements, tools, etc. 

White Beech (Fagus Sylvatlca). Diffused. This wood is very 
hard, is capable of receiving a high polish, and should be prized 
by cabinet makers and turners for manufacturing purposes. 

Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch, Mountain Mahogany (Betula Lenta. 
Linn.) — Grows in mountains of South Carolina, possesses a fine 
grain, and also susceptible of a beautiful polish. The .Red Birch 
(JBetula Nigra) grows in our swamps in the lower country. The 
Black Birch is said by Lindley to be exceedingly hard. 

White Oak (Quercus Alba). — One of the best of the Oaks, 
with the Live Oak, likely to be employed wherever great dura- 
bility is desirable; these, with the Walnut and Maple, are well 
known. 

Dog Wood (Coi'nus Florida). — Much used on our plantations 
wherever a wood of firmness of texture is required. 



12 



Persimmon (Diospyros Yirginiana). — A very hard wood — in 
the natural family of plants found under what is known as the 
Ebony tribe. 

The Holly (Ilex Opaca), the Apple, and Pear ai-e very much 
esteemed by many; perhaps harder than any of those cited. 
These may be more particularly adapted to the purposes of the 
wood engraver. 

The Calico Bush, Ivy Bush (Kalmia Latifolia). — Grows in our 
middle districts. Wood hard and dense. 

Mountain Laurel Bay (Rhododendron Maximum). — Found in 
our mountains; said to resemble the Kalmia, and quoted by a 
writer as adapted to the purposes of the engraver. 

Iron Wood. — Another tree named from its supposed firm- 
ness (Bumelia Lycioides Ell. Sk.~) I have collected it in Charles- 
ton, and forty miles from the ocean.. 

Yellow Locust Tree, False Acacia (Robinia Pseudoaccacice, L.) — 
In mountains and in lower districts. The grain is fine and 
compact; the wood, on account of its durability, is much used 
for treenails in ship building. 

Leather Wood (Dirca Palustris). — Grows in Georgia ; is both 
hard and pliant. 

Arbor Vitoz (Thuja occidentalism. — Grows in mountains. Wood 
said by Michaux to be the most durable which our forests 
produce. 

The soft woods are: the Cedar, the Cypress, the Black 
Spruce, or Fir (Pinus nigra, Aiton); the Pinus strobus (growing 
in the mountains), and the Spruce tree of our low country 
swamps, which might well supply the place of our Northern 
pine. All these, with the Willow ( Salix nigra), are used for 
the timbers and spars of boats. The last is both soft and 
durable. Mr. Elliott says, in his Sketch of the Botany of 
South Carolina, that the wood of the lied Mulberry (Morns 
rubra) is preferred in the building of boats to that of any other, 
except the Eed Cedar. 



13 



The wood of the Black Gum (JYyssa aquatica), particularly 
the portion near the ground, is peculiarly white, spongy, and 
light. It has great elasticity, and a specific gravity almost 
low enough to adapt it, in the opinion of the writer, to be used 
as a substitute for the bark of the Cork tree. 

The Poplar is well known also for its qualities of softness 
and lightness. The Maple less so. The Pride of India is light 
and durable, and susceptible of polish, with a pretty grain 
under varnish, adapting it to purposes of the manufacturer. 
But these do not resist water when submerged, as do the softer 
woods first mentioned, viz: the Cypress, Cedar, or the Pal- 
metto, which is characteristically soft, porous, and elastic. 



RESOURCES 

OF THE 

SOUTHERN FIELDS AND FORESTS. 

MEDICAL, ECONOMICAL, AND AGRICULTURAL. 



Class I. EXOGENS ; OR, DICOTYLEDONOUS 

FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Sub-Class I, POLYPETAL.E. 

NATURAL ORDERS. 

RANUNCULACEiE. ( Crow-Foot Tribe.) 

The plants belonging to this order are generally acrid, 
caustic, and poisonous. It contains some species, however, 
which are innocuous. The caustic principle is volatile, and 
neither acid nor alkaline. 

Clematis crispa, Linn. Not of Ell. Sk., which, is the C. 
cylindrica, T. and Gray. Grows in damp, rich soils, and 
in swamps in the low country of South Carolina, vicinity of 
Charleston. Dr. Bachman. Newborn, Croom. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 311 ; U. S. Disp. 
1244; Shec. Flora' Carol. 418. This plant is substituted 
for the C. erecta, mentioned by Storck, and is employed in 
secondary syphilis, ulcers, porrigo, etc.; given internally, 



16 

with the powdered leaves applied to the sore. It acts also 
as a diaphoretic and diuretic. Merat says it possesses the 
properties of the C. vitalba, which is a dangerous vegetable 
caustic, used as a substitute for cantharides, and applied to 
rheumatic limbs, and in paralysis and gout. The decoc- 
tion of the root is alterative and purgative; and is also said 
to be valuable in washing sores and ulcers, in order to 
change the mode of their vitality, and to make them cica- 
trize. Shecut remarks that "the Spanish or blistering 
flies are very fond of the Clematis crispa, and it would be 
well for medical gentlemen in the country to propagate the 
plant about their residences, in order to secure a constant 
succession of these valuable insects." See Potato, "Con- 
volvulus.'" The American species are deserving of partic- 
ular attention, and we would invite further investigation 
of them. 

Clematis viorna, L. Traveller's-joy. Grows in middle 
and upper districts. Elliott. Fl. July. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 489 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 86 ; U. S. 
Disp. 1244. This, and the following, have also a caustic 
property, and are employed internally as diuretics and 
sudorifics in chronic rheumatism ; and externally, in the 
treatment of eruptions, and as vesicants. Shecut says that 
a yellow dye may be extracted from both leaves and 
branches ; the latter are sufficiently tough to make withs 
and fagots. The fibrous shoots may be converted into 
paper, and the wood is yellow, compact, and odoriferous, 
furnishing an excellent material for veneering. 

Clematis Virginiaiia, Linn. Virgin's bower. Grows in 
rich soils ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. ■ Wood and 
Bache, IT. S. Disp. 1244; Griffith, Med. Bot. 80. See C. 
viorna. 

Anemone riemorosa, L. \ Wood Anemone. Mountains 
Ranunculus phragmites. f of South Carolina. Fl. April. 
Bull. Plantes Ven. de France ; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 109 ; 
Fl. Scotica, 287 ; Chomel, Plantes Usuelles, ii, 376 ; Diet. 






des 8c. Med. Ixv, 194; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 
292 ; U. S. Disp. 1228. It is said to be extremely acrid- 
even small doses producing a great disturbance of the 
stomach ; employed as a rubefacient in fevers, gout, and 
rheumatism, and as a vesicatory in removing corns from 
the feet. It is reported to have proved a speedy cure for 
tinea capitis, and the flowers have been used in violent 
headaches; Linnaeus says that the plant produces a dis- 
charge of urine,' attended with dysentery, in cattle which 
feed on it. It contains a principle called anemonin. 

Most of the species of Anemone, says Wilson, Rural 
Cyc, are acrimonious and detersive. "An infusion of 
Anemone is said to remove woman's obstructions, and to 
increase her milk ; the bulbous roots when chewed are said 
to strengthen the gums and preserve the teeth ; a decoc- 
tion of the roots is said to cleanse corrosive ulcers, and 
heal inflammation in the eyes; the flowers, boiled in oil,' are 
said to have the property of thickening the hair, and Anem- 
one ointment is said to be a good eye-salve, and a useful 
application to ulcers and external inflammations," all which 
I introduce for what it may be worth ; no doubt the oil 
furnished by it imparts some property to the plant, and, 
like tannin in all the astringent plants, accounts for the 
slight medicinal etfect which results from their use. An 
improved knowledge will, one day, determine the exact 
position in value of the whole vegetable kingdom, but for 
a while we must be contented with the publication of 
much that is vague and uncertain. The unexpected dis- 
coveries of Ipecacuanha, Cinchona, Veratrum viride, etc., 
warn us not to discard, upon a superficial examination, all 
those popularly considered as of trivial importance. 

Hepatica triloba, Chaix. \ Liverwort. Grows in light 
Anemone hepatica, Linn. J soils, upper districts, and in 
Georgia. Collected by Mr. Ravenel at the Eutaw battle- 
ground, St. John's, Berkley ; sent to me also from Abbe- 
ville district. 

IT. S. Disp. 368; Raf. Med. PI, i, 238 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. 



18 

81. A tonic and astringent, supposed by some to possess 
deobstruent virtues. It has been used to a considerable 
extent in haemoptysis and chronic cough ; but Wood says 
it has fallen into neglect. 

Hydrastis Canadensis, W. Orange -root; yellow - root ; 
turmeric ; golden seal. Grows in rich soils, among the 
mountains of South Carolina. Fl. May. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. 6 ; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 21 ; Veg. Mat. Med, 
ii, 17 : Raf. Med. Fl. i, 251 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 82. It has 
a narcotic smell ; used in this country as a tonic. The root 
was known to the Indians, from the brilliant yellow color 
which it yields. This appears to be permanent, and might 
be applied in the arts. Martin, in the Trans. Phil. Soc. 
1783, in his Observations on the Dyes used by the Aborigi- 
nes, states, from his own experience, that it was found ser- 
viceable in coloring silks, wool, and linen. With indigo, 
it yielded a rich green. Griffith mentions it as a powerful 
bitter tonic, much used in the West as a wash in chronic 
ophthalmia. In its fresh state, supposed to be narcotic. 
Tincture, decoction, or powder employed. Dose of powder, 
thirty to sixty grains. 

Caltha jxdustris, L. Var. pa mass, ifolia, T. & G. Cedar 
Swamps, S. C, (Pursh); Chap. Flora. The flower buds are 
pickled for use as a substitute for capers. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, L. T. and Gray. Grows in bogs; 
abundant around Charleston. Xewbern, Croom. Fl. May. 

Bull. Plantes Yen. de France, 143 ; Dem. Elem de Bot. ; 
Lightfoot's Fl. Scotica, 295 ; U. S. Disp. 584 ; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med, 620. and the Supplem. 1846, 620; 
Dioscorides, lib. vi, c. iv ; Orfila. Toxicol. Gen. ii, 90; Big. 
Am. Med. Bot. iii, 65 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 84. 

The juice possesses remarkable caustic powers, raising a 
blister if applied topically, and often in doses of two drops 
exciting fatal inflammation alono; the whole tract of the 
alimentary canal. Some, however, say that this property is 



19 

not constant, as it is of a volatile nature, and is dissipated 
by heat. According to Merat, the Bedouins use it as a 
rubefacient, and it is applied in sciatica, forming a substi- 
tute for cantharides. Annal. Univ. de Med. 1843. It has 
been administered with success in asthma, icterus, dysuria, 
rheumatism, pneumonia, and fixed pains. When it acts 
as a vesicant, it has not the disadvantage of producing 
strangury. Bigelow says the volatile principle may be 
collected by distillation, and preserved in closely-stopped 
bottles. Tilebein relates that the distilled water is exces- 
sively acrid, and on cooling, deposits crystals, which are al- 
most insoluble in any menstruum. Precipitates are caused 
by muriate of tin and acetate of lead. The boiled root 
may be eaten. 

Ranunculus rcpens, Linn. 1 Grows in shady woods, and 
Nilidus, Ell. Sk. j among the mountains of this 

state. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Disp. 584. This has also a rubefacient and epis- 

pastic operation. Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 65. Very similar 

to the above in its mode of action. 

Delphinium consolida, L. Larkspur. Becoming natural- 
ized. The plant has astringent properties, and its flowers 
yield a fine blue dye. 

Oimicifuga racemosa, Torrey. 1 Black snake-root ; Oo- 
Actcea racemosa, L. & Willd. j hosh ; grows in the upper 
districts, and in Georgia. Fl. July. 

Linnseus, Veg. Mat. Med. 102 (see Actsea). The root is 
used in the debility of females attendant upon uterine dis- 
order ; and, in its action, is thought to have a special 
affinity for this organ. It has also a decided effect upon 
some nervous affections, especially chorea. See Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pharm. vi, 20, and Dr. Young's notice of it in 
the Am. Journal Med. Sc. v, 310. "We have administered 
this medicine in chorea with complete success, after the 
failure of purgatives and metallic tonics ; and have also 



20 

derived the happiest effects from it in eases of convulsions 
recurring periodically, and connected with uterine dis- 
order." Wood, U. S. Disp. The powdered root is em- 
ployed, a teaspoonful three times a day. It is a stimulating 
tonic, increasing the secretion of the skin, kidneys, and 
lungs. Merat, in the Diet, de Mat. Med., adds the authority 
of Dr. Kirkbride in support of the efficacy of this plant in 
chorea, who advises that a purgative be premised, when it 
may be given for several days, and then discontinued, to 
be resinned again ; frictions should at the same time be 
made upon the surface with the tinct. See the Supplem, 
1846, to the Diet, de. M. Med. cit. sup. Dr. Hildreth has 
found this plant, in combination with iodine, very advan- 
tageous in the early stages of phthisis. Am. Journal Med. 
Se. Oct. 1842. The decoction is the most useful form; one 
ounce of the bruised root is boiled in a pint of water, of 
which a half pint to one pint may be taken during the day. 
Dr. Physick also had known it to cure cases of chorea; and 
Merat and de L., in the 1st vol. of op. cit. p. 67 (see Actrea), 
say that it partakes of the properties of A. brachipetala. 
According to Chapman, it produces free nausea, with 
abundant expectoration, succeeded by nervous trembling, 
vertigo, and a remarkable slowness of the pulse. Dr. Gar- 
den administered the tincture for phthisis. London Med. 
Journal, li, 245. Barton employed it as an astringent, 
which property it owes to the gallic acid it contains. He 
also gave it in putrid sore throat. In ]S r ew Jersey, a decoc- 
tion of the root is said to cure itch; and in ^sTorth Carolina, 
it is given as a drench for cattle, in the disease called 
murrain. Shec. Flora Carol. 91 ; Carson's Illust, Med. Bot. 
i, p. 9, 1847. See Annal. in Am. Journal Pharm. vi, 20, 
1843. According to Mr. Tilghman, it contains gum ; 
starch; sugar; resin; wax; tannin; gallic acid ;, salts of 
potassa ; lime ; magnesia ; iron, etc. The ethereal extract 
contains most of its virtues. See, also, Jones, in the Jour- 
nal de Pharm. x, 670 ; and Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. vi, 
14 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 92. He remarks that its greatest 
efficacy has been exhibited in rheumatism ; the power of 



21 

the root appearing to depend on the volatile oil and bitter 
resin, both of which are soluble in alcohol, and partially so 
in water. 

ZanthorrMza apiifolia, L'Her. Yellow root. Upper, and 
mountainous districts. Fl. April. 

IT. S. Disp. 745 ; Bart. Med. Bot. ii, 203 ; New York 
Med. Eepos. 291; Lind. Nat. Syst. 6; Griffith, Med. Bot, 
95 ; Elliott's Bot, Med. note i, 376 ; Stokes, Med. Bot, ii, 
194. 

The bark possesses pure bitter tonic properties, closely 
analogous to those of Colombo and quassia. Dr. P. C. 
Barton thinks it a more powerful bitter than the former of 
these. It was given by Dr. Woodhouse in doses of forty 
grains in dyspepsia; a decoction is also employed. The 
shrub contains a gum and resin, both of which are in- 
tensely bitter. Alcohol is the best menstruum. Its tinc- 
torial powers were known to the Indians. It yields plenti- 
fully a coloring matter, a drab being imparted by it to 
wool, and a rich yellow to silk ; without a mordant it does 
not affect cotton or linen ; with Prussian blue it strikes 
a dull olive green color. 

Jeffersonia diphylla, Pers. Twin-leaf. Rich shady woods, 
Tennessee. 

The decoction of this plant is used by the vegetable prac- 
titioners and Indian doctors as a diuretic in dropsy, and as 
an external application to sores, ulcers, etc. 

Podophyllum peltatum, L. Wild jalap ; May-apple ; wild 
lemon; duck- weed. Diffused in rich swamp lands ; grows 
in Abbeville and Sumter districts; collected in St. John's, 
Berkley ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach. ; Newbern. I saw 
it at Portsmouth, Virginia. Fl. March. 

Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 749; Bell's Pract. Diet.; Drayton's 
View S. O. 73; Royle, Mat, Med. 573 ; Frost's Elems. 137 ; 
Eb. Mat, Med. i, 205; Ed. and Vav. Mat, Med. i, 514; U. 
S; Disp. 556 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 34 ; Bart. Med. Bot. 



22 

i, 9; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. in, 873; Med. Record, iii, 
332; Ball and Gar. Mat. Med. 193; Schoepf,'M. M. 86; 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de Mat. Med. v. 207 ; Chap. Mat. Med. 
and Therap. 209; Coxe, Am. Disp. 478; Lind. JSTat. Syst. 
Bot. 

Bigelow says it is a sure and active cathartic : " "We 
hardly know any native plant that answers better the com- 
mon purposes of jalap, aloes, and rhubarb." The Shakers 
prepare an extract, which is much esteemed as a mild ca- 
thartic. By the experiments of Dr. Burgon, in the Am. 
Med. Recorder, it is useful in combination with calomel ; 
ten grains of the latter with twenty of the podophyllum. 
In bilious affections it usually supersedes the necessity of 
an emetic previous to a cathartic; and by this means two 
desirable effects are produced by one agent. Big. Appen- 
dix, iii, 187; Griffith, Med. Bot. 116. It has been recom- 
mended in dropsy, from the abundant evacuations which 
it produces. According to Staples, it contains resin and 
starch ; and Dr. Hodgson has given the name podophylline 
to the peculiar substance it contains. See Journal Phil. 
Coll. Pharm. ; Carson's Illust. of Med. Botany, pt. i. An 
officinal extract is prepared, given in doses of 5-15 grains. 
The leaves are purgative, and sometimes produce nausea in 
irritable stomachs ; the fruit is eatable. It was employed 
by the Cherokees as an anthelmintic; a few drops poured 
into the ear are said to restore the power of hearing. The 
plant has also been found to afford speedy relief in incon- 
tinence of urine. Dr. McBride made great use of it during 
his practice in St. John's, Berkley, S. C; he said that it 
answers all the purposes of the officinal jalap, "producing 
copious liquid discharges, with no griping". The powdered 
root is applied as a dressing for ulcers; it is said to restrain 
excessive granulations, sprinkled over the surface. In a 
communication from Dr. Douglass, of Chester district, S. 
C, his correspondent, Mr. Melveown, considers the root too 
drastic as a purge ; he adds that the powdered root, mixed 
with equal parts of resin, acts as a powerful caustic, and is 
used by farriers for eecharotic purposes. We have em- 



28 

ployed this plant among negroes as a substitute for jalap 
and the ordinary cathartics, and find that it answers every 
purpose, being easily prepared by the person having charge 
of them. Thirty grains of the root in substan«e were given, 
or an infusion of one ounce in a pint of water, of which a 
wineglassful three times a day is the dose; employing the 
Liriodendron tulipifera as a substitute for quinine during 
the stage of intermission of all mild cases of intermittent 
fever. We would invite the particular attention of planters 
to the extensive use of these medicines upon their planta- 
tions. We have caused them to be used on one on which 
upward of a hundred negroes resided, and we found that 
during a period of seven months, including the warm 
months of summer, they were used in all cases, and appar- 
ently fulfilled every indication. No detailed statement of 
these could be obtained, as it was administered by one of 
their own number; but large quantities of them were re- 
quired. The soft pulp contained within the rind of the 
fruit has a very peculiar musky taste, which is relished by 
many persons. The pulp is squeezed into a wineglass, and 
with the addition of a little old Madeira and sugar, it is said 
to be equal to the luscious golden granadilla of the tropics. 
Am. Farmer, vol. 14 ; Farmer's Encyc. 

Papaverace^e. (The Poppty Tribe.) 

Narcotic properties generally prevail throughout this 
order. Seeds are universally oily — seldom narcotic. Eu- 
rope is the principal seat of the papaveracese ; but several 
species included under it are found in North America, be- 
yond the tropic. Most of them are annuals, the perennials 
being chiefly natives of mountainous tracts. 

Papaver Somniferum. Opium Poppy. Thaer, in his Prin- 
ciples of Agriculture, in speaking of the cultivation of the 
poppy as an oil-bearing plant, says: "The color of the 
flower is unimportant. The seed is either white or black. 
Some persons think that the black-seeded variety is more 



24 

productive, others give the preference to the white in this 
respect. The white seed is the more agreeable to the taste, 
as likewise the oil expressed from it. That variety of 
poppy is preferred whose heads or capsules when ripe as- 
sume a slightly bluish tinge. The structure of the capsules 
is of more consequence ; for there is a variety in which the 
envelope of the capsule dehisces spontaneously when ripe, 
so that the seed is easily shed ; and another, in which the 
seed remains enclosed within the capsules, which must be 
opened in order to extract it." "The poppy may become 
one of the most profitable crops, if we have the means 
of disposing of the seed, or if we knew how to extract the 
oil. By proper cultivation it maybe made to produce from 
nine to ten bushels of seed per acre, and one bushel yields 
twenty-four pounds of good oil. This oil, especially the 
first portion, which is cold-pressed, and mixed in the mill 
with slices of apple, is doubtless the purest kind of oil for 
the table, and the most agreeable that is known. It is 
inferior to none, excepting the finest Nice or Lucca oil. It 
is preferable to the second-rate oil of those places, and the 
peculiar taste of olive oil may be imparted to it by the 
addition of a small quantity of that oil of superfine qual- 
ity." Principles of Agriculture, 457. 

The oil of the poppy is bland, and not narcotic. "It is 
used both for food and light, and is considered a fifth more 
valuable than that of the colza. The cakes remaining after 
the expression of the oil are valuable for the fattening of 
swine ; and the stalks for fuel. The ashes which remain 
after burning it are of the best kind of manure. If the 
seed be pressed in a mill used for the colza, or other oil, 
the greatest attention must be paid to cleaning it. The oil 
expressed in cold weather is much superior in quality to 
that obtained in warm weather, and the two must not be 
mixed." "Henry Colman's European Agriculture," vol. 
ii, 538, Boston, 1849. See his "Report on Flemish Agri- 
culture, for method of growing the Poppy, Colza, Flax, 
Hemp, Hop, Mulberry, Beet, Olive, Grape," etc., also 
" Thaer's Treatise on Agriculture." 



In Thornton's Family Herbal a very full and interesting 
account can be read of the cultivation of poppy in England, 
with the successful production of opium in considerable 
quantity. Forty pounds were made in one season by one 
person. Boys and girls were employed in incising the 
bulbs and gathering the gum. See Bene (Sesamitm) for 
oils and their expression. 

A variety of the "common" or "opium poppy" (P. som- 
niferum), indigenous to the warm and temperate parts of 
Europe and Asia, has been introduced, and a brief notice 
is contained in Patent Office Report, 1855, p. xxi : " It has 
proved itself susceptible of easy cultivation on very rich 
soils. It is well adapted to the climate of the Middle and 
Southern states. The flowers of the 'white poppy' (JPapa- 
ver s. alba), the variety with which the experiment was 
made, may be either entirely white or red, or may be 
fringed with purple, rose, or lilac, variegated and edged 
with the same colors, but never occur blue or yellow, nor 
mixed with these colors, each petal being generally marked 
at the bottom with a black or purple spot. The seeds are 
black in the plants having purple flowers, and light-colored 
in those which are white; although the seeds of the latter, 
when of spontaneous growth, are sometimes black. The 
largest, heads which are employed for medical or domestic 
use, are obtained from the single flowered kind, not only 
for the purpose of extracting opium, but also on account of 
the bland, esculent oil that is expressed from the seeds, 
which are simply emulsive, and contain none of the nar- 
cotic principle. For the latter purpose, if no other, its 
culture in this country is worthy of attention. Certainly, 
it is an object worthy of public encouragement, as the 
annual amount of opium imported into the United States 
is valued at upward of $407, 000." If this was true some 
years since, how much more essential to us is its produc- 
tion now (1862), when gum opium and morphine are so 
very difficult to obtain. Occupied in researches upon these 
subjects during the month of June, under the order of 
the Surgeon-General,- 'I was enabled to collect, in a few 



26 

days, more than an ounce of gum opium, apparently of 
very excellent quality, having all the smell and taste of 
opium (which I have administered to the sick), from speci- 
mens of the red poppy found growing in a garden near 
Stateburgh, S. C. I have little doubt that all we- require 
could be gathered by ladies and children within the Con- 
federate States, if only the slightest attention was paid to 
cultivating the plants in our gardens. It thrives well, and 
bears abundantly. It is not generally known that the gum 
which hardens after incising the capsules is then ready for 
use, and may be prescribed as gum opium, or laudanum 
and paregoric may be made from it, with alcohol or whisky. 
The poppy, it is said, produces better when planted in 
the fall. 

I quote the following from paper cited above : 
The successful cultivation of the plant, however, requires 
the provision of good soil, appropriate manure, and careful 
management, The strength of the juice, according to Dr. 
Butler, of British India, depends much upon the quantity 
of moisture of the climate. A deficiency even of dew pre- 
vents the proper flow of the peculiar, narcotic, milky juice 
which abounds in every part of the plant, while an excess, 
besides washing off this milk, causes additional mischief 
by separating the soluble from the insoluble parts of this 
drug. This not only deteriorates its quality, but increases 
the quantity of moisture, which must afterward be got rid 
of. The history of the poppy, as well as that of opium — its 
inspissated juice— are but imperfectly known. The oldest 
notices of this plant are found in the works of the early 
Greek physicians, in which mention is also made of the 
juice ; but opium does not appear to have been so generally 
employed as in modern times, as the notices respecting it 
would have been numerous and clear. In the manufacture 
of opium in Persia or India, the juice is partially extracted, 
together with a considerable quantity of mucilage, by de- 
coction. The liquor is strongly pressed out, suffered to 
settle, clarified with the whites of eggs, and evaporated to 
a due consistence — yielding a fifth of the weight of the 



27 

heads of extract, which possesses the virtues of opium in a 
very inferior degree, and is often employed to adulterate 
the genuine opium. The heads of the poppies are gathered 
as they ripen ; and, as this happens at different periods, 
there are usually three or four gatherings in a year. The 
milky juice of the poppy in its more perfect state, which is 
the case only in warm climates, is extracted by incisions 
made in the capsules, and simply evaporated into the con- 
sistence in which it is known to commerce under the name 
of opium. 

In Turkey, the plants during their growth are carefully 
watered, and manured if necessary ; the watering being- 
more profuse as the period of flowering approaches, and 
until the heads are half grown, when the operation is dis- 
continued, and the collection of the opium commences. 
At sunset longitudinal incisions are made upon each half- 
ripe capsule, not sufficiently deep to penetrate the internal 
cavity. The night dews favor the exudation of the juice, 
which is collected in the morning by scraping it from the 
wounds with a small iron scoop, and depositing the whole 
in an earthen pot, where it is worked in the sunshine with 
a wooden spatula, until it acquires a considerable degree 
of thickness. It is then formed into cakes by the hands, 
and placed in earthen pans to be further exsiccated, when 
it is covered with the leaves of the poppy, tobacco, or some 
other plant. 

In obtaining gum opium, the capsules are cut longitu- 
dinally only through the skin, though some advise that it 
should be done from below upward. I find longitudinal 
incisions the most economical. This is generally done late 
in the afternoon, the hardened gum being scraped off early 
next morning. Boys or girls can easily attend to this. If 
the capsules are cut only on one side, the same operation 
may be repeated on the other side, and a fresh supply of 
opium obtained. A knife with three or four edges, cutting* 
about the twelfth or fourteenth part of an inch, is some- 
times used. If the incision is too deep the juice passes 
within the poppy head. 



28 

Prof. Alston, of Edinburgh, long ago, says' Thornton, 
ascertained that opium of good quality could be obtained 
in Great Britain, "having all the color, consistence, taste, 
smell, faculties, phenomena," etc., of opium. It has been 
calculated by Mr. Ball that more than fifty pounds of opium 
may be collected from one statute acre. Mr. Jones, in 
1794, in the county of Middlesex, England, presented 
twenty-five pounds of opium to the Society of Arts, made 
by himself, which was ascertained, by chemical examina- 
tion, to be equal to the imported drug. The reader inter- 
ested in the culture of the poppy, can find in Thornton's 
New Family Herbal, p. 516, a pretty full statement of the 
method of culture, the collection of the gum, etc., employed 
by Mr. Jones. In Love's report to the Society, he says : 
"Having a tap root, their size will, consequently, be pro- 
portioned to the depth of earth they are enabled to pene- 
trate. Hence the necessity of land that will admit of deep 
ploughing. The fineness of the surface, too, is very essen- 
tial. As the seed is small, and the plants on their first 
coming up so exceedingly tender, the bush harrow should 
always be used after those which are commonly employed." 
They should be so cultivated that the gatherer may not 
disturb the plants in collecting the juice. Mr. Jones is 
also in favor of autumnal sowing, planting in the month of 
September, by which means the plants attain sufiicient size 
to endure the cold of winter ; these were also found to 
produce more opium than those planted in March. The 
scarifications are described, Thornton's Herbal, 517, but 
any one can devise a knife for the purpose. 

Argemone Mexicana, Linn. D. C. Prodrom. Devil's fig; 
prickly poppy ; Mexican poppj r ; thorn apple ; yellow this- 
tle. Charleston district, grows around buildings in rich 
spots; vicinity of Charleston; JSTewbern. Fl. July. 

Mer. aud de L. Diet. Univ. de M. Med. i, 395 ; Journal de 
Pharmacie xiv, 73 ; Bull. des. Sci. Med. de Fer. viii, 210 ; 
De Cand. Essai, 116. The oil is said by some to be as 
active as that of the Croton tiglium ; see the Supp. to Mer.' 



29 

and de L. 1846, 57. In Brazil, the leaves are employed as 
a cataplasm for driving off ulcers. The infusion is used in 
Mexico for its marked sudorific powers ; the juice is found 
serviceable in chronic maladies of the skin. In Java, they 
employ it in inveterate cutaneous diseases, and as a caustic 
in chancres. Lind., in his Kat. Syst. Bot. 8, says that the 
seeds are narcotic, and are smoked with tobacco ; Garden- 
er's Mag. vi, 315. It is administered in the West Indies as 
a substitute for. ipecacuanha, and the juice of the plant is 
considered by the native doctors of India as a valuable 
remedy in ophthalmia, either dropped in the eye or rubbed 
on the tarsus ; it is also considered purgative and deobstru- 
ent. Ainslie, M. Med. Ind. 243 ; Prince Maximil. Travels, 
214; Aublet, Hist. Guiaue. Merat, in the Supplem. 1846, 
says that, in Brazil, in the Isle of France, and in India, the 
oil is regarded as a purgative, not unlike castor oil, but 
more active — not, however, being attended with griping ; 
thirty drops were found equivalent to one ounce of castor 
oil. They applied it in tinea capitis, and as an external ap- 
plication in headache occasioned by exposure to the rays of 
the sun. See Dr. Schort's examination of it. Dr. Muddie 
asserts that it induces anodyne effects; so much so, as to 
relieve, in an instant, the pains of colic. Med. Bot, Soc. 
London, 1830 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 129. The plant abounds 
in a viscid, milky, acid juice, which, exposed to the air, 
becomes yellow, resembling gamboge. The flowers are 
said by De Candolle, Essai, 14, to be employed in Mexico 
as a hypnotic. A thorough examination of this plant 
might, well repay the labor bestowed upon it. It is, ap- 
parently, native in South Florida. Chapman. "Its seeds 
are said to yield a narcotic substance as powerful as opium. 
A milky, glutinous juice flows from the whole plant; turns 
by exposure to the air into a fine bright yellow; and when 
reduced to the consistence of a firm gum, is not distin- 
guishable from gamboge, and has, we believe, been brought 
into the market under the name of that drug. It has sim- 
ilar properties to gamboge, both as a medicine and as a 
pigment; and it has been administered in very small doses 



30 

in cases of dropsy, jaundice, cutaneous eruption, and some 
other diseases." Wilson, Rural Cyc. 

I collected a large number of the seeds of this plant near 
Charleston, and experimented with the oil and tincture, 
but with no definite results. A long paper on the medical 
properties of the argemone can be found in the Charleston 
Medical Journal, among the extracts. I cannot, at present, 
cite the volume, but it was during the editorial manage- 
ment of Dr. Cain and myself. The tincture was particu- 
larly recommended for the relief of colic and pain. 

Sanguinaria Canadensis, Linn. Ell. Sk. Puccoon; blood- 
root. Diffused; vicinity of Charleston, Abbeville, Rich- 
laud, and Fairfield districts; collected in St. John's. El. 
March. 

Drayton's View of S. C. 72; Bell's Pract. Diet. 404; 
Eberie, Mat. Med. 95; Lind. Nat. Syst. 8; TL S. Disp. 627; 
Royle, Mat. Med. 273; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 722; 
London Med. Chirurg. Trans, vol. i; Bart. M. Bot. i, 30; 
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, ii, 250; New York 
Med. and Phys. Journal, i, No. 2; Am. Journal Med. Sci. 
N. S. ii, 506 ; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. iii, 95 ; Ball and 
Gar. Mat. Med. 208 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 75 ; Schoepf, 
Mat. Med. 85; Barton's Collec. 28; Trans. Lond. Med. 
Soc. i, 179; Thacher's Disp. 331 ; Cutler, Mem. Am. Acad. 
i, 455 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 208 ; Bull, des 
Sci. Med. Fer. vi, 71 ; Edinb. Med. Journal, vii, 217 ; Shec. 
Flora Carol. 153 ; Carson's Illust. Med. Bot. i, 18, 1847. 
The root is narcotic, emetic, and purgative in large doses; 
stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, and tonic in small. 
Dr. Dana found a peculiar principle in it, called sangui- 
narina (Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York). According 
to the experiments of Dr. Donney, of Maryland, in his 
inaugural thesis, twenty-grain doses of the root induced 
nausea and vomiting, attended with heat of stomach, accel- 
eration of pulse, and sometimes slight headache; the leaves 
are said to be endued with similar powers. "The seeds 
exert a marked influence on the nervous system, occasion- 



31 

ing torpor, languor, disordered vision, and dilatation of 
pupil." Dr. Bard, of ]STew York, confirms this in his In- 
aug. Diss. It is an acrid narcotic, producing vomiting, and 
given in all diseases of the raucous membranes; employed 
in catarrh, typhoid pneumonia, croup, hooping-cough, and 
in arresting the progress of phthisis, and also in in- 
flammatory rheumatism and jaundice. It was known to 
Schoepf ; and Merat states that it was serviceable in 
gonorrhoea. Dr. Israel Allen, of New York, says it acts 
with all the good effects of digitalis, in affections of the 
lungs — the infusion being preferred in these, as the tincture 
does not afford the active principle sufficiently strong; he 
adds, also, that it powerfully promotes diaphoresis in in- 
flammatorv rheumatism. Bigelow mentions it as an acrid 
narcotic, in small doses lessening the frequency of the 
pulse, somewhat analogous in its operation to that of 
digitalis — this, however, being its secondary effect. In still 
smaller doses, it is a stimulating tonic. The powdered 
root, snuffed up the nose, is powerfully sternutatory; it is 
applied as an escharotic to fungous flesh; and several 
polypi, of the soft kind, were cured by it in the hands 
of Dr. Smith, of Hanover. Dr. Shanks, of Tennessee, also 
destroyed a gelatinous polypus with sanguinaria, after ex- 
traction had twice failed. Am. Journal Med. Sci. Oct. 
1842. The decoction has also been used as a wash to 
ill-conditioned ulcers. Dr. McBride employed this plant to 
some extent, in his practice in St. John's, Berkley, S. C, in 
jaundice, in doses of two to six grains of the root. He did 
not trust to it exclusively, but found it most effectual in 
those cases characterized by torpor of the liver, attended 
with colic and yellowness of the skin. See his letter to 
Dr. Bigelow\ He gave, too, with success, in hydrothorax, 
the tincture in doses of sixty drops, three times a day, 
increased until nausea followed its employment. Eberle, 
in his w T ork on Diseases of Children, p. 97, says that the 
powdered root is an excellent escharotic in ulceration of 
the umbilicus. Griffith's Med. Bot. 127. It is observed 
by some that the seeds are more narcotic than the root, 



32 

inducing symptoms resembling those produced by stramo- 
nium. The dose of powder as an emetic, x-xx grs. ; as 
a stimulating expectorant, iii-v grs.; or an infusion of 
one-half ounce Of the root to one pint of water — dose, a 
tablespoonful ; of the tincture, it is one-half a drachm; a 
larger quantity acts as an emetic. The tincture is made' 
by adding two ounces of the bruised root to one pint of 
alcohol. Macerate fourteen days. It is expectorant and 
alterative. Dr. Donney says the leaves are administered 
in veterinary practice in Maryland, to produce sweating, 
and to facilitate the shedding of hair in the spring. Dr. 
Griffith is convinced of its efficacy in this respect, and 
he has also given the fresh root mixed with the food, at 
intervals, to destroy bots in horses — one or two roots prov- 
ing sufficient. In a communication from Dr. Branch, of 
Abbeville district, S. C, he informs me that he has for 
many years employed the decoction of the root in croup; 
he prefers it to any other single remedy; and, by persisting 
in it till emesis is produced, he is of the opinion that it 
prevents the formation of the diptheritic membrane. From 
his own experience, he considers it a specific in the early 
stages of the disease, preferring, for infants, the infusion to 
the tincture, as the difficulty of exciting vomiting frequent- 
ly renders it necessary to give more of the alcohol than 
would be prudent. He finds it convenient, when called 
to a case of croup, to add to thirty grains of the powdered, 
or bruised root, a teacupful of boiling water, allowing it to 
steep for ten or fifteen minutes over the fire, when it may 
be given in teaspoonful doses, frequently repeated, until 
vomiting is induced; if the patient is relieved, continue it 
in doses short of the emetic point, every hour or two, 
increasing it in frequency and amount should the symp- 
toms require it. Dr. B. is of the opinion that it owes its 
value to three qualities combined: an acrid, an emetic, 
and a deobstruent property — the latter acting on the glan- 
dular system. It possesses, also, the peculiar advantage of 
not producing bad efiects by accumulation ; a teacupful not 
debilitating any more than a smaller quantity, and neither 



inducing prostration, .which, in the disease in question, is 
an important consideration. If the patient's skin is hot 
and dry, the addition of a few grains of ipecacuanha is 
advised. The experience of Dr. Branch corroborates that 
of others respecting the value of the tincture, in doses of 
ten to fifteen drops, given three or four times a day, as an 
expectorant in chronic cough. In emetic doses, it proves 
a useful promoter of expectoration in pneumonia. The 
decoction of the root, taken in small doses, may be used 
wherever a nauseaut and expectorant is required, and will 
aid in preventing the advance of colds, croup, pneumonia, 
etc. The juice of the root was used by the Indians as a 
red pigment, and it has been applied to the arts. Dr. 
Donney says that the sulph. of alumina will partially fix 
the color in woollen stuffs, and the murio. sulph. of lead in 
cotton and linen. The stain, applied to the unbroken skin, 
is not indelible. Lawson, in his account of Carolina, says, 
that the Puccoon is Batschia canescens (Lithospermum canes- 
cens), growing in upper districts. See Pivrsh's Flora and 
Croom's Catalogue. 

The above was contained in my report on Med. Botany 
of S. C, published in 1849. Since that period, I have used 
the tinct. of sanguinaria largely during five years attend- 
ance upon the Marine Hospital, and in private practice. I 
employ no vegetable substance so constantly, as an addition 
to cough mixtures, and as an alterative and tonic, when I 
think the functions of the liver not sufficiently active. We 
must avoid adding too much of the tincture to any mix- 
ture, lest it convert it into a nauseaut or emetic. Without 
being able to state precisely why, I can only say that it has 
proved a highly satisfactory agent in my hands as a tonic, 
alterative, and expectorant. Though paying some atten- 
tion to 'medicinal plants, I use habitually very few of them, 
viz: the sanguinaria, hoarhound, blackberry root, and a 
few others. My endeavor is not so much to avoid a great 
multiplicity of agents, as to do no injury with any. The 
more full and accurate our knowledge, the more skilful is 



34 

our application, whether the substances used be vegetable 
or mineral. 

Fumaria officinalis, Linn. Hook. Fl. Bo., Fumitory. Natu- 
ral, says Elliott, on John's island, and at Mr. Middleton's 
on Ashley river. 

This plant received great attention in former times, and 
was almost universally employed. Pliny speaks of it, lib. 
25, c. 13. According to Hoffman and Boerhaave, the juice 
taken in large doses is diuretic and laxative. Great confi- 
dence was placed in its virtues by Cullen. Mat. Med. ii, 77. 
In the Deni. Elem. de Bot., it is referred to as a diuretic 
and detersive aperient, employed as a purifier of the blood 
in scrofulous and cutaneous diseases. It was administered 
in amenorrhoea, loss of appetite, and hypochondriacal affec- 
tions ; Fl. Scotica, 379. Boerhaave frequently prescribed 
it in jaundice and bilious colics. Thornton, in his Fam. 
Herb. 628, asserts that he had experienced its value in 
cutaneous diseases. Its acrimonious property is volatile ; 
hence, it should be given in whey. Mer. and de L. Diet. 
de M. Med. iii, 310; Fl. Med. iv, 153. "A marked bitter, 
which increases on being dried." A popular depurative 
remedy, which augments the action of the organs, and 
therefore useful in the diseases specified. Merat says, it 
was very generally allowed to be a specific in elephantiasis, 
acting without any evacuation or appreciable effect. Bar- 
bier, M. Med. 381 ; IT. S. Disp. 1254. An extract of the 
expressed juice, or a decoction, throws out upon its surface 
a copious saline efflorescence. "The plant indeed abounds 
in saline substances." Griffith, Med. Bot. 118. It is still 
employed in France ; given in the form of decoction, ex- 
tract, s\ T rup, or expressed juice. 

In observing the enormous amount of potash said by Ure 
to exist in the ashes of this plant (fourth London edition, 
1853), I can now well understand some of the statements 
made above, which I had published several years siuce in 
my report to the American Medical Association. It is 



35 

another evidence of the light thrown upon any subject by 
facts gathered from different sources and by independent 
inquirers. See article "Potash." Wormwood, artemisia, 
tobacco, corn and rice stalks, etc., contain potash in large 
proportion. The two first mentioned in enormous amount 
relatively. 

Nymph^aceje. [The Water Lily Tribe.) 

This order is generally considered antaphrodisiac, seda- 
tive, and narcotic. Their stems are bitter and astringent; 
they contain a considerable quantity of fecula, and, after 
repeated washings, are capable of being used for food. 

Nyynphcea odorata, Ait. Kew. and Ph. Sweet-scented 
water-lily ; pond-lily. Diffused in lower country of South 
Carolina ; roots immersed. Newbern. Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 1280; Mat. Veg. Pract. 201; Thompson's 
Steam Pract. Big. Am. Med. Bot. 132 ; Cutler, Am. Trans. 
i, 456. "An antaphrodisiac." The root possesses a high 
degree of astringency, containing, according to Dr. Bige- 
low, tannin and gallic acid. It is a popular remedy in 
bowel complaints ; and is used as an astringent in gleet, 
fluor albus, etc. It also forms an excellent demulcent 
poultice for ulcers. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 
643 ; Bull. des. Sci. Med. iii, 74. Ainslie, in his Mat. Med. 
Ind. ii, 381, says that, in India, the} 7 prepare with it a re- 
freshing liniment for the head. Thompson employed this 
plant in the steam practice, and Matson recommends it as 
a gargle in sore throats. 

Cephalotace^;. 

We insert this order, the properties of which are un- 
known, merely to introduce the non-medicinal, but very 
remarkable plant, the 

DioiKEa muscijmla, Ellis, L. Venus fly-trap. Gen. C. C. 
Pinckney informed Mr. Elliott of the only locality of this 



30 

interesting plant in this state, viz. : on the margin of the 
Santee river, between Lynch's ferry and the sea, particu- 
larly at Collins' and Bowman's bridges. ISTewbern. Fl. 
May. Its leaves possess great sensibility, and are prehen- 
sile: closing up and confining insects and any foreign body 
which comes in contact with it. See Curtis, in Bost. Journal 
Nat. Hist, i, p. 123, the article "Sarracenia" infra, and 
authors passim. " Miraculum naturae ! folia triloba, radi- 
calia, ciliata, sensibilia, couduplicanda, insecta incarceranda. 
Ellis, Epist. ad Linnmtm. Groom's Cat. 

Magistoltace^e. (The Magnolia Tribe.) 

This order is characterized by the possession of a bitter 
tonic taste, and fragrant flowers ; the latter generally pro- 
ducing a decided action upon the nerves. 

Magnolia glauca, L. Bay; beaver tree; swamp-laurel. 
Diffused in damp pine lands. Charleston; Newbern. Fl. 
June. 

Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 67 ; Bart, i, 77 ; U. 8. Disp. 442 ; 
Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 733 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 248; Ball and 
Gar. 189 ; Michaux, X. Am. Sylvia, ii, 8 ; Kalm's Travels, 
i, 205 ; Humphries, Med. Comment, xviii ; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. iv, 193; Marshall's Arbust. 83; Bart. 
Mat. Med. 46 ; Price, Inaug. Diss. Phil. 1812 ; Lind. Nat. 
Syst. 18 ; Am. Herbal, 200 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 97. It is 
a stimulant, aromatic tonic, with considerable diaphoretic 
powers. The leaves, steeped in brandy, or a decoction of 
them, are valuable in pectoral affections, recent cold, etc. 
The tincture, made by macerating the fresh cones and 
seeds, or bark of root, in brandy, which best extracts its 
virtues, is much used as a popular remedy in rheumatism ; 
and, according to Barton, in inflammatory gout. Lindley 
refers to it as a valuable tonic, but it is said to be destitute 
of tannin or gallic acid. The bark of the root, according 
to Griffith, was employed by Indians to fulfil a variety 
of indications; the warm decoction acts as a gentle laxa- 



87 

tive, and subsequently as a sudorific, whilst the cold decoc- 
tion, powder of, or tincture, is tonic. These have proved 
very beneficial in the hands of regular practitioners in the 
treatment of remittents of a typhoid character. It is sup- 
posed by many residing in the lower portions of this state 
that this tree prevents the water of bogs and galls from 
generating malaria. It certainly seems that the water is 
much clearer in which the ba} 7 tree grows.* 

* In that old work on Herbs, entitled the "English Physician," by Nicholas 
Culpepper, gentleman, "Student in Physic and Astrology," we have met with a 
great deal concerning the employment of herbs in medicine ; but, from the absence 
of botanical terms, it is impossible to ascertain, in many cases, what species are 
intended. In order to show the surprisingly superstitious credence then attached 
to the influence of astrology, iu determining the virtues of, and the times proper 
for gathering plants, and also the diversity of qualities attributed to them, we will 
extract a portion of what Culpepper says of the "Bay Tree." "Government and 
Virtues. — That it is a Tree of the Sun, and under the celestial Sign Leo, and re- 
sisteth Witchcraft very potently, as also all the Evils old Saturn can do to the Body 
of Man, and they are not a few; for it is the Speech of one, and I am mistaken if 
it were not Mezaldus, that neither Witch nor Devil, Thunder nor Lightning, will 
hurt a Man in the Place where a Bay Tree is. Galen said that the Leaves or Bark 
do dry and heal very much, and the Berries more than the Leaves ; the Bark of 
the Root is less sharp and hot, but more bitter, and hath some Astriction withal, 
whereby it is effectual to break the Stone, and good to open Obstructions of the 
Liver, Spleen, and other inward Parts, which bring the Dropsy, Jaundice, etc. 
The Berries are very effectual against all poison of venomous Creatures, and the 
Sting of Wasps and Bees, as also against the Pestilence, and other infectious Dis- 
eases, and therefore put into sundry Treacles for the purpose. They, likewise, 
procure Women's Courses, and seven of them given to a Woman in Sore Travel of 
Child-birth do cause a speedy Delivery, and expel the after-birth, and therefore are 
not to be taken by such as have not gone their Time, lest they procure Abortion, or 
cause Labour too soon. They wonderfully help all cold and rheumatic Distilla- 
tions from the Brain to the Eyes. Lungs, or other Parts, and being made into an 
Electuary with Honey, do help the Consumption, Old Coughs, Shortness of Breath, 
and thin Rheums, as also the Megrim. They mightily expel the Wind, and pro- 
voke Urines, help the Mother, and kill the Worms. The Leaves also work the like 
Effects; a Bath of the Decoction of the Leaves and Berries is singularly good for 
Women to sit in that arte troubled with the Mother, or the Diseases thereof, or the 
stoppings of their Courses, or for the Diseases of the Bladder, Pains in the Bowels 
by Wind, and stopping of Urine ; a Decoction, etc., settleth the Palate of the 
Mouth in its Place. The Oil made of the Berries is very comfortable. All Cold 
Griefs of the Joints, Nerves, Arteries, Stomach, Belly, or Womb, and helpeth Pal- 
sies, Convulsions, Cramps, Aches, Tremblings, and Numbness in any Part, Weari- 
ness also, and Pains that come by Sore Travelling. * * * * Pains in the 
Ears are also cured by dropping in some of the Oil, or by receiving into the Ears 
the Fume of the Decoction of the Berries through a Funnel. It takes away the 
Marks of Bruises ; it helpeth also the Itch, Scabs, and Weals in the Skin," etc. 



. 38 

Magnolia grandiflora, L. Magnolia. This magnificent tree 
grows abundantly along the sea-coast, and in the streets of 
Charleston. Found sparingly in St. .John's, Berkley, forty- 
five miles from the ocean; grows in Georgia also. FL 
May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 193 ; Pe. Mat. Med. 
and Therap. ii, 734 ; U. S. Disp. 444. The medicinal and 
chemical properties of these plants are supposed .to be iden- 
tical. See M. glauca. Mr. Proctor, in his analysis, Am. 
Journal Pharm. xiv, 95, and viii, 85, found in this species 
volatile oil, resin, and a crystallizable principle analogous 
to the liriodendrine of Prof. Emmet, obtained from the L. 
tulipifera growing in this state (vide L. tulip.) Merat says 
that in Mexico the seeds are employed with success in 
paralysis. Loc. sit. sup. 

Magnolia acuminata, Linn. Mich. Cucumber tree. Moun- 
tainous districts ; grows in Georgia also. Fl. July. 

IT. S. Disp. 443 ; Mx. X. Am. Sylvia, ii, 12 ; Lind. STat. 
Syst. 16. Lindley speaks particularly of the cones of this 
species being employed in the form of a spirituous tincture 
in rheumatic affections. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
iv, 193 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 98. Used as a prophylactic in 
autumnal fevers. 

The wood is soft, fine grained, and susceptible of a bril- 
liant polish. It is sometimes sawed into boards, and used 
in the interior of wooden houses. 

The flowers of most magnolias exhale a strong aromatic 
fragrance ; the bark of all possesses a combination of bitter 
and hotly aromatic properties, without astringency, and 
that of many acts as a powerful medicine, in a similar way 
to Peruvian bark and Winter's bark. Wilson's Rural Cyc. 

Magnolia umbrella. Lam. ^ LTmbrella tree. 

" tripetala, Linn, and Ell. Sk. j Rare. Grows on 
the sea-coast in rich soils ; ISTewbern. Fl. June. 

U. S. Disp. 443. It has a warm, aromatic odor, and is 
possessed of similar properties with the above. Mx. IS". 



39 

Am. Sylvia, ii, 19; Lind. Nat. Syst. 16. According to Be 
Cand. and Merat, Diet, de M. Med. iv, 193, it acts so pow- 
erfully on the nerves as to induce sickness and headache. 

Magnolia macrophylla. Mx. and Ell. Sk. Grows on the 
mountains of South Carolina. It possesses the most mag- 
nificent foliage and flowers of any of our forest trees ; the 
former are a foot or two in length ; and the latter one foot 
in diameter. For its medicinal properties, see M. glauca. 
See, also, Griffith's Med. Bot. 98, and Ell. Sk. of Bot. of 
S. C. 

Illicium Floridanum and panrifiorum. Anise seed tree. 
These plants have the smell of anise seed, and should be 
examined. 

Liriodendron luUpifera, L. Tulip tree; white wood; pop- 
lar. Grows in swamps ; diffused. Collected in St. John's, 
Charleston district ; Columbia; Newbern. El. June. 

Eberle, Mat. Med, ii, 308; U. S. Disp. 432; Rush, in 
Trans. Phil. Coll. Phy. 1798; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 743; 
younger Michaux on Eorest Trees of N. America ; Clay- 
ton, Phil. Trans. 8 ; Carey's Am. Museum, 12 ; Barton's 
Collec. Form. Mat. Med. 14; Thacher's U. S. Disp.; Big. 
Am. Med. Bot. ii, 107; Barton, i, 92; Ball. Gar. Mat. Med. 
190 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 130 ; Annal. de 
Chimie, lxxx, 215; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot.; Rogers' Inaug. 
Diss. 1802. This plant is tonic, diuretic, and diaphoretic, 
and is generally considered one of the most valuable of the 
substitutes for Peruvian bark. It has been employed as a 
warm sudorific in the treatment of chronic rheumatism and 
gout; and Bigelow thinks it valuable as a stomachic. It 
was administered by Dr. Young and himself, combined 
with laudanum, in hysteria, and the former says that in all 
the materia medica he does not know of a more certain, 
speedy, and effectual remedy for that disease. See his let- 
ter to Governor Clayton. " He has never known it to fail 
in a single case of worms." Am. Museum, xii; Griffith, 



40 

Med. Bot, 98. "Rafinesque says the seeds are laxative, and 
the leaves are used as an external application for headache; 
they are washed and applied to the forehead. Merat states 
that it is useful in phthisis, and he also refers to its vermi- 
fuge properties ; employed in relaxed states of the stomach 
[reldchcmens) and in the advanced stages of dj 7 sentery; this 
is corroborated by Thacher, Anc. Journal de Med. lxx, 530; 
J. C. Mayer, Mem. on L. tulipifera, in the Mem de l'Acad. 
de Berlin, 1796 ; Ruch. Mem. sur le tulipier, Tilloch's 
Magazine; Hildebrande, Essai sur un nouveau succedane 
du quinquina in Ann. de Chim. lxvi, 201 ; Carminati sur 
les proprieties medicinales de l'ecorce de tulipier. Its analy- 
sis, etc., in the Mem. of Roy. Inst. Lombard}-, iii, 4; in the 
Supplem. to Mer. Diet. 1846,436. M. Bouchardat advises, 
as the most preferable mode of exhibiting it in fevers, the 
wine of the tulip, made with the bark in equal parts of 
alcohol, to which he adds of white wine seven or eight 
times the amount of the alcoholic infusion. Bull, de 
Therap. xix, 246; S. Cubiere's Hist. Tulip. Paris, 1800; see 
Tract, of Bouchardat in Ann. de Therap. 75, 1841. Dr. 
J. P. Emmet, in his Analysis in the Phil. Journal Pharm. 
iii, 5, announced the discovery of a new principle in it — the 
liriodendrine. This is solid, brittle, and inodorous at 40°, 
fusible at 180°, and volatile at 270°. It is soluble in alco- 
hol, thought to be analogous to camphor, and to the princi- 
ple found in the magnolia grandiilora, and to consist of a 
resin and a volatile oil; hence the alcoholic tincture is pref- 
erable. The powdered bark in syrup is given to children 
who are liable to convulsions from worms, to promote their 
expulsion, and to strengthen the tone of the digestive 
organs. The bark should be pulverized and bottled. We 
have employed a strong infusion of the bark and root of 
this plant as an anti-intermittent, among a number of 
negroes, and are much pleased with its efficacy. See the 
Podophyllum peltatum, in conjunction with which it was 
usually given. In Virginia, the decoction of the bark, with 
that of the Cornus Florida (dogwood) and the Prinos ver- 
ticillatus, is given to horses affected with the bots. The 



41 

poplar bark powdered is a valuable remedy as a tonic for 
horses. An infusion may be given to a horse, or the bark 
placed in his trough to be chewed. It gives tone to the 
digestive organs when they are " off their feed," in veter- 
inary or jockey parlance. This tree I notice in unusual 
abundance along the line of railroad from Kingsville to 
Columbia, S. C; also in Spartanburg district, S. C, on the 
banks of streams. Dose of bark xx-xxx grs. It is a 
stimulant tonic, slightly diaphoretic. The infusion or 
decoction is made in the proportion of an ounce to a pint 
of water; dose one or two fluid ounces. Dose of the satu- 
rated tincture a fluid drachm. The wood is durable when 
not exposed to the weather — it is smooth, line grained, and 
flexible; employed for various mechanical purposes — for 
carving and ornamental work ; for making carriage and 
door panels, chairs, cabinets, etc. Mx. Forest Trees of 
America. 

ANONACEiE. {The Papain Tribe.) 

The plants of this order generally possess a powerful 
aromatic taste and smell in all the parts. 

Uvaria triloba, T. and Gray. ) Papaw ; custard apple. 

Anona " Linn. > Grows in rich soils along 

Asimina " Ell. Sk. ) streams. We have observed 

it in Fairfield and Spartanburg districts, S. C, and collected 
it in St. John's; Mr. Elliott says it is found at Beck's 
ferry, Savannah river. Fl. May. 

Diet, de Mat. Med. par Mer. and de L. torn, i, 311. The 
rind of the fruit of the A. triloba of Linn, possesses a very 
active acid ; pulp sometimes employed as a topical applica- 
tion in ulcers. Lind. JSTat. Syst. Bot. 69. "Juice of unripe 
fruit is a powerful and efficient vermifuge ; the powder of 
the seeds answers the same purpose ; a principal constituent 
of the juice is fibrine — a product supposed peculiar to ani- 
mal substances and to fungi." "The tree has, moreover, 
the property of rendering the toughest animal substances 



42 

tender by causing a separation of the muscular fibre — its 
very vapor even does this; newly killed meat suspended 
over the leaves, and even old hogs and poultry, when fed 
on the leaves and fruit, become 'tender in a few hours !' ' 
Lind. loc. cit. .The sap (of Papaw tree, Ca.rica papaya), 
which is extracted from the fruit by incision, is white and 
excessively viscous. In a specimen from the Isle of France, 
Vauquelin found a matter having the chemical properties 
of animal albumen, aud lastly, fatty matter. Boussingault, 
This tree can be found in many parts of the state, and we 
would invite examination into these very curious properties. 
For an excellent description of the papaw, see Hooker in 
the Bot. Magazine, 898. At Pittsburgh, a spirituous licpior 
has been made from the fruit. Michaux notices that the 
cellular integument of the bark, and particularly that of the 
roots, exhales in summer a nauseous odor so strong as to 
occasion sickness if. respired in confined air. Am. Sylva. 

Umbellifer.s:. (The Umbelliferous Tribe.) 

This order is nearly related to the Ranunculacese, and is 
generally found in cold countries, and on the mountains of 
tropical regions. The plants belonging to it are often 
poisonous, some virulently so ; others are nutritive and 
wholesome ; of the former, the hemlock is an example ; of 
the latter, the celery and parsley. 

Hydrocot[ile umbellata, L. Grows in bogs and wet marshes ; 
collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; Xewbern. 
Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. torn, iii, 560. Employed 
with great efficacy in Brazil against hypochondriacism. 
According to one author, the root is so valuable in diseases 
of the kidney as not to be replaced by any other medicines. 
It is emetic, diuretic, and vulnerary. We see no mention 
of it in the English or American works. 

Sanicula Marylandica, L. Sanicle. Diffused; grows in 
shady spots; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Xewbern. Fl. Jul v. 



43 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 201. The Indians 
used it as we do sarsaparilla in syphilis, and also in diseases 
of the lungs. 

Eryngium aquaticum, L. (E. YiicccefoUum of Mx.) Button 
snakeroot. Damp pine lands ; diffused ; collected in St. 
John's; Charleston. Fl. July. 

Coxe, Am. Disp. 268 ; Ell. Bot. i, 343 ; Barton's Collec. 
i, 3 ; Frost's Elems. 280 ; U. S. Disp. 318 ; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. iii, 145; Shec. Flora Carol, art. Button 
snakeroot, 310, 545. The decoction is diaphoretic, expecto- 
rant, and sometimes emetic. Elliott says it is preferred by 
some physicians to the seneka snakeroot. Barton, in his 
Collections, states that it is allied to the contrayerva of the 
shops. This plant is possessed of undoubted diuretic pow- 
ers, and in combination with the Iris versicolor (blue flag). 
was much employed by Dr. McBride, of South Carolina, in 
dropsy. (See I, versic.) Great use is frequently made of 
them in popular practice. Shec. in his Flora Carol. 310, 
states that the decoction and tincture are given with benefit 
in pleurisies, colds, and most of the inflammatory diseases 
of the mucous passages. It is also said to act as an 
escharotic — keeping down fungus flesh, and preventing 
mortification. The root, when chewed, sensibly excites a 
flow of saliva. The E. aromaticum, an aromatic species, 
grows in East and South Florida. Baldwin in Chapman's 
Flora. The E. maratimam, of England, penetrates the 
soil to the depth of twenty teet. 

Eryngium fostidum, L. Fever weed. Elliott is doubtful 
whether this plant comes within the limits prescribed to 
us; it has, however, been noticed by writers as a S. C. 
species, and Michaux found it in Florida. T. and Gray are 
of the opinion that it is not a native of the United States. 
Vicinity of Charleston, Bachman ; Shec. Flora. Carol. 54. 
"An admirable febrifuge." Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iii, 145; Aublet, i, 284. liotboll says it is a sedative, 
alterative, and febrifuge. Sprengel, Hist, de la M6d. v, 



44 

467 ; Lind. Species, PI. 336. JSTot included in Chapman's 
Flora. 

Aconitum uncinatum, L. Aconite, monks-hood, wolfsbane. 
Shady banks of streams among the mountains of Confed- 
erate States, and northward. 

Most of the aconites, particularly those with blue flowers, 
are highly poisonous. This species should be carefully 
experimented with, as it may be made to supply the tinc- 
ture of aconite and aconita for medicinal and chemical 
purposes. The active principle is " the most virulent poi- 
son known, not excepting prussic acid, as prepared by 
Moison, of London. 1-50 of a grain has endangered life." 
Wilson's Rural Encyc. See also works on Materia Medica. 
" The 1-100 part of a grain has produced a feeling of 
numbness, weight, and constriction, which has lasted a 
whole day." The tincture of aconite is more manageable, 
and is useful as an external anaesthetic in frontal neuralgia, 
local pains, etc. No remedy, save chloroform, equals it 
when applied locally for the relief of pain. The tincture 
may be combined with oil and chloroform, as a liniment in 
rheumatism. 

Cieuta maculaia, L. Walt. FL, Carolina. Am. hemlock; 
snake-weed ; beaver poison. Grows in bogs and inundated 
land; collected in St. John's ; Charleston: JSTewbern. Fl. 
Aug. 

IT. S. Disp. 1242; Barton's Collec. 1846; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. ii, 282; Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, -125; 
Schcepf, M. Med. 36 ; Stockbridge, iST. England Journal, 
iii, 334 ; Mitchell, Ely, and Muhlenburg, Med. Repos. xvii, 
303 ; Stearns, Am. Herbal, 172. The leaves, flowers, and 
seeds are resolvent, powerfully narcotic, sedative, and ano- 
dyne. It resembles conium in its effects, and is used as a 
substitute for it. "It relieves pain from cancer more pow- 
erfully than opium ;" employed in ill-conditioned ulcers, 
gleets, painful uterine discharges, venereal ulcers, epilep- 
sies, and convulsions ; it promotes perspiration and urine, 



and, externally applied, discusses hard tumours. It is 
closely analogous to the European species, the C. virosa; 
Bigelow says identical with it. The dose of the leaves in 
powder is one to two grains three times a day, in infusion, 
or one grain of the extract, increasing it as the system 
becomes tolerant. This plant has repeatedly occasioned 
the death of those mistaking it for others. An active 
emetic, to which an infusion of galls may be added; will 
generally give relief. The vegetable acids, lemon juice, 
and vinegar, neutralize its effects ; and strong tea and cof- 
fee are the best antidotes for the stupor which follows its 
employment. 

Ajpium graveolens. Celery. Ex. cult. Milne, Ind. Bot. 
420. The fresh roots, observes Dr. Lewis, when produced 
in their native water soil, are supposed to partake of the 
ill quality of those of the hemlock kind, and to be particu- 
larly hurtful to epileptic and pregnant women. So that we 
have here a striking evidence of the excellence of the Nat. 
Syst., as it may be remembered that, in describing the 
characteristics of this order, this plant was alluded to as 
forming an exception. 

Ajpium jpetroselinum. Parsley. Ex. cult. Leaves aromatic 
and slightly diuretic. See authors. 

Discojpleura cajnllacea, D. C. and T. and Gray. ] Bishop's 
Ammi majus of Walter. j weed. 

Grows in damp soils. Fl. July. Shec. Flora Carol. 136. 

Slum nodijiorum, "Walt, and Ell. Sk. \ " Probably intro- 
Helosciadium of Koch. j duced ; abundant 

around Charleston." Ell. 

Thornton's Fam. Herbal, 297; Kay's Cat. Plantarum, 213; 
Diet, de M. Med. It is recommended in cutaneous erup- 
tions. Withering relates the case of a young lady, who 
was cured of a very obstinate attack by taking three large 
spoonfuls of the juice twice a day; "and I have repeated- 
ly seen," says Thornton, "two ounces administered every 



46 

morning;, with the greatest advantage." It is not nauseous, 
and children take it readily, mixed with milk. When it is 
prepared in this way it is not disagreeable, and does not 
affect the head, stomach, or bowels. IT. S. Disp. 1296. 
The juice has also been employed in scrofulous swellings 
of the lymphatic glands, and is considered' diuretic. Mer. 
and de L. Diet. 369 ; Bull, des Sc. M. de Ferus. xviii, 420 
and xx, 421. 

Faemeulum officinale. Fennel. Introduced from Europe; 
cultivated. 

Seeds of fennel are well known ; employed in flatulent 
colic for their carminative and stimulant properties. The 
oil of fennel is also used for the same purpose, and to cor- 
rect the taste of. medicine. See authors. 

Angelica lucida, Ell. Sk. ^ Angelica. We have collected 
Archartgeliea of some, /it in Fairfield district; also in 
upper St. John's, Charleston district. Fl. July. 

Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 469 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. 
Med. 276 ; Le. M. Med. i, 85 ; Woodv. Med. Bot. 86 ; U. 
S. Disp. 98 ; Journal de Pharm. 3e ser. 2 ; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. i, 296 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 167. The root 
is edible, and possesses more aroma than any of our indig- 
enous plants. It is used in spasmodic vomiting, flatulent 
colics, and nervous headaches * some say it is powerfully 
emmenagogue. The vittre of some species are filled with a 
pungent oil. A candy is sometimes prepared with the 
roots boiled in su^ar. The oreat fragrance of this root has 
caused it to be used for many purposes by the confectioner 
and. others; the tender stalks also are candied. The seeds 
are cordial, tonic, and carminative ; and the plant was in 
repute at one time as a preventive of pestilence to those 
who bore it about them. "The pulverized root, in doses of 
a drachm, is said to be very useful in pestilential fevers and 
diseases of the liver ; and a paste of its root and vinegar 
used to be carried and smelled at by physicians during the 
prevalence of epidemics, as a preventive of infection." 



47 

Wilson's Rural Cyc. " Angelica " is stated in some tables 
to yield more potash even than wormwood or fumitory. 
See " Chenopodiuvi " and "Fumaria" in this volume. 

Anethum fce?iiculnm, L. Dill. In trod. cult, in South 
Carolina. 

It is employed in flatulent colic as a carminative and an- 
tispasmodic. The oil has been given in hiccough. Milne, 
in his Ind. Bot. 404, says : " The herb, boiled in broth, has 
been used with great success in preventing obesity." See 
authors. 

Daueiis carota, Tourn. Carrot. Completely naturalized, 
says Elliott, in South Carolina and Georgia. Collected in 
,S't. John's; Charleston. Fl. April. 

Woodv. Med. Bot.; Royle, Mat. Med. 401. Root and 
seeds stimulant, carminative, and eminently diuretic ; em- 
ployed with great success in strangury, anasarcous swell- 
ings of lower extremities, in suppression of urine, and 
painful micturition. Eberle on Diseases of Children, 110 ; 
Am. Herbal, 92 ; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 298. * Dr. 
Chapman used a strong infusion in gravel. Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. 299 ; Flora Med. ii, 99 ; see Chemical 
Anal, by Bouillon Lagrange, in the Journal de Pharm. i, 
529. Britanet and himself wrote a book on the plant 
(which may be seen in the New York Hosp. Lib.) Root 
contains some volatile oil, a large proportion of pectin, a 
peculiar coloring principle called carotin, and sugar. Grif- 
fith, Med. Bot. 387. The authors alluded to above contend 
that the plant acts as a sedative, even topically applied. In 
the form of a poultice, it cairns pain, is antiseptic, and cor- 
rects the intolerable fetor arising from internal diseases — 
as of the ear, for example. Dr. Geo. Wilkes, ophthalmic 
surgeon, ISTew York, informs me that he finds it invaluable 
in this respect. Mem. de Museum, iv, 102 ; Suppl. to Mer. 
and de L. 1846 ; Vauquelin upon the Pectic Acid in the 
Root of the Carrot, Journal de Pharm. xv, 340. The 
essential oil is regarded as emmenagogue and antibysteric. 



48 

Ancien Journal de Med. xxiv, 68. In Germany, it is con- 
sidered vermifuge. Crantz, Mat. Med. i, 23. Shecut, in 
his Flora Carol., alludes to its employment in gravel, and 
in expelling a species of tape worm. A syrup similar to 
treacle has been obtained from it, and by distillation, a 
liquor nearly equal in flavor to brandy. Much use is made 
of this plant in popular practice as a diuretic. 

Daucus pusillus, Mx. Wild carrot. Grows on the Savan- 
nah river; collected in St. John's ; Charleston. Bach. 

Eberle, Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 318; Bell's Pract. Diet. 
162. Seeds contain more volatile oil than the other spe- 
cies. It, however, possesses nearly the same properties. 
Used as a diuretic in calculous diseases, suppression of 
urine, etc. 

Araliace^e. ( The Aralia Tribe.) 

Panax quutquefolium, L. Ginseng. Rich soils in the 
mountains of South Carolina. Fl. May. 

Am. Herbal, 157, by Stearns. In China they drink an 
infusion, of the root instead of tea, and it is well known 
that they have recourse to it as a last resort in all' diseases : 
Dr. James says, more especially in all cachectic and con- 
sumptive cases, and in those arising from debility of any 
kind. Dr. Healde also alludes to their great confidence in 
it as a restorative after great fatigue, as an antispasmodic 
in nervous affections, in coma, and as an aphrodisiac ; one 
hundred and twenty grains of the sliced root are boiled 
in a quart of water, and two ounces of the decoction, or 
twenty grains of the root in substance is employed. Jar- 
toux, in the Phil. Trans, xxviii, 239, states that, after 
being fatigued by travelling three days, he employed the 
decoction of the leaves internally, and as an application to 
the feet, and was satisfied of its utility, being completely 
revived by it. Dr. Wood, in the U. S. Disp. 530, says, it is 
very little more than a demulcent ; but Lindley, Nat. Syst. 
Bot. 25, thinks that there is no reasonable doubt of the 
ginseng having an invigorating and stimulant power, when 



49 

fresh. Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 82 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. iii, 356, and iv, 176; Flor. Med. iv, 185; Kaem- 
pher, Amoen. Academical, v, 218; Histoire du Japon, vij. 
218 ; Burmann, Flora Ind. tab. 29, i ; L'Encyelop. Chi- 
noise, lxcii ; Flora Cochine, 806; Lafitteau, Descrip. d\\ 
Ginseng, Paris, 1718, i, 12. Dr. Sarrazin introduced it 
into notice in Europe. Trans. Roy. Acad. Sci., Bartram 
Com. 61, 1741 ; J. P. Bregnius, Diss. Med. de Radice Ginr 
seng, 1700; Coxe, Am. Disp. 434. Cullen, in his Mat. 
Med. 270, refers to its efficacy in increasing virility. See 
Merat, loc. cit. "J'avoue qu'un Individ u qni en avait fait 
usage dans cet derniere intention, pendant long temps, n'en 
obtint absolument aucun resultat." S. Vaillant in Acad, 
des Sci. 1718; Bourdelin, Hist, de l'Acad. 1797; Lafitteau, 
Mem. concernant la precieuse plante de Ginseng, Paris, 
1788; Kalm. Travels, iii, 114; Osbeck's China, 145; Heb- 
erden, Med. Trans, iii, 34 ; Fothergill, Gent. Mag. xxiv,. 
209 ; loc. cit. sup. The root is thought to resemble liquor- 
ice, and may partially supply the place of that article: see 
report from Surgeon-General's office, 1862. 

Glycyrrhiza glabra ; liquorice. Exotic. I am uncertain 
as to the position of this genus in the natural system;. 
This plant is said to be well adapted to the southern states 
of the Confederacy. It has been grown in Texas. Infor- 
mation as to the best mode of planting and culture can be 
found in a paper in Patent Office Rep. 1854, p. 359. I ap- 
pend the following practical remarks: "The sooner liquor- 
ice is sold the heavier it weighs ; and the greener it is the 
more virtue it contains. It is sold in three distinct forms, 
viz: in the roots, in powder, and in its inspissated juice. 
The first of these needs no explanation. The second is 
prepared by cutting the small roots into small pieces, dry- 
ing them in an oven or kiln, and grinding them in a mill. 
The third kind is prepared by pounding the vsmaller roots 
and fragments with cold water for nearly two days ; after 
which the pulp is to be squeezed, and the juice boiled 
down in an iron pot to a pitchy consistence, and then rolled 
4 



50 

or stamped into sticks or cakes, which are sometimes sold 
under the name of 'Spanish Liquorice.' Liquorice roots 
will keep a year if laid in sand, and stored in a cool, dry 
cellar ; and if the sets, or runners, or buds, are cut readj'- 
for planting, tied in bundles, and sent by land carriage, 
they will keep a fortnight. If packed in sand, and sent by 
water, they will keep some three or four months, especially 
the more hardy buds." In the Patent Office Reports for 
1854, '55, the cultivation of a number of medicinal plants 
is described, particularly those yielding aromatic oils. 

Arcdia spinosa, L. Toothache bush ; Angelica tree ; 
Prickly ash. Collected in St. John's ; rich soils along 
fences; Charleston. Plant often confounded with the Xan- 
thoxylon ; properties somewhat similar. See X. fraxineum. 
Ell. Bot. 373 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 379 ; 
Coxe, Am. Disp. 100 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 191 ; Frost's 
Elems. 20 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 345. It is a stimulating and 
very certain diaphoretic, " probably to be preferred to any 
emetic yet discovered among our native plants." The 
infusion of bark of root is used in chronic rheumatism and 
cutaneous eruptions, also employed in lues venerea. Pursh 
states that a vinous or spirituous infusion of the berries is 
remarkable for its power in relieving rheumatic pains, and 
the tincture is also given in Virginia in violent colics. 
See Dr. Meara's experiments. Merat says, it has been 
used to allay pain caused by carious teeth. Dose, of the 
saturated tincture, a tablespoonful three times a day. A 
decoction is often preferred in rheumatism, made by boil- 
ing an ounce of the bark in a quart of water : taken in 
divided doses several times a day. In South Carolina, this 
plant is the rattlesnake's master par excellence, according 
to the negroes ; they rely on it almost exclusively as a 
remedy for the bite of serpents. I am informed that 
they use the bark of the fresh root in substance, taken 
internally, also applying it powdered to the wounded part. 
Dr. Meara advises that the watery infusion, when employed 
as a diaphoretic, should be made very weak, as it is apt to 
excite nausea, and cause irritation of the salivary glands. 



51 

Aralia racemosa, L. Spikenard. Grows, according to 
Dr. McBride, in the mountains of South Carolina. 

Ell. Bot. Med., note, i, 373. The decoction of the root 
is much esteemed by those residing in the mountainous 
districts as a remedy in rheumatism ; no doubt possessed of 
stimulating properties. Michaux cites it as a sudorific. 
The root, when boiled, yields a gummy substance. A tea, 
syrup, or tincture, may be made of. the roots or berries. 
It is given in coughs, asthma, and diseases of the lungs. 
Also given as a stimulant in menstrual obstructions; said 
to be in high repute among the Indians. See the "Indian 
Guide to Health." Dr. Sarazzin informs us that it is very 
useful as a cataplasm in inveterate ulcers ; generally 
adapted to similar purposes with the A. nudicaulis. Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 376; IT. S. Disp. ; Am. 
Journal Med. Sci. xix, 117. 

Aralia nudicaulis, Mx. Wild sarsaparilla ; wild liquorice. 
Mountains of South Carolina. Fl. June. 

Raf. Med. Flora, i, 53 ; II. S. Disp. 116. A gently stim- 
ulating diaphoretic ; thought to be alterative, and used in 
popular practice in rheumatism, syphilis, and cutaneous 
affections. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 375. Dr. 
Meara records the roots as possessing the virtues of sarsa- 
parilla. Mus. Med. Philos. iv. An excitant, diaphoretic, 
and entrophic, like mezereon, guaiac, sarsaparilla, and sas- 
safras. The infusion has been employed with success in 
zona, and as a tonic in debility of stomach [les reldchemens 
d'estoynac). Coxe, IT. S. Disp. 99 ; Lindley's Nat. Syst. ; 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 344; Phil. Med. Mus. ii, 161. Admin- 
istered in domestic practice, in pulmonary disease, where 
inflammation does not coexist. 

Berberace^e. ( The Berberry Tribe.) 

Berberis vulgaris, Walt. Fl. Carol. ) American Barberry. 
" Canadensis, Ph. and Ell. ) Grows wild in St. 
John's, Berkley, near Woodlawn, PL; upper districts of 
Georgia, Carolina, and northward. Fl. May. 



52 

Shec. Flora Carol, (see B. vulgaris), 268 ; Lind. Nat. 
Syst. Bot. 30; U. S. Disp. 1233, Appendix. The B. vul- 
garis of Europe, with which this plant is not identical, 
though differing from it but slightly, if at all, in medicinal 
properties, has received considerable attention. They are 
used as a domestic remedy in jaundice, and in dysentery 
and diarrhoea ; it is supposed that the acid is specific. 
From analysis by Buchner and Herberger, it is shown that 
the root contains a new principle called berberine, which 
acts like rhubarb, and with equal promptness and activity. 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 113 ; Journal de Pharm. 1233 ; Trans. 
Phil. Soc. 1834; Analysis in Journal de Pharm. xxiv, 39; 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplement, 1846, 101. 
From the berries a syrup is obtained which is adapted to 
putrid fevers, and those of a low type; a cooling drink is 
also made with them, and given in similar cases. The root 
boiled in lye imparts a yellow color to wool. It was said to 
have a singular effect upon wheat growing near it, turning 
the ears black for some distance around; but this, however, 
is doubted. We have observed the remarkable irritability 
of the stamens in the species growing in South Carolina, 
which, when touched, instantly spring down upon the 
stigma, and in this way communicate their pollen to it. 
The berries are acid. The English barberry (i?. vulgaris) 
has attracted much attention ; its fruit is edible, and 
much discussion has been excited whether or not it pro- 
duces smut in wheat or corn when planted near it. Ex- 
periments touching this peculiarity should be performed 
with respect to our barberry. For a full statement of the 
merits of the above question, see Wilson's Rural Cyc. Art. 
Barberry. Thae'r, in his "Principles of Agriculture," p. 
409, says : " One very extraordinary fact is that the barberry 
bush will produce smut, or something very similar to it, in 
all corn growing within a considerable distance of it. This 
is a fact which has been confirmed by numerous observa- 
tions and experiments in almost all countries. But it has 
never yet been clearly and satisfactorily ascertained in 
what manner the barberry produces this effect. My friend 



53 

Einhoff has made several experiments ori the possibility of 
communicating cecidium (a parasitical fungus) to cereals hj 
cutting branches from the barberry, which were quite cov- 
ered with it, and shaking them over the corn, or else plant- 
ing them in the midst of it ; but he never succeeded in 
thus producing the disease ; therefore it would seem that it 
is not the communication of this dust, but the vegetation 
of the barberry in the vicinity of the cornfield, which en- 
genders the disease. Nor will it attack crops planted near 
young and newly made barberry hedges ; but as these lat- 
ter grow up, the disease will appear until these hedges are 
rooted up. As soon as the barberry has been thoroughly 
extirpated, the evil disappears." Thaer .considers mil or 
mel-dew a disease of the skin of plants. See this work for 
information on diseases affecting the cereals — on irrigation, 
etc. Translated by William Shaw and C. W. Johnson. New 
York, 1852. It is believed by some in this country that 
the pokeweed (Phytolacca), if allowed to die in a cotton 
field, will produce rust. This is quite unlikely. 

Sarraceniace^e. 

The species of this order are exclusively confined to the 
bogs of this country. Lindley thinks it should also com. 
prebend the Dioneea, which grows in this state, and which 
also possesses the power of entrapping insects. See D. 
muscipula. 

Sarracenia flava, L., and variolaris, M. . Fly-catchers ; side- 
saddle flowers. Diffused; grow in bogs; Charleston; New- 
bern. Fl. June. 

See Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 226, where the 
Diss, of Dr. McBride, of South Carolina, in the 12th vol. 
Trans. Linnsean Soc, is referred to. We have read this 
description of one of our native botanists, and allude to it 
with pleasure. We are informed by several gentlemen of 
this state that these plants are used in dyspepsia with great 
service. The roots are undoubtedly possessed of bitter, 



54 

tonic, and stomachic properties; and we are credibly as- 
sured of a number of cases in which relief has been experi- 
enced from them. The taste is disagreeable to those using 
them for the first time, but eventually it becomes pleasant, 
as we have ourselves experienced. An infusion might serve 
as a useful substitute for bitters. 

In an article on the medicinal and chemical properties 
of these plants, published by me in the January number 
(1849) of the Charleston Medical Journal, the attention 
of the profession is for the first time invited to their re- 
puted value in the treatment of dyspepsia. Several cases 
are there detailed, illustrating the employment of the sarra- 
cenia. It is supposed by many to relieve most of the dis- 
tressing symptoms of this affection, among which may be 
cited : gastralgia, pyrosis, acidity, aud the general feeling 
of malaise, so frequently attendant upon it. In some it 
induces considerable diuresis, and in others soreness of the 
mouth. In experiments made upon my own person, to 
ascertain its physiological effects upon a healthy individual, 
it exhibited a tonic, stimulating influence upon the digest- 
ive organs, producing some cerebral disturbance, when 
persisted in. On one occasion 320 grains of the dried root, 
in the form of pills, were taken during the course of twelve 
hours. From the examination made for me by Prof. C. U. 
Shepard, it contains besides lignin, coloring matter, and 
traces of a resinous body, an acid, or an acid salt, and also 
an astringent property, due neither to tannic nor gallic acid, 
"and a salt of some alkaloid, related perhaps to cinchonia, 
which, should it prove new, may be called sarracenin." 
We ascertained the existence of starch in some quantity in 
the cold infusion and in the decoction, not discovered in 
the boiled alcoholic solution, which, however, contained 
some gluten. " In its exhibiting in moderate quantities no 
very decided nor violent effects upon the animal economy 
in disease consists its excellence. And its peculiar action 
on the stomach, we think, is the result of a happy combi- 
nation of elements, which renders it appropriate to the 
relief of an affection like dyspepsia. Its acid prevents or 



55 

corrects the undue formation of alkalies, or supplies its own 
deficiency, the existence of either condition having been 
assumed as explaining the true pathology of the disease. 
Its power of neutralizing or correcting acidity was obvious. 
Its bitter property, which is abundant, is tonic and restora- 
tive ; its resinous portion may supply the proper cathartic 
stimulus, the too inordinate action of which is corrected by 
the astringent; and this being neither that of the tannic 
nor gallic acid found in other vegetable tonics, may be 
superior. Should dyspepsia be a gastric neuralgia, or con- 
sist, as Parry thinks, in a condition of hyperemia; or as, 
according to Wilson Philip, a chronic gastritis, its relief 
may be accounted for, by a narcotic principle contained in 
the plant; the cerebral disturbance, one of its physiological 
effects upon our own person, giving some color to the sug- 
gestion." (See Art. cit. sup.) A bit of the fresh or dried 
root of either species may be chewed, and the juice swal- 
lowed, during the day before each meal; it ma} r be given 
powdered in the form of pill, with a little rhubarb if neces- 
saiy, or a tincture may be made by pouring a pint of brandy 
over several ounces of the root, of which half an ounce, 
diluted, may be taken three times a day. I have lately 
had cases reported to me, of its marked success in the relief 
of chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, and I am pleased to 
learn that it is now widely used in other portions of this 
state, and in Georgia, with very general approbation. 

RnizoPHORACEiE. (Mangrove Tribe.) 

JRhizophora mangle, L. Mangrove. This plant is found 
in South Florida. Chapman. An introduced species is 
used in India for yielding a black dye. 

Onagrace^e. (The Evening Primrose Tribe.) 

CEnolher a biennis, Linn. Scabish. Grows in dry pastures ; 
diffused; collected in Charleston district; jSTewbern. 

Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. iv, 202 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 
36; IT. S. Disp. 1281; Dem. Elem. de Bot. ii, 444; Griffith, 



56 

Med. Bot. 304. The root and herb have been employed in 
cutaneous diseases. Dr. Griffith has used it with success 
in tetter, applying the decoction to the affected part several 
times a da} 7 , and giving it internally at the same time. He 
has been successful with it in subsequent trials. The plant 
should be gathered about the flowering season. The young' 
sprigs are mucilaginous, and can be eaten as salad. Lind- 
ley. The leaves of the (Enothera expand in the evening, 
and continue open all night. Pursh states that, even of a 
dark night, it can be seen at some distance, owing, he sup- 
poses, to some phosphoric property. Its roots have a nutty 
flavor, somewhat similar to those of rampion, and are used 
in Germany and some parts of Prance, stewed and raw, in 
salads', with mustard, oil, salt, and pepper, like common 
celery. The ancients thought the plant possessed the pow- 
er of allaying intoxication and calming the most ferocious 
animals. It is doubtful whether this is the Oenothera of 
the ancients. Wilson's Rural C} t c. 

Jussicea grandijlora, Mich. Grows in bogs; "common 
around Savannah, and in ponds four miles from Charles- 
ton." Dr. J. Bachman informs me that he has seen it in 
abundance around Charleston for the space of ten miles, 
from which locality I have specimens. Fl. July. Dr. S. 
A. Cartwright, of Natchez, asserts that this plant has the 
power of preventing the development of malaria in regions 
peculiarly adapted to its generation. Pie affirms that it 
"purifies all stagnant water in which it grows — that of the 
lakes and bayous inhabited by it being as pure to the 
sight, taste, and smell, as if it had just fallen from the 
clouds" — ascribing to the presence and peculiar "hygienic 
or health-preserving properties of this plant" the remark- 
able exemption of the inhabitants of lower Louisiana from 
"malarious or miasmatic diseases." "The fact," he adds, 
"that" the region of country in which this aquatic plant 
abounds is exceedingly healthy, can be established beyond 
cavil or dispute ; it nevertheless contains more stagnant 
water and swamps than any other inhabited district of the 



57 

same extent in the United States." He is quoted in the 
notes appended by the American editor, to Watson's Pract. 
Physic, p. 465 ; and Dr. "Wood, in his late work on the 
Practice of Physic, also makes use of these assertions as if 
they were established. Dr. C. must seek for the exemption 
of this section of country from these diseases in other 
causes, as this plant is abundant around the cities alluded 
to above, in situations where it is well known that fevers 
of malarious origin are continually prevailing. I have 
recently observed this plant growing profusely around 
Charleston Neck, where intermittent and remittent fevers 
are notoriously prevalent. 

The genus Jussiena has its roots distended into vegetable 
swimming bladders. The curious can examine the J. gran- 
difiora to observe this peculiarity, like that in our beautiful 
Utricularia inflata. 

Typha and Nymphaia (water lily), and Sagittaria, "display 
myriads of air chambers in the solid stem." See Wilson, 
"Aquatic plants." 

Ludiuigia aUernifolia, L. Grows in Charleston district ; 
Elliot says rare; seven miles from Beaufort, and at Savan- 
nah; collected in St. John's. Fl. Aug. 

Merat, in the Diet, de M. Med. iv, 154, says that in 
America a decoction of the root is employed as an unfail- 



ing emetic. 



Melastomace^e. 



In this order, a slight degree of astringency is the pre- 
vailing characteristic; though a large one, it does not con- 
tain a single unwholesome species. 

Rheoria glabella, Mx. Deer grass; Sorrel. Grows in moist 
pine lands, vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's. 
Fl. July. 

The leaves of this plant have a sweetish, acid taste,' and 
are eaten with impunity. Deer are said to be fond of them. 



Myrtace.e. ( The Myrtle Tribe.) 

Punicd granatum. Pomegranate. Cultivated with success 
in this state. The bark of the root is a well known astrin- 
gent; employed in dysentery and diarrhoea; one scruple of 
the powder may be given at a dose, or a decoction may be 
used if this is too strong, as it acts on the nervous system. 
Carson, in his Illust. Med. Bot. i, 1847, states that it has also 
been employed with success against taenia. A correspond- 
ent of the "Mercury," 1862, says that the rind of the fruit 
yields a jet black fluid, which writes very smoothly and 
retains its jetty hue." "F. J. S." 

Hamamelaceje. [The Witch- Hazel Tribe.) 

This order, remarks Lindley, is found in the northern 
parts of North America, Japan, and China. In my exami- 
nation of the various authorities on the subject before me, 
I have frequently been struck with the correspondence 
prevailing between the species found in this state and 
those of Japan, and this respects only the medical botany 
of the two; should the flora of each be compared, a still 
more universal relation might be established. Professor 
Agassiz has noticed something of the same kind existing 
between the fossil botany and the fauna of each. 

Hamamelis Virginica, Jj. Witch-hazel. Grows along pine 
land bays; collected in St. John's, Charleston district; 
vicinity of Charleston, Bach. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 452; Coxe, Am. 
Disp. 310; IT. S. Disp. 1258; Matson's Veg. Pract. 201; 
Griffith's Med. Bot. 850; Rafinesque, Med" Flor. i, 227. 
It is said to be sedative, astringent, tonic, and discutient. 
The bark was a remedy derived from the Indians, who 
applied it to painful tumors, using the decoction as a wash 
in inflammatory swellings, painful hemorrhoidal affections, 
and ophthalmias. A cataplasm, and a tea of the leaves, as 
an astringent, were employed in haematemesis. The steam 
practitioners also administer it in irritable hemorrhoids, 



59 

and during the bearing-down pains attending child-birth. 
No analysis has been made, but as it probably contains 
sedative and astringent principles, attention is directed to 
it. The curious reader may consult, besides the paper in 
Ilutton's "Mathematics," on the wonderful properties of 
the witch-hazel in detecting water, a recent one in Patent 
Office Report on Agriculture, p. 16, 1851. This is from 
Prairie du Chien, by Mr. Alfred Burnson, and contains 
some remarkable statements of the certainty of finding 
water by the divining rod. Some electrical and telluric 
influences are hinted at — Qredat Judceus ! Persons living 
in the upper districts of South Carolina assume to use the 
rod with success. 

CoKNACBiE. [The Dogwood. Tribe.) 

Cornus Florida, L. Dogwood. Well known ; diffused in 
rich shady lands ; Newbern ; Va. 

Drayton's Yiew S. C. 63; Bell's Pract. Diet. 152; Bar- 
ton's Collec. 12; Eberle, Mat. Med. 303; Chap. Therap. 
and Mat. Med. ii, 438; Ell. Bot. i, 208; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 
753; U. S. Disp. 277; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 197; Am. 
Journal Pharm. vii, 114; Royle, Mat. Med. 422; Ball, and 
Gar/310; Mer. and de L. Diet de M. Med. iv, 436; Big. 
Am. Med. Bot. ii, 73 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 449 ; Thacher's 
Disp. 203; Walker's Inaug. Diss. Phil. 1803; Lind. Nat. 
Syst. Bot. 49; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. This well known 
plant possesses tonic and anti-intermittent properties, very 
nearly allied to those of cinchona ; in periodic fevers, one 
of the most valuable of our indigenous plants. " Dr. 
Gregg states that, after emplojang it for twenty-three years 
in the treatment of intermittent fevers, he was satisfied 
that it was not inferior to Peruvian bark." Generally given 
in conjunction with laudanum. It also possesses antiseptic 
powers. In the recent state, it is less stimulating than the 
cinchona bark, but it affects the bowels more ; the dried 
bark is the preferable form. The fresh bark will some- 
times act as a cathartic. It is more stimulating than 
thoroughwort (Eupatorium), and, therefore, is less appli- 



60 

cable during the hot stages of fever. According to Dr. 
Walker's examination, the bark contains extractive matter, 
gum, resin, tannin, and gallic acid ; and Dr. Carpenter 
announces in it a new principle, cornine. Dr. S. Jack- 
son also, from experiment, is satisfied that it contains a 
principle analogous to quinia. It has been exhibited by 
Dr. S. G. Morton in intermittent fever, with success. Grif- 
fith, in his Med. Bot. 347, mentions that the infusion of the 
tlowers is useful as a substitute for chamomile tea; for 
analyses, see Am. Journ. Pharm. i, 114; and Phil. Journal 
Med. and Phys. Sci. xl. Dose of the dried bark in powder, 
is twenty to sixty grains; the decoction is made with one 
ounce of the root to one pint of water, or the extract may 
be employed; alcohol also extracts its virtues. The ripe 
fruit, infused in brandy, makes an agreeable and useful 
bitter, which may be a convenient substitute for the arti- 
cle prepared in the shops. Barton says, in his Collections, 
that the bark is valuable in a malignant disorder of horses 
called yellow water ; from the gallic acid it contains a good 
writing ink may be made, and from the bark of the fibrous 
roots the Indians extracted a scarlet color. Linclley men- 
tions that the young brauches, stripped of their bark, and 
rubbed against the teeth, render them extremely white! It 
is often employed by the common people in South Carolina 
for this purpose. 

In our present need of astringent antiperiodics and 
tonics, the dogwood bark powdered will be found the best 
substitute for Peruvian. Internally and externally, it can 
be applied wherever the cinchona barks were found ser- 
viceable. The dogwood bark and root, in decoction, or in 
form of cold infusion, is believed by many to be the most 
efficient substitute for quinine, also in treating malarial 
fevers; certainly, it might be used in the cases occurring 
in camp, to prevent the waste of quinine, as it can be 
easily and abundantly procured. 

Dr. Richard Moore, of Sumter district, informs me that 
he not only finds it efficient in fevers, but particularly use- 



61 

ful,, with whisky or alcohol, in low forms of fevers, and 
dysentery occurring near our river swamps. 

During convalescence, where an astringent tonic is re- 
quired, this plant supplies our need. See Eupatorium (bone- 
set) and Lirodendron. These, with the blackberry and 
chinquapin as astringents, the gentians and pipsissewa 
as tonics and tonic diuretics, the sweet gum, sassafras, 
and bene for their mucilaginous and aromatic properties, 
and the wild jalap (podophyllum) as a cathartic, supply 
the surgeon in camp with easily procurable medicinal 
plants, which are sufficient for almost every purpose. 
Ultrate and bi-carbonatc of potash are most required, and 
with calomel, may be procured from abroad. Our supply 
of opium can be easily procured by planting the poppy, 
and incising the capsules. Every planter could raise a full 
supply of opium, mustard, and flax seed. The wood of the 
dogwood, like the willow, is preferred in making gun- 
powder. See Salix. A tonic compound, as advised by the 
herbalists, is made with the bark of the root of dogwood, 
Colombo (Frasera), poplar, each six ounces; bark of wild 
cherry, six ounces; leaves of thorough wort, four ounces; 
cayenne pepper, four ounces — sifted and mixed. Dose, a 
teaspoonful, in warm or cold water, repeated. It is stated 
in the "JN"ewbern Progress" "that a ripe dogwood berry 
taken three times a day, before meals, will cure ague and 
fever. 

My friend, Professor "F. A. P.," contributes the follow- 
ing to the Charleston Courier. The Dogwood bark, pow- 
dered, may be used in place of the Peruvian mentioned: 

Dutch Remedy for Fever and Ague. — As quinine is very 
scarce, it may not be unprofitable, both to our armies and 
to private families, to revive the memory of an ancient 
remedy, which was in almost universal use before the in- 
troduction of the former drug. It was known by the name 
which heads this article, and has been used from time imme- 
morial among the Huguenot families of the Santee, among 
whom there is a tradition that it was brought to this coun- 
try by the ancestor of one of the families, who was a 



62 

r 

physician. The remedy quoted below is copied from an 
old receipt book. Though not a professional man, I can 
vouch for its efficacy when it was in vogue. 

The Recipe. — Two ounces of Peruvian bark, two ounces 
of cream of tartar, sixty cloves. 

Manner of Using It. — These ingredients are to be rubbed 
together in a mortar. The mixture to be divided into 
twenty-four doses, four of which (mixed in water) are to be 
given the first day, four on the second, and two on every 
succeeding day, until the whole shall have been taken. It 
is probable that the disease will be arrested on the second 
or third day, but the object in taking the whole prescrip- 
tion is to complete the cure by its tonic property. 

The berries of the dogwood have also been highly re- 
commended — given as a remedy for fever in place of 
quinine (1862). One or two given in the form of pill. 

The wood is compact, heavy, fine grained, and suscep- 
tible of a brilliant polish. It is used on our plantations 
wherever a hard wood is required, as in making wedges, 
the handles of light tools, mallets, plane stocks, harrow 
teeth, names; horse collars, etc. Michaux states that the 
shoots, when three or four years old, are found proper for 
the light hoops of small portable casks. In the Middle 
states the cogs of mill wheels are made of dogwood. The 
branches of the tree are disposed nearly in the form of 
crosses. N. Am. sylva. Farmer's Encye. I have used the 
dogwood for engraving. See " Amelanchier" in this vol- 
ume. 

Cornus sericea, Ph. Red willow ; swamp dogwood. El- 
liott says it grows in the mountains of South Carolina; 
sent to me from Abbeville district, by Mr. Reed. Fl. June. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 349. It possesses properties quite 
similar to those of the C. florida, but it is mOre bitter and 
astringent. Mr. R. informs me that it is employed to a 
great extent in domestic practice in Abbeville. Accord- 
ing to 13. S. Barton, the bark was considered by the Indians 
a favorite combination with tobacco for smoking. The 



young shoots were used to make coarse' baskets; and they 
extracted a scarlet dye from these and the roots. 

Cornus sanguined, L. Grows, according to Elliott, in the 
valleys among the mountains. Fl. May. 

Diet, de Med. de Ferus. ii, 737 ; Mathiole, Comment, ii, 
119 ; Journal de Chim. xxxviii, 174, and xl, 107. See, also, 
Journal de Pharm. for an account of the oil extracted from 
it. M. Murion says they afford one-third of their weight 
of a pure and limpid oil, used for the table and for burn- 
ing. A case of hydrophobia was said to have been cured 
by it. Griffith, Med. Bot. 349. There also exists in this, 
as in the others, a red. coloring principle, soluble in water 
alone. 

Cornus strict®. Grows in swamps near Charleston ; New- 
bern. Shec. Flora Carol. 449. 

LORANTHACEJ3. 

Bark usually astringent; berries contain a viscid matter; 
plants possess the power of rooting in the wood of others. 

Viscum verlicillatmn, L. The V. verticillatum of Ell. Sk. 
is not that of Linn T. and Gray ; N", A. Flora. Mistletoe. 
Diffused ; grown on oaks ; NeAvbern. Fl. May. 

Mer. and . de- L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 860 ; Lind. Nat. 
Syst. Bot. 50; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 456; Journal de Med. lxx, 
529 ; Eberle, Dis. of Children, 522. Dr. Barham, in the 
Hortus Americanus, says that the fruit of the mistletoe 
cures epilepsies, pleurisies, coup de soleil, etc. Dem. Elem. 
de Bot. iii, 556; employed in paralysis. Thornton's Fam. 
Herb. 333. Fothergill, Dr. Wilson, and Gilbert Thomp- 
son use it "with great effect in epilepsy." So, also, Dr. 
Fraser, who published a work on it. Wade's PI. Kariores, 
82. Eberle, "Dis. of Children," alludes to its employment 
in infantile epilepsy. Some writers refer to the European 
species ; but this is supposed to be identical with it. The 



64 

seeds contain a viscid substance resembling bird-lime in 
appearance, which is insoluble both in water and in alco- 
hol. In Dr. Hunter's edition of Evelyn's Sylvia, it is said 
to prevent the rot in sheep. Bird-lime was formerly made 
from the berries of the mistletoe of oak, which were first 
boiled in water, then pounded, and the water poured off .in 
order to carry away the seeds and rind. For process, 
see "Holly" (Ilex opaca) ; also, Wilson's Rural Cyc. : 
"Bird-lime" and " Bird catching." 

Cucurbitace^e. (The Gourd Tribe.) 

) 
This order is closely allied to the Passifloraceae, and is 

found in most abundance in hot countries. Most of them 

are valuable articles of food, but are pervaded by a bitter 

laxative quality, which in the colocynth gourd becomes an 

active purgative principle. 

Cucumis citr alius. Watermelon. The juice of the melon 
by boiling may be converted into a palatable syrup for 
table use, and one of the best substitutes "for molasses. No 
doubt, like the ripe" fig, beet, and other saccharine sub- 
stances, it may easily be converted into vinegar, and should 
be added to the vinegar cask. The diuretic properties of 
the seeds of the watermelon are well known — almost the 
same may be said of the pumpkin, which is used as an 
article of food for man and beast in many of the Confed- 
erate States. The harder portions of both melon and 
pumpkin are used in making preserves by our Southern 
matrons. 

Oucumis pej)o, W. Pumpkin. Cultivated very success- 
fully in South Carolina. 

Shea Flora Carol. 488. The seeds afford an essential oil, 

which might be made of some value ; when triturated with 

water, they furnish a cooling and nutritive milk, and when 

, boiled to a jelly, they are said by Bechstein to be a very 

efficacious remedy for retention of urine. The fruit is 



65 

much used on the plantations in this state, as an article of 
food both for men and. animals; pies and preserves of an 
agreeable flavor are made of it. See Stille's Mat. Med., 
and recent medical works for the singularly useful qualities 
of the seeds, as recently applied by Johnson and others, in 
medicine. The fruit which should have been dried as a 
winter provision for our army", has been converted into 
brandy, and dried fruit will probably be very scarce. An 
excellent substitute may be found in the pumpkin. Cut 
into slips and dried either in the sun or in a dry room, it is 
said to be little inferior to dried apples. The muskmelon 
(Cucumis melo) and cucumber (C. sativus) are also culti- 
vated in South Carolina. 

Giicurbita lagenaria, L. Gourd; calabash. Grows in corn- 
fields, and along fences ; vicinity of Charleston ; Richland. 
Gibbes. Collected in St. John's. Fl. May. 

Linn. Veg. Mat. Med. 180 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 563; 
Le. Mat. Med. i, 379 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 
492. An infusion has been found useful in inflammation of 
the urinary passages, and the seeds have been employed in 
rheumatism, strangury, and nephritis. Shec. Flora Carol. 
479. "Water, which has lain for some time in the fruit of 
this plant, becomes violently emetic and cathartic." The 
shells of the dried fruit are sometimes so capacious as 
to contain four gallons of water; convenient receptacles, 
water-flasks, dippers, milk-pans, etc., are made of them. 
They must first be deprived of their acrid principle by 
boiling; moulds for buttons are fashioned out of them, 
and they are much used for these purposes by the negroes 
on the plantations. The watermelon (C. citrullus) grows 
luxuriantly in South Carolina. It is well known that the 
juice of the latter is diuretic, and the seeds, by trituration, 
or by being boiled in water, afford a demulcent and diuretic 
drink. The various species of squash are likewise culti- 
vated here. 

Melothria penduld, L. Creeping cucumber. Grows in rich, 
5 



shaded soils ; collected in St. John's, Charleston district. 
M. June. 

Journal de Chim. Med. iii, 498 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. iv, 322 ; Griffith, Med. JBot. 311. The seeds act as 
a drastic purgative — a half a one is a dose for an adult. 
Martius states that three or four will act powerfully on a 
horse. Journal de Chim. loc. sit. sup. 

CACTACEiE. ( The Indian Fig Tribe.) 

Fruit very similar in its properties to that of the currant 
tribe ; often refreshing, sometimes mucilaginous and in- 
sipid. 

Opuntia vulgaris, Mill. T. and Gray. ) Grows in dry pas- 

Cactus, opuntia of Ell. Sk. /tures; Newbern. Fl. 

May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 11. The fruit is said 
to be eatable ; the leaves cut transversely are applied to 
tumors as a discutient ; the decoction is mucilaginous, 
and I am informed that it is much used in Alabama as a 
demulcent drink in pneumonic and pleuritic inflamma- 
tions. Its cultivation has been recommended on account 
of the cochineal insect, which is said to feed on it. Mr. 
Wm. Summer, of South Carolina, contributes the following 
to the list of our "expedients": 

To make hard tallow Candles. — To one pound of tallow 
take five or six leaves of the prickly pear, ( Cactus ojmntia,) 
split them, and boil in the tallow, without water, for half an 
hour or more ; strain and mould the candles. The wicks 
should have been previously dipped in spirits of turpentine 
and dried. 

If the tallow at first is boiled in water, and the water 
changed four or five times, it will be bleached and rendered 
free from impurities. Then prepare, by frying with prickly 
pears, to harden it. 

In this way we have made tallow candles nearly equal to 
the best adamantine, and, at the same time, have the con- 



solation of knowing that we are independent of the extor- 
tioners, who are next of kin to the villainous abolitionist 
makers of stearin e candles in the North. 

The prickly pear has been used (1862) for hardening tal- 
low by the ladies of St. John's, S. C, with satisfactory 
results. One pound is added to four of tallow ; a larger 
quantity makes the candles too brittle. It takes the place 
of wax. 

' Cactus cochinilifer. Elliott says that it is probable that 
other species exist, but he does not include this in his 
Sketches of the Bot. of South Carolina. Shecut, however, 
in his Flora Carol. 819, remarks, that " we are indebted to 
Dr. Garden, of South Carolina, for the discovery of this 
tree here," well known as the one upon which the cochi- 
neal insect feeds. T. and Gray, however, do not include it 
in their IsT. A. Fl. The fruit tinges red the urine of those 
who eat it ; and the leaves, rubbed up with hog's lard, are 
useful as a topical application to prevent mortification. 

CnuciFERiE. (The Cruciferous Tribe.) 

Lindley states that the universal characteristic of this 
order is the possession of antiscorbutic and stimulant quali- 
ties, combined with an acrid flavor. The species contain a 
great deal of nitrogen, to which is attributed their animal 
odor when rotting. 

Lepidium V%rgi?iicum, L. Peppergrass ; Virginian cress. 
Wet places. Common. 

It is suitable to be used in winter and early spring salads, 
but is far less in request than some of the other cresses. 
Sowings should be made in light, dry earth, the beds pro- 
tected with dry litter during severe winter. Rural Cyc. 

Camelina sativa, Crantz. Gold of Pleasure. Referred to 
in Chapman's Botany of Southern states, p. 30, as intro- 
duced, growing in cultivated fields. 

Paper in P. 0. Report on Agriculture, 1851, p. 51, on the 



68 

" Camelina sativa — a new oil plant." In some parts of the 
world it is cultivated for its stems, which yield a fibre ap- 
plicable for spinning, and for its oleiferous seeds. Merat 
says cultivated for this purpose in Flanders. 

Mr. Wm. Taylor, F. L. S., has recently drawn the atten- 
tion of agriculturists and others to this as an oil plant, 
adapted for feeding cattle, and for other purposes. He says 
that the soil best adapted for its cultivation are those of a 
light nature, but a crop will never fail on land of the most 
inferior description. It has been found to flourish this year 
on sandy soils, where no other vegetable would grow, and 
independent of the drought, the plants have grown most 
luxuriantly, yielding a large and certain crop. When 
grown upon land that has been long in tillage and well 
farmed, the crop will be most abundant. The best time 
for putting in the seed is as early as possible in the spring 
months, say from the middle of March or the middle of 
April to June, and for autumn sowing to August ; and the 
quantity per acre required, fourteen pounds ; and may be 
either drilled or broadcast, but the drilled method should 
be preferred. If drilled, the rows must be twelve inches 
apart. As soon as the plants have grown five or six inches 
high, a hand or horse hoe may be used to cut up the weeds 
between the rows, and no further culture or expense will be 
required. If sown early, two crops may be frequently ob- 
tained in one year, as it is fit for harvesting in three months 
after the plant makes its first appearance. Or another im- 
portant advantage may be obtained : if seed is sown early 
in March, the crop will be ready to harvest in the begin- 
ning of July, and the land fallowed for wheat or spring 
corn; also when barley or small seeds cannot be sown suf- 
ficiently early, this may be put in with great success. It is 
a plant that may be cultivated after any corn crop, without 
doing the least injury to the land, and may be sown with 
all sorts of clover ; the leaves of the gold of pleasure, being 
particularly small, afford an uninterrupted growth to every 
plant beneath it, and the crop being removed early, the 
clover has time to establish itself. 



69 

The grower of this invaluable production is in all sea- 
sons secure of his crop, inasmuch as it is not subject to 
damage by spring frosts, heavy rains, and drought, and, 
above all, the ravages of insects, more particularly the cab- 
bage plant louse (aphis brassica), which so frequently 
destroys rape, turnips, and others belonging to the cruci- 
ferse order, when coming into blossom. The seed is ripe 
as soon as the pods change from a green to a gold color. 
Care must then be taken to cut it off before it becomes too 
ripe, or much seed may be lost. When cut with a sickle, 
it is bound up in sheaves, and shocked in the same manner 
as wheat. The process of ripening completed, it is stacked 
or put in a barn, and threshed like other corn. The ex- 
pense of these crops cannot be very great, either in the 
preparation and culture of the land or in the management 
in securing the produce afterward ; but when grown with 
care and in good season, the produce will mostly be very 
abundant — as high as thirty-two bushels and upward to the 
acre. 

The cultivation of this plant for the seed would repay 
the farmer; an abundance of chaff would be produced, 
which would be of infinite service for horses or for manure. 
In a grazing country like England, where vast sums are 
annually expended for foreign oil cake, the gold of pleasure 
will soon be found an excellent substitute under manufac- 
ture, and consequently a grower would find a good remu- 
neration in cultivating the seed. The plant may be con- 
sidered a valuable production of the earth. A fine oil ia 
produced for burning in lamps, in the manufacture of wool- 
len goods, in the manufacture of soaps for lubricating 
machinery, and for painters. The oil cake has been found 
highly nutritious in the fattening of sheep and oxen, as it 
contains a great portion of mucilage and nitrogenous mat- 
ter, which, combined together, are found very beneficial in 
developing fat and lean. From the experiments above re- 
lated, it is abundantly proved that it does not suffer from 
the severest frosts, its foliage not being injured. It is not 
infested by insects, nor does it exhaust the soil. 



70 

The gold of pleasure has been cultivated by several prac- 
tical agriculturists, who highly approve of the new plant. 
For all these reasons it is hoped that every farmer will avail 
himself of this valuable discovery as a remunerating rota- 
tion crop. Mr. Taylor adds that one acre cultivated with 
these plants yield thirty-two bushels of seed, from which 
five hundred and forty pounds of oil are obtained; so that 
the camelina seems to exceed the flax in its produce of 
seed, oil, and cake per acre. The seed is extremely rich in 
nutriment. I know of no seed superior to it for feeding 
cattle. The oil obtained by expression is sweet and excel- 
lent, especially for purposes of illumination. From the 
very small quantity of inorganic matter in the seed, it will 
be evident that the seed cake must be of a very nutritious 
character, being merely the seed deprived of a portion of 
its water and oily matter. We have examined some of the 
oil obtained from the seed of the camelina saliva, and which 
has been recently sent to several medical men by Mr. Tay- 
lor, under the belief that it possesses valuable medical 
properties. It is of a yellow color, and smells something 
like linseed oil. Finding it of service in relieving the in- 
cessant cough of a cat, Mr. Taj^lor has extended the use to 
the human subject, and states that it has cured several per- 
sons affected with diseased lungs and asthma. 

In a brief notice, P. 0. Reports, 1850, is the following 
statement : " Camelina sativa (3fiagrum sativum) an annual 
from France, produces a finer oil for burning than rape, 
having a brighter flame, less smoke, and scarcely any smell. 
It succeeds well in light, shallow, dry soils ; and in our 
Middle and Southern states it would probably produce 
two crops in a season. Besides the use of the seeds for oil, 
the stems yield a coarse fibre for making sacks and a rough 
kind of packing paper, and the whole plant may be em- 
ployed for thatching. The culture' is similar to that for 
flax." See "Linum " in this volume. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Moench and T. and G. ) • Grows 
Thalspi. Linn, and Ell. Sk. ) in damp 

pastures ; collected in St. John's ; ISTewbern. Fl. May. 



71 

Ray's Cat. Plantarum, 47 ; Bergius, Mat. Med. ii, 389 ; 
Le. Mat. Med. i, 243 : Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 
732. It astringes and constipates ; hence employed in dys- 
entery, diarrhoea, and bloody urine ; the juice placed on 
a piece of cotton, and inserted in the nostril, will arrest 
hemorrhage. u Externe vulneribus solidandis adhibieter 
nee sine successu." Fl. Scotica, 342 ; Linn. Veg. M. 
Med. 128. 

Sisymbrium nasturtium, L. and Ell. Sk. > Cress. Nat. in 
Erysimum of Bot. ) the upper part of 

this state ; vicinity of Charleston. Bach. Fl. March. 

Fl. Scotica, 351. The young leaves furnish an agreeable 
salad ; the plant was esteemed useful as an antiscorbutic, 
and was employed in removing obstructions of the liver, 
viscera, jaundice, etc. Thornton's Fam. Herb. 618. The 
juice acts as a stimulant and diuretic. Haller says: "We 
have seen patients in a deep decline cured by living almost 
entirely on these plants." According to Tournefort, the 
juice, snuffed up the nose, cured cases of polypus of that 
organ. See Edinburgh New Disp., Flora Med. iii, 138; 
Pliny, lib. xix, chap. 8 ; xx, chap. 13. Hoffman and Cullen 
spoke highly of it as furnishing a mucilaginous application 
for the heads of infants affected with eruptions. It was 
acknowledged to have an effect upon maladies of the skin, 
engorgement of the abdominal viscera when the blood is 
depraved, in feeble digestion, etc. T7. S. Disp. 1226. This 
plant is also vaunted in incipient phthisis, in chronic ca- 
tarrhs, in maladies of the bladder and kidneys, and in 
hysterical affections. It contains a very bitter and odorif- 
erous essentia] oil — the seeds yielding 55 per cent, of fixed 
oil. See de Cancl. Phys. Veg. i, 298 ; Journal Gen. de Med. 
xxviii, 136 ; Barbier, M. Med. 242. Moreau asserts that 
vertigo and discoloration of the face are produced in those 
eating this plant; but this is an effect unnoticed by others. 

Sisymbrium officinale, Fide Grav- ) TT i ^ i 

-m. • j, t • 7™, ^ } Hedge mustard. 

Erysimum " Lin. and Ell. Sk. ) 

This is not included by Mr. Elliott in his Sketches of 



72 

the Plants of South Carolina. It was one of the speci- 
mens sent to Professor Gray, and determined hy him ; col- 
lected in St. John's, Berkley ; Charleston district. The 
herb is said to be diuretic and expectorant ; the seeds pos- 
sess considerable pungency, and have been recommended 
in chronic cough, hoarseness, and ulceration of the mouth 
and fauces ; the juice of the plant in honey or the seeds in 
substance may be used. 

Sisymbrium amphibium, L. Water radish. Rare ; roots 
immersed ; collected on causeway near Brunswick ; PI. T. 
W. Peyre's, in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 365. Recommended 
for taenia by Didelot, and in the old works as an antiscor- 
butic. Merat says the "young leaves are eatable in the 
spring ; probably possessed of similar properties with the 
S. nasturtium." 

Nasturtium officinale, R. Br. Water cress. Introduced. 
Ditches Florida, and northward. Chap. 

This plant came into pretty high favor about a century 
ago as a spring salad ; and it soon obtained preference to 
all other spring salads on account of its agreeable, warm, 
bitter taste, and for the sake of its purifying, antiscorbutic, 
and diuretic properties. It was greedily gathered in all its 
natural habitats within some miles of London for the supply 
of the London market, and eventually became an object of 
regular, peculiar, and somewhat extensive cultivation ; see 
methods, etc., Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia. 

Sinapis nigra. Mustard. Cultivated in South Carolina. 
Therapeutic virtues well known. 

Mustard is a hardy annual, cultivated as a small salad for 
greens, and for the seed, which are extensively employed 
for medicinal purposes. The demand for the production of 
this plant, on account of the value of the seeds as a local 
irritant, should induce every planter and farmer to grow it. 
Enormous quantities are required to supply the armies ; 



besides that, it is largely consumed in every household. 
The white mustard I have seen cultivat'ecl on our planta- 
tions, and, maturing early in June, is fully equal in strength 
to the imported article. At the present time (June, 1862) 
the seeds are sold for more than a dollar a pound. It is 
very easily ground or powdered, and used like English 
mustard. 

The common table mustard is prepared from the flour of 
the seed. For salad, it is sown thickly, and used like com- 
mon cress. " Sow early in the spring in two feet drills, 
and thin to six inches. The crop must be gathered before 
it is fully ripe, on a cloudy day or early in the morning, to 
prevent the seed from shelling out." 

The "white" is usually prepared for salad, and the seeds 
are eaten whole as a remedy for impaired digestion. The 
leaves of this are light green, mild and tender when 
young; the seed light yellow. The "black" or "brown" 
is a larger plant, with much darker leaves. " Seeds brown, 
and more pungent." 

For the medical uses of these plants, any of the works 
on the materia medica will supply information under the 
head " Sinapis.'-' 

Mustard seed oil, says Ure, in his Diet. Arts and Sci- 
ences, p. 285, concretes when cooled a little below 32° 
Fahrenheit. The white or yellow seed afford thirty-six 
per cent, of oil, and the black seed eighteen per cent. 

The reader interested in the culture of mustard can find 
some information in Wilson's Rural Cyc. He quotes from 
a prize essay by T. C. Burroughes in 7th volume Royal 
Ag. Soc. The field culture of both the white and black 
mustard is practised for the production of their seeds, with 
a view either to the expression of oil from them, similar to 
that of cole, and rape, and poppy, or to the obtaining of 
oil cake for the use of cattle, or to the grinding them into 
the well known condimental and medicinal flour of mus- 
tard, or to several other economical and pharmaceutical 
purposes. The crop is reaped, and tied in sheaves like 
wheat, and is afterward threshed out upon cloths in the 



74 

field in the same manner as cole. White mustard is gen- 
erally laid in handfuls on the shuttle, and not tied up. 
The black mustard is hardier than the white. The quan- 
tity of oil obtained from any given weight of black mus- 
tard seeds is greater than that obtained from the same 
weight of coles; but the oil cake is slightly purgative, and 
requires to be given to cattle with caution, and is com- 
monly ground and sprinkled on their chaff. "Wilson also 
states that the flour of mustard from the seeds of black 
mustard is much more pungent, and of much finer quality 
than that from the seeds of white mustard. It is still the 
kind most commonly used in France ; but it requires to be 
manufactured by a nice mechanical process of removing 
the outer skins of the seeds, or else it has a grayish or very 
dark color ; and, in fact, it is never so prepared as to be 
entirely freed from its grayishness. The flour of white 
mustard is generally used in Britain in consequence of its 
fine color, and the superior facility of manufacturing it. It 
is often mixed with the black. Rural Cyc. The method 
of depriving the black mustard seed of its envelope I have 
been unable to obtain. Warm water is always the- best ad- 
dition to mustard to elicit the volatile oil. Vinegar lessens 
its pungency. See Trousseau's Experiments. Mustard 
has been highly recommended as a substitute for the 
spring colza and other plants, to be used in the production 
of oil. "Both species," white and black, yield oil, Thaer 
says in his Principles of Agriculture, "which is well adapted 
for burning ; and also, when well purified, for the use of the 
table. A quintal of mustard seed yields from thirty-six to 
thirty-eight pounds of oil. The biting acridity of the seed 
exists not in the oil, but in the integument; and the 
English mustard, which is celebrated for its strength, is 
said to be made from cakes from which the oil has been 
expressed." Among the plants mentioned by Thaer as val- 
uable for the oil in their seeds, are the oily radish {Eaph- 
anus ckinensis oleiferus), the sunflower, and the common 
poppy, Papaver somniferum ; the oil from the white-seeded 
variety is preferable on account of its taste. See Thaer 



75 

also, for descriptions of the cultivation of flax seed, hemp, 
hops, madder, beets, etc. Many plants, the seeds of which 
yield oil, are used in making oil cake for agricultural pur- 
poses, and as food for animals. The sunflower, which 
yields a large quantity of seed to the acre, will, it is said, 
furnish one gallon of oil to the bushel. See "Cotton," 
"Flax," etc., in this volume. 

Capparidacb^:. (Caper Family.) 
Capparis Spinosa. (Caper Tree.) 

This plant, cultivated in Greece, Ionian isles, France^ 
Italy, etc., has also been introduced into this country. 
The flower buds are collected and put into salt and vinegar. 
See Patent Office Report, 1855, p. 285, for a brief notice of 
the cultivation and preparation. In the Confederate States 
we have the C. Jamaicencis, Jacy, and C. cynophallophora, L. 
growing in South Florida. It is possible that they may be 
used as substitutes for the foreign caper. 

YiOLACEiE. (The Violet Tribe.) 

Roots more or less emetic ; a property which prevails to 
a greater extent in the South American species, which are 
generally less herbaceous. 

Viola pedata, Mich. Found in the upper districts ; spar- 
ingly in the lower ; Richland. L. Gibbes. Fl. May. 

TJ. S. Disp. 753 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 140. The roots of 
nearly all the species of this genus possess a nutritive and 
an emetic principle, called violine, allied to that of ipe- 
cacuanha, but more uncertain in its operation. This is 
said to replace the European plant, and, according to Dr. 
Bigelow, is valuable as an expectorant and demulcent in 
pectoral affections. 

Viola arvensis, D. C. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 141. This and the V. tricolor have 
received considerable attention from European writers, 



76 

especially the German. Strack made them the subject of a 
discussion in 1776, and since then the observations of Met- 
zer, Cloquet, and others have shown that they are possessed 
of much efficacy in the treatment of cutaneous diseases, 
and especially of that obstinate and unpleasant eruption, 
crustea lactea. The fresh plant, or its juice is to be used, 
as drying destroys its active qualities. Strack states that, 
when the remedy has been given for some time, the urine 
becomes extremely fetid, smelling like that of the cat; op. 
cit. supra. Attention is invited to it. See V. tricolor. 

Viola tricolor, Linn. Heartsease. Cultivated in gardens. 
Fl. May. 

Trous. et Pid. Traite de Therap. et cle Mat. Med. ii, 15 ; 
IT. S. Disp. 743; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 453; Griffith, 40; 
Thornton's Fam. Herb. 731. It was formerly considered a 
valuable remedy in epilepsy, ulcers, and scirrhus. See 
Storck de V. tricolor, Erlang. 1782. Metzer de crustea 
lactea infantum, ejusdem que remedio prsemio coronavit. 
1776. Lond. Med. Journal. A handful of the fresh, or 
one ounce and a half of the dried herb, was boiled in milk, 
which was taken twice a day ; bread soaked in this was 
also applied to the affected parts. It was much boasted of 
as a remedy in the latter disease ; see Mer. and de L. and 
the Art. V. arvensis. Bergius, speaking of these two, says 
that half an ounce in twelve of water produces a consistent 
and valuable demulcent jelly. 

Viola palmata, Linn. Hand-leaved violet. Collected in 
St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; ISTewbern. Fl. March. 

Ell. Bot. 300, Med. Notes. The plant is very mucilagin- 
ous. It is employed by negroes for making soup, and is 
commonly called wild okra. The bruised leaves are used 
as an emollient application. 

Viola cucullata, Ait. Common blue violet. Grows in 
damp pine lands; collected in St. John's; vicinity of 
Charleston. FL Mav. 



77 

Le. Mat. Med. i, 223. Probably possessed of similar 
properties with the others; a decoction is given to children 
in eruptive diseases. These plants might very conveniently 
be used in domestic practice, and we would invite attention 
to their further employment. 

Droserace^e. (The Sun Dew Tribe.) 

Plants generally slightly acid ; acrid and poisonous to 
cattle. 

Drosera rotundifolia, Linn. Sun dew. Grows in damp 
spots in the low country of South Carolina; Richland; col- 
lected in St. John's; Newbern. Fl. June. 

Bull. Plantes Yen de France. Vicat mentions it as an 
active and corrosive plant: the liquor which exudes from 
the hairs destroying warts, corns, etc. Dem Elem. de Bot. 
ii, 334. M. Geoftroi asserts that it is a valuable pectoral, 
employed in ulcers of the lungs, asthma, etc. ; the infusion 
being generally used. The juice has been recommended 
in hydrops, diseases of the kidneys, ophthalmias, etc. Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 690. Shec, in his Flora 
.Carol, 519, confirms tjie opinion in reference to the corro- 
sive property of the juice, and adds that, with milk, it 
furnishes a safe application for removing freckles ; any part 
of it will curdle milk. Fl. Scotica, 109. It is thought to 
be very injurious to sheep, producing in them consumption 
or rot. M. Berlace affirms (Esquiss. Hist. Bot. Aug.) that 
cattle avoid it on account of an insect (Hydra hydatula) 
which feeds on it. This plant is quite diminutive, and has 
heretofore received very little attention; we see no men- 
tion made of it in our Am. Disps. 

V. Passifloraceje. (The Passion Flower Tribe.) 

Passiflora'hrtea : tend incarnata, Linn. May apples; passion 
flowers. Grow in pastures. 

The fruit of these beautiful climbing plants contains a 
sweetish, acid pulp, and is eatable. Several of the species 
are employed in medicine ; but these have received no 



78 

attention, being more remarkable on account of the struc- 
ture of their flowers. One is quite diminutive. 

Hypericace^;. (The Tatsan Tribe.) 

The juice of many of the species is slightly purgative 
and febrifugal. 

Ascyrum Crux Andreas, W. ] Peterwort. Collected in 
" multicaule, Mx. j pine land soils; St. John's; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

The infusion of the bruised root and branches of this 
plant was used by an Indian with success in the case of a 
female, under our observation, with an ulcerated breast, 
which had resisted all other attempts at relief. We have 
since seen it employed with entire satisfaction, on the per- 
son of an infant, having a painful enlargement of the sub- 
maxillary gland. ISTo further opportunity has been aiforded 
of ascertaining its properties with certainty ; but it seems 
to be possessed of some power as a resolvent in discussing 
tumors, and reducing glandular enlargements ; given in- 
ternally, and applied topically. The taste is somewhat 
acrid. "We would invite further examination. 

Hypericum 'perforatum, L. St. John's-wort. Sparingly 
naturalized in Confederate States. 

It was greatly in vogue at one time, and was thought to 
cure demoniacs. The decoction also given in hysteria and 
suppressed menstruation. Thornton's Family Herbal, 67. 
The coloring matter gives a good dye to wool. 

The plant called St. John's-wort, which I think is Ascy- 
rum cruxandrece, growing abundantly throughout our coun- 
try, is popularly regarded as of great value, bruised and 
applied in the healing of wounds, and as a discutient. 

Wilson states that its leaves and flowers are strongly 
resiniferous or oleiferous, and emit a powerful odor when 
rubbed ; it bleeds under very slight compression or wound- 
ing, and imparts a blood-red color to any spirituous or 
oleaginous substance with which it is mixed, and was for- 



79 

merly supposed to possess the power of healing wounds, 
bruises, and contusions. It is the Fuga Dcemonium, he 
adds, of old herbalists, and was formerly held to "influence 
conjurations and enchantments. It yields a good yellow 
dye to woven fabrics, from its flowers, and a good red dye 
from its leaves. The juice of the Hypericums are often 
exceedingly similar to gamboge. Rural Cyc. The plant 
has a resinous odor, and Dr. Darlington says is believed to 
produce troublesome sores on horses and horned cattle, 
especially those which have white feet and noses. The dew 
which collects on the plant appears to become acrid. Flora 
Cest. Farmers' Encyc. I found the same impression pre- 
vailing in Powhatan county, Va. A tincture of the flowers 
and leaves are used in stomach complaints. 

Hypericum sarothra, Mich., T.and G. ] Pine weed; 

Sarothra gentianoides Linn, and Ell. Sk. j orange grass. 
Grows in dry pastures ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of 
Charleston; JSTewbern. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, cle M. Med. vi, 226 ; Journal de 
Med. lxxx, 360. It is employed as an aperient in inflam- 
matory affections. 

Acerace^. (The Sycamore Tribe.) 

Acer rubrum, Linn. Red maple. Diffused. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 80. The wood is much used in the 
manufacture of Windsor chairs, gun-stocks, etc. ; the grain 
is sometimes beautifully curled. In a communication re- 
ceived from I. Douglass, M. D., of Chester district, S. C, 
his correspondent, Mr. McKeown, states that the country 
people consider a strong decoction of the bark, with white 
sugar, used as a wash, a safe and certain cure for ordinary 
ophthalmia. Some of the inhabitants of the Western 
states make sugar by boiling down the sap of the white 
maple, which, however, like that 'of the red maple, yields 
only half the proportion of sugar obtained from the juice 
of the sugar maple. Farmer's Encyc. 



80 

Acer saccharinum, Linn. Sugar maple. Var. Florida- 
num, found in South Florida. Chap. Diffused, but more 
abundant' in the upper districts ; found sparingly at the 
head waters of Cooper river ; St. John's, Berkley ; New- 
bern. Fl. Feb. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 90. Pure flake manna has been 
discovered in this species. Sugar extracted from it is an 
article of trade ; it is employed medicinally also. The 
wood is esteemed in the manufacture of saddle-trees. The 
grain of the wood is fine and close, and when polished it 
has a silky lustre. 

The timber of old trees is extensively used in America 
for inlaying mahogany ; and it possesses, in an eminent 
degree, the same kind of bird's-eye markings which distin- 
guish the timber of the Norway maple. The wood is heavy 
and strong, but not durable. The ashes are very rich in 
alkaline matter, and furnish a large proportion of the potash 
which is imported to Europe from New York and Boston. 
Rural Cyc. I have seen the sugar maple boxed as low 
down as Middle Virginia, but have never heard of any 
sugar being made from the tree in states south of Virginia. 
Maple and sweet gum barks, with copperas, will dye a pur- 
ple color; maple, red oak bark, and copperas to fix it, will 
dye dove color ; maple, with bark of black walnut [Juglans 
nigra), gives a brown color; sweet gum, with copperas, 
yields a color nearly black. See, also, "Quercus," "Hopea," 
etc. ; see Boussingault's Treatise, " Rural Economy, in its 
Relation to Chemistry, Physics, etc.," p. 125, for valuable 
instruction on cultivation, production, etc., of sugar from 
maple, beet, etc ; also, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufac- 
tures, and Mines, article "Sugar, beet, etc." Wilson, in his 
Rural Cyc, article "Acer," which the reader may consult, 
states that the sap of the maple also contains ammonia, and 
has, therefore, all the conditions for forming the nitroge- 
nous components of the branches, leaves, and blossoms ; 
and in proportion as these parts of the tree are developed, 
it gradually loses its ammonia, and when they are com- 
pletely formed it ceases to flow. Rural Cyc. Liebig dis- 



81 

covered that ammonia was emitted from this juice when 
mixed with lime. The sugar crystallized spontaneously. 
The American practice with the sugar maple is to bore two 
auger holes, three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and half 
an inch deeper than the bark, in an obliquely ascending- 
direction, on the south side of the tree, at the height of 
about eighteen or twenty inches from the ground, in Feb- 
ruary or March, while the snow is on the ground, and the 
cold is still intense, and to insert into the holes elder or 
sumac tubes, partially laid open, eight or ten inches in 
length, and three-fourths of an inch in diameter, commu- 
nicating at the lower end with troughs of two or three 
gallons in capacity, for the reception of the sap. Four 
gallons are usually sufficient to yield one pound of sugar; 
and eight to sixteen gallons are usually obtained in a season 
from a single tree — this must depend upon the locality. 
Op. cit. I insert the following from Farmer's Encyc. : 

"In a central situation, lying convenient to the trees from 
which the sap is drawn, a shed is constructed, called a 
sugar-camp, which is destined to shelter the boilers and the 
persons who tend them from the weather. An auger, 
three-fourths of an inch in diameter, small troughs to 
receive the sap, tubes of elder or sumac, eight or ten inches 
long, corresponding in size to the auger, and laid open for 
a part of their length, buckets for emptying the troughs 
and conveying the sap to the camp, boilers of fifteen or 
eighteen gallons capacity, moulds to receive the syrup 
when reduced to a proper consistency for being formed 
into cakes, and, lastly, axes to cut and split the fuel, are 
the principal utensils employed in the operation. The 
trees are perforated in an obliquely ascending direction, 
eighteen or twenty inches from the ground, with two holes 
four or five inches apart. Care should be taken that the 
augers do not enter more than half an inch within the 
wood, as experience has shown the most abundant flow of 
sap to take place at this depth. It is also recommended 
to insert the tubes on the south side of the tree ; but this 
useful hint is not always attended to. 
6 



82 

"A trough is placed on the ground at the foot of each 
tree, and the sap is every day collected and temporarily 
poured into casks, from which it is drawn out to fill the 
boilers. The evaporation is kept up by a brisk fire, and 
the scum is carefully taken off during this part of the pro- 
cess. Fresh sap is added from time to time, and the heat 
is maintained till the liquid is reduced to a syrup, after 
which it is left to cool, and then strained through a blanket, 
or other woollen stuff, to separate the remaining impurities. 

" Some persons recommend leaving the syrup twelve 
hours before boiling it for the last time ; others proceed 
with it immediately. In either case the boilers are only 
half filled, and by an active, steady heat the liquor is rap- 
idly reduced to the proper consistency for being poured 
into the moulds. The evaporation is known to have pro- 
ceeded far enough when, upon rubbing a drop of the syrup 
between the fingers, it is perceived to be granular. If it is 
in danger of boiling over, a bit of lard or of butter is 
thrown into it, which instantly calms the ebullition. The 
molasses being drained off from the moulds, the sugar is 
no longer deliquescent, like the raw sugar of the West 
Indies. 

"Maple sugar manufactured in this way is lighter col- 
ored, in proportion to the care with which it is made, and 
the judgment with which the evaporation is conducted. 
It is superior to the brown sugar of the colonies, at least, 
to such as is generally used in the United States ; its taste 
is as pleasant, and it is as good for culinary purposes. 
When refined, it equals in beauty the finest sugar con- 
sumed in Europe. It is made use of, however, only in the 
districts where it is made, and there only in the country ; 
from prejudice or taste, imported sugar is used in all the 
small towns, and in the inns. 

"The sap continues to flow for six weeks ; after which 
it becomes less abundant, less rich in saccharine matter, 
and sometimes even incapable of crystallization. In this 
case it is consumed in the state of molasses, which is su- 
perior to that of the islands. After three or four days 



83 

exposure to the sun, maple sap is converted into vinegar, 
by the acetous fermentation. The amount of sugar manu- 
factured in a year varies from different causes. A cold 
and dry winter renders the trees more productive than a 
changeable and humid season. It is observed that when a 
frosty night is followed by a dry and brilliant day the sap 
flows abundantly ; and two or three gallons are sometimes 
yielded by a single tree in twenty-four hours. Three per- 
sons are found sufficient to tend two hundred and fifty 
trees, which give one thousand pounds of sugar, or four 
pounds from each tree. But this product is not uniform, 
for many farmers on the Ohio do not commonly obtain 
more than two pounds from a tree. Trees which grow in 
low and moist places afford a greater quantity of sap than 
those which occupy rising grounds, but it is less rich in the 
saccharine principle. That of insulated trees, left standing 
in the middle of fields or by the side of fences, is the best. 
It is also remarked that, in districts which have been 
cleared of other trees, and even of the less vigorous sugar 
maples, the product of the remainder is, proportionally, 
most considerable. 'Having introduced,' says a writer, 
' twenty tubes into a sugar maple, I drew from it the same 
day twenty-three gallons and three quarts of sap, which 
gave seven and a quarter pounds of sugar ; thirty-three 
pounds have been made this season from the same tree, 
which supposes one hundred gallons of sap.' It appears 
here that only a little more than three gallons was required 
for a pound, though four are commonly allowed." 

Sapindaceje. [Soapberry Tribe.) 

Sajnndus marginatns. "Willd. Soapberry. Florida and 
Georgia, near the coast. 

The skin of the fruit of S. emarginatus is said to be used 
in India for the same purposes as soap. That of the S. 
scqwnaria, which grows in the West Indies, is employed for 
washing linen, but when employed often is apt to burn and 
destroy it ; the nuts are very smooth, and of a shining 
black color, and were formerly imported to England and 



84 

manufactured into buttons, which were sometimes tipped 
with silver, and always very durable. Wilson's Rural Cyc. 
Our species should be examined. It will be observed that 
it is very nearly related to the buckeye (JSscidus), the roots 
of which are also used for washing woollens. See, also, 
" Saponaria," in this paper. 

^EscuLACEiB. ( The Horse Chestnut Tribe.) 

The seeds contain a great quantity of a nutritive starch ; 
also a sufficient amount of potash to be useful as cosmetics, 
or as a substitute for soap. 

jEsculus pav(a,Ti. Horse chestnut; buckeye. Diffused. 
I have observed it in Greenville, Fairfield, and Charleston 
districts ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 105 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 214. The 
fruit is about the .size of a small lemon, and of a beauti- 
fully polished mahogany color externally ; it contains a 
great deal of starch. Dr. Woodhouse prepared a half a 
pint from the nuts, which retained its color for two years. 
It is superior to the famous Portland starch, and does not 
impart a yellow color to cloth. It is said that the washing 
from this is narcotic and poisonous. Dr. McDowel tried the 
powder of the rind, and states that ten grains were equiva- 
lent to three of opium ; a strong decoction is recommended 
as a lotion to gangrenous ulcers. A strong decoction of the 
root is said to relieve toothache when held in the mouth. 
The fresh kernels, macerated in water, mixed with wheat 
flour into a stiff' paste, and thrown in pools of standing 
Water, intoxicate fish, so that they float on the surface, and 
may be taken ; reviving, however, when placed in fresh 
water. I am informed that large quantities were formerly 
caught in this way in the swamps along the Santee river. 
See, also, Ell. Bot. Med. Notes. The roots are preferred 
even to soap for washing and whitening woollens, blankets, 
and dyed cottons — the colors of which are improved by 
the process. Satins washed in this manner, and carefully 
ironed, look almost as well as new. 



.85 

Polygalace^. {The Milkwort Tribe.) 

Bitterness in the leaves, and milk in the roots, are their 
usual characteristics. 

Polygala Senega, L. Seneka snakeroot ; mountain flax. 
Mountainous districts of S. C. Fl. July. 

Thornton's Fam. Herb. 629. An active stimulant, in- 
creasing the force of the circulation, especially that of the 
pulmonary vessels ; hence, found very useful in typhoid 
inflammation of the lungs. Dr. Brandreth, of Liverpool, 
has derived great service from its employment, in cases of 
lethargy, in the form of an extract combined with carb. 
ammonias. It has been given in hydropic cases, and as it 
sometimes provokes plentiful discharges by urine, stool, 
and perspiration, it is frequently the means of removing 
the disease after the ordinary cathartics, diuretics, and 
hydragogues have failed. The Indians used it in snake 
bites; given internal]} 7 and applied topically ; if beneficial, 
it only acts as a diffusible stimulant ; it is administered, 
also, as a gargle in croup. A principle called senegin has 
been discovered in it; and one by Eeschier, called poty- 
galic acid. Anevenne is also said to have detected two: 
polygalic and Virgineic — the first of which will unite with 
bases ; the second volatile, oily, nauseant, and emetic in 
small, diaphoretic, expectorant, and diuretic in large doses. 
Stephens & Church, 103. See Analysis in Journal de 
Pharm. xxii, 449. One of the principles referred to is 
said not to differ from saponine. Supplem. to the Diet, de 
M. Med. by Mer. and de L. 1846, 578; M. Guibourt, in his 
"Abridged Hist, of Simple Drugs" (in French); Carson's 
Illust. Med. Bot. 1847, pt. i ; L. Feneulle's Annal. Journal 
de Pharm. ii, 430. It has been employed in pleurisy. See 
Tennent's Essay on that disease; Duhame, Mem. de l'Acad. 
de Paris, 1739, 144; McKensie's Med. Obs. and Enquiries, 
ii, 288 ; De Haen. Ratio Medendi : F. d'Ammon "sur l'em- 
ploi et l'utilite de la racine du P. senega dans plusieurs mal 
del'ceil"; Annal. de Chim. de Heidelberg. Dr. Ammon, of 



Dresden, in his paper, employs it in ophthalmias, after the 
inflamniatoiy stage is passed; it is said to prevent the 
formation of cataract, and to promote the absorption of 
pus in hypopium ; he reports two cases ; it is adapted, in 
fact, to all cases of exudation, by its power of promoting 
discharge. Suite des Experiences in Bull, des Sci. Med. 
xx, 241. Bretonneau gave four to five grains, every hour, 
in croup ; it opposes the formation of the diphtheritic 
membrane. Bull, des Sci. Med. de Ferus. xi, 61 ; Mem. 
sur le Senega, Acad, des Sci. See Merat, loc. cit. Dr. 
Milne spoke highly of the decoction, joined with bitartrate 
of potash, in dropsy. Dr. Percival administered it in 
hydrops pectoris. If the decoction causes vomiting, some 
aromatic, angelica, calamus, or fennel, may be added. It is 
prescribed as a drink in pneumonia, pleurisy, and typhoid 
fever. Linnaeus, in his Veg. Mat. Med. 137, speaks of- 
this plant as a specific in croup [specificum in phlogose 
hinc officinis nostris dignissima). Lincl. Nat. Syst. Bot. 87. 
Stimulant, diuretic, sialagogue, expectorant, purgative, 
emetic, sudorific, and also emmenagogue. U. S. Disp. 
649; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 27; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 111; 
Mer. and de L. v, 424; Diet, des Sci. Med. Ii, 1; Journal 
de Chim. Med. ii, 431 ; Journal Analyt. i, 339. Employed 
in nervous affections, and hectic fever ; in hydrothorax, 
from its stimulating effect on the kidneys, and in diseases 
of the lungs, from its augmenting the absorbent forces. 
Anc. Journal de Med. lxxvi, 53 ; Detharding, Diss, de 
Senega, 1749; C. Linn. Diss, upon the Root of the Senega, 
Argentorati, 1750; Kielhon, Diss. Frankfort, 1765; Hel- 
minth, at Edinburgh, 1782; G. Folchi, "Rech. chimico 
Therap. sur la racine du polygala du Virginie." In pneu- 
monia, after bleeding, and in the typhoid stage, it is one of 
our best remedies for promoting expectoration ; at an ear- 
lier period, it is too stimulating. Much use is made of it 
on the plantations in South Carolina for this purpose. 
According to Dr. Bree, it is eminently useful in the asthma 
of old people, and in the latter stages of croup. It has 
been employed successfully in chronic rheumatism, and Dr. 



87 

Chapman also found it very efficacious in recent cases of 
amenorrhcea. Frost's Eleras. 258 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 
225; Archer's Med. and Phys. Journal, i, 83; Bree on 
Asthma, 258; Massie's Inaug. Diss. Phil. 1808; Thacher's 
Disp. 319; N". Eng. Journal, vii, 206. In croup, it is often 
given in the form of hive syrup ; the best form, however, 
is a decoction made by boiling one ounce of root in one 
pint and a half of water, till it is reduced to a pint, the 
dose of which is a tablespoonful ; thirty grains of the 
powdered root may be given in substance. This plant is 
employed by the steam practitioners. See Howard's Syst. 
of Bot. Med. 343. 

Polygala sangmnea, L. ISTutt. Grows in flat, pine lands ; 
abundantly near Pittsburg; sent to me from Abbeville by 
Mr. Reed ; vicinity of Charleston. Bach. Fl. June. 

Lind. UTat. Syst. Bot. 86 ; Barton's Med. Bot. ii, 17. A 
stimulating diaphoretic, similar, it is supposed, in properties 
to the above. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 424 ; 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 225. 

Poli/gala 'pauctfolia, Willd. Grows in the mountains of 
South Carolina. Fl. August. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 227^ Rafmesqiie, in his Med. Flora, 
says it is possessed of active properties ; the root having a 
sweet, pungent, aromatic taste, similar to that of the winter- 
green (Gaultheria jwocumb.) ; he thinks it milder than the 
P. senega, and, therefore, adapted to cases in which that is 
inapplicable. Griffith does not agree with him, attributing 
to it merely tonic and bitter properties. 

Polygala jjolygama, "Walter. Vicinity of Charleston. 
U. S. Disp. 558. 

Cedrelaceye. (Mahogany Tribe.) 
Swietenia mahagoni, L. Mahogany. South Florida. Chap. 

So. Flora. 

This tree is cut down in August. See description of 

method pursued in Honduras, Wilson's Rural Cyc. 



The uses of the wood are so well known as to need no 
farther description. 

The bark may, it is said, be used as Peruvian bark. I do 
not know that the tree is "exploited" in Florida. 

LinacExE. (The Flax Tribe.) 

Linum usitatissimum. Flax. Cultivated in South Caro-. 
lina. 

It is cultivated here pretty much on account of the seeds, 
which are well known for their valuable demulcent proper- 
ties, and for the linseed oil which they afford. Immediate 
attention should be paid to raising on a very much larger 
scale both this plant, the mustard, and the castor oil. Flax 
matures well in this latitude. For much useful information 
in reference to the economical application of this plant, see 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Sup. 1846, 435. . 

Among the thread plants may be mentioned Flax (Linum 
usitatissimum), Perennial flax (Linum perenne), Hemp (Can- 
nabis sativa), Virginian silk (Asclepias syriaca), Common 
nettle ( Urtica dioica), and the Rosebay willow herb (Epilo- 
bium angustifolium). The three latter are all found growing 
wild in South Carolina. The asclepias was planted for the 
purpose in Germany, but is an imperfect substitute for 
hemp or flax. See A. syriaca in this volume. The stem of 
the hop has also been used for the production of thread. 
They require farther examination. See Thaer's work, 
"Principles of Agriculture," p. 461. Hemp seeds also 
yield oil. 

The best drying oils, Chaptal states (" Chemistry applied 
to Agriculture," p. 145), are those of flax seed, nuts, and 
poppies. Linseed oil will dissolve at boiling temperature 
one-quarter of its weight of that oxide known in commerce 
by the name of litharge. It becomes brown in proportion 
as the oxide is dissolved ; when saturated with the oxide it 
thickens by cooling, and it is necessary to render it liquid 
by heat at the time of using it. Linseed oil saturated with 
the oxide and applied with a brush to any substance, hard- 



89 

ens readily and forms a coating impervious by water, and 
much resembles gum elastic ; linen or silk prepared with it 
is flexible without being adhesive. A cement of this oil, 
prepared with • the oxide and mixed with the refuse or 
broken fragments of porcelain or well baked potter's ware, 
is used with great success in uniting the tiles upon roofs, 
and in cisterns and reservoirs. . To form this cement the 
pulverized fragments are thoroughly incorporated with the 
heated oil, and applied by the trowel while in that state. 
When linseed oil is to be used in painting, one-twentieth, 
or at the most, one-tenth of litharge is sufficient to render 
it drying. 

"With linseed oil and common glue, a water-proof mate- 
rial is made, which may prove of great use in preparing 
garments for our soldiers. Immerse common glue in cold 
water until it becomes perfectly soft, but yet retaining its 
original form ; after which it is to be dissolved in common 
raw linseed oil, assisted by a gentle heat, until it becomes 
entirely taken up by the latter ; after which it may be ap- 
plied to substances for adhesion to each other, in the way 
common glue is usually applied. It dries almost immedi- 
ately, and water will exert no action upon it. It has more 
tenacity than common glue, and becomes impervious to 
water. It may be used also for furniture, and two layers of 
cloth . may be glued together to form a water-proof gar- 
ment. Glue dissolved in vinegar also makes a very tena- 
cious substance in place of the prepared glues. See plates 
of machinery for pressing linseed and other oils, Ure's Dic- 
tionary of Arts, article "Oils;" also Wilson's Rural Cyc, 
articles "Flax" and "Linseed." The processes are described 
with plates. Those interested may find there a full state- 
ment of the method of gathering, planting, uses, etc. See 
also "Olea," in this work. Flax seed intended for plant- 
ing should not be gathered too quickly. Flax seed was 
largely made in western New York. The yield is from ten 
to fifteen bushels per acre. It is sown early in the spring. 
If raised merely for the seed, it is harvested and thrashed 
like other grain. But when the stalk is used, it is pulled 



90 

up by a machine as soon as the seed begins to ripen, and 
bound in small bundles, the seed stripped off by a machine, 
and the stalks spread oat and dew rotted; it is then sold to 
the hemp makers for seven or eight dollars per ton. The 
farmer sells the crop at one dollar per bushel for the seed, 
which is sent to the oil-mill. 

The reader interested in the preparation and cleaning of 
the fibres of textile plants, will find a paper upon the sub- 
ject, condensed from the Singapore Free Press, in the P. 
Office Rep. 1854, p. 1T4. A description of the simplest and 
most economical modes of cleaning them is given. The 
plantain, agave, and aloe are planted in India, and the 
fibre exported for twine, paper, etc. — bringing from sixty 
to two hundred dollars per ton. I do not know that these 
plants are used in our West -India islands or in Florida for 
these purposes. The ordinary mill used in pressing sugar- 
cane can be used in cleaning the fibre. See article cited. 

Wilson's Rural Cyc, article "Bleaching," furnishes a 
practical explanation of the methods of bleaching flax, 
hemp, etc. See also Ure's Dictionary. 

Malvace^. ( The Mallow Tribe.) 

They abound in mucilage, and are totally destitute of all 
unwholesome qualities. 

Malm rotundifolia, L. Low mallows. Naturalized ; 
grows around buildings ; Richland ; vicinity of Charleston. 
Fl. June. 

IT. S. Disp. 444. A substitute for M. sylvestris, which 
possesses valuable demulcent properties. Woodv. Med. 
Bot. 554, torn. 197. It is very emollient, and is employed 
in catarrhal, dysenteric, and nephritic diseases, and wher- 
ever a mucilaginous fluid is required. It is administered 
in the shape of emollient enema, and it forms a good sup- 
purative or relaxing cataplasm in external inflammations. 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 207. It was highly 
regarded by the ancients. " Pythagore regardait leur 
usage comme propre a favoriser l'exercise de la pensee." 



91 

Hippocrates employed it as we do, for gargles and collyri- 
uras, as an application to heated and inflamed parts, as a 
vehicle for pectoral and anodyne medicines, and for those 
administered in diseases of the urinary passages. 

Abutilon Avicmnce, Gaertn., T. and G. "I Indian mallows. 

Sida abutilon, Linn, and Ell. Sk. j Grows at Granby, 

in Richland district, and in Georgia; vicinity of Charles- 
ton. Bach. Newbern. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 96 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. vi, 338. The plant is said to be cultivated in China 
as a substitute for hemp. The flowers are employed as an 
ingredient in emollient applications. 

Abutilon and Sida. Species of these two genera have 
been used in medicine. *S'. abutilon is cultivated in India 
for the fibre, and somewhat extensively introduced into 
field culture in Italy. See Rural Cyc, Chap. So. Flora. 
Our Abutilons should be examined; several grow in South 
Carolina. 

Hibiscus Moscheutos, L. Marsh mallow. Collected in 
St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. 

Bergius, M. Med. ii, 629. This also is possessed of de- 
mulcent properties ; a convenient substitute for the above. 

Hibiscus esculentus. Okra. Introduced from Africa. 

The fruit and pods afford the well-known valuable vege- 
table, so largely used in the Southern states in combination 
with tomatoes in making soup. It is very mucilaginous, 
and, infused in water, forms a suitable vehicle for medi- 
cines prescribed in diseases of the mucous passages, for 
enemata, etc. Some information on this plant may be ob- 
tained in the Journal de Pharm. vi, 383. The parched seeds 
afford a tolerably good substitute for coffee ; the difference 
can with difficulty be detected. It is sometimes used for 
this purpose among the negroes on the plantations of South 
Carolina. 



92 

This well-known vegetable contains an enormous amount 
of albumen — so much, that Chaptal says that in St. Do- 
mingo it is employed in clarifying liquors. In Guadeloupe 
and Martinique they use the bark of the slippery elm "for 
this purpose as white of egg elsewhere. It would be a 
matter of importance to' ascertain whether or not vegetable 
albumen would be useful in clarifying sugar. In employ- 
ing albumen for clarifying fluids the following method is 
adopted, according to the writer just mentioned. I would 
refer the reader also to Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manu- 
factures. The albumen, generally white of egg, is diluted 
with water, and then mixed with the liquid which is to be 
clarified; the whole is then heated to 65° or 70° Faki\, and 
stirred carefully so as to distribute the albumen equally 
among all its particles; by increasing the heat the albumen 
is made to coagulate, when it rises to the top of the vessel, 
carrying with it all the particles, which render the liquid 
turbid or cloudy ; the thick foam which this produces, 
when cooled, may be taken off with a skimmer, and the 
liquid be afterward filtrated, to remove any remaining 
particles from it. The same writer says that animal albu- 
men, mixed with quick-lime, finely powdered and spread 
upon strips of linen, makes an excellent lute, to be ap- 
# plied over the joints of vessels for distilling, to prevent 
loss of gas or vapor. 

The Sesamum indicum, Bene, is another plant cultivated 
on our plantations which has a very large amount of 
mucilage. 

The okra plant has been recommended to be planted for 
the fibre as a textile substance. Even the cotton plant, if 
not allowed to come to maturity, and planted closer, like 
flax and hemp, might furnish an inner bark suitable for 
twine or cloth. The Urtica dioica, nettle, and Apocynum can- 
nabinum, Indian hemp, and several species of asclepias, or 
silk weed, may, by improved cultivation, give a useful 
fibre ; see index. Dr. Gr. C. Shaefler, the author of a paper 
in P. O. Eep., 373, 1859, on " Vegetable fibre," states that 
the fibre of the silk or milk-weed [A. cornuti) " was nearly if 



93 

not quite as strong as the hemp." In this article, the mode 
of preparing textile fibres is treated of, and also the best 
materials for paper making. A curious work, by Dr. J. C. 
ShaefFer, 1765, is referred to, in which experiments were 
long since performed upon innumerable substances suited 
to the making of paper. The latest work of consequence 
has been published by L. Piette, 1838. Piette gives speci- 
mens of good, strong, white paper made from straw. Paper 
in the United States was also made from wood, sawdust, 
and shavings, in 1828 and '30. Ure's Dictionary of Arts ma} 7 
also be consulted for machinery, etc. Bark of linden is 
used in Prussia. See Tilia. And the palmetto, agave, and 
yucca of the South furnish a long fibre. When necessary, 
the intercellular substance may be dissolved out by strong 
alkalies — the lye from the ashes of plants, etc. For ma- 
terial for paper making see "Cotton." 
. The New Orleans Crescent says of coffee : 
The supplies of many articles of consumption are run- 
ning very low. In the meantime substitutes have been 
proposed, among which is named the okra seed. As re- 
gards this, the thought of its becoming a substitute may 
as well be laid aside at once, for there are not twenty-five 
sacks of the seed available. The chief substitute will have 
to be r3 r e. This cereal was used during the war of 1812. 
In fact, half of the ground coffee which has been sold in 
New York and Boston for the last twenty-five years was 
composed chiefly of rye. 

Gossypium herbaceum, Linri. Cotton. A native of trop- 
ical America. The long staple, including the varieties of 
sea-island, black seed, and mains, grows best in the lower 
country ; and the short, or green seed, in the upper dis- 
tricts. Prescott states that the Spaniards found it in Mex- 
ico. See "Conquest of Mexico." 

Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplem. 1846. This 
was the plant known to the ancients as the Byssus of old 
writers. Herodotus, t. iii, 134, of Durger's Ed. ; Chateau- 
briand, Journal to Jerusalem, 1777 ; see R6vue Medicale, 



94 

Feb. 1845, 225, for Observations on the Employment of 
the Cotton Fibre in Dressing Wounds ; Ann. de Chimie, 
427, 1845 ; Binol's Letters on the Cultivation of Cotton in 
India ; C. Delasterie on the G. herbacea and its Cultiva- 
tion, Paris, 1808; Lessier sur la Culture du Coton en 
France ; Gerspach, Considerations sur l'iniluence des fila- 
tures du Coton sur la sante des ouvriers, Paris, 182,7 ; Obs. 
on the Employment of Cotton in the Treatment of Blis- 
ters, 1830 ; Some Reflections by F. T. Saint Hilaire on 
"Wounds, and their Treatment with Cotton (in French), 
Montp. 1830 ; Sicand, Obs. on the Employment of the 
Cotton Fibre in Surgery, and a Memoir on the different 
Species cultivated in Naples, op. cit. sup. ; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 163 ; Dr. MacFayden (Fl. Jamaica) considers the spe- 
cies only as varieties. Humboldt saw them growing in 
Central America at an elevation of nine thousand feet. 
The flowers are emollient like mallows, and used for simi- 
lar purposes ; the roots are used in India in diseases of the 
urinary organs. See Ainslie. In Brazil, a decoction of 
the leaves steeped in vinegar is said to relieve hemicrania. 
According to Martin, the seeds, which afford much oil, 
are emollient, and are employed in emulsions, injections, 
and diseases of mucous passages. The oil is afforded by 
the seeds in sufficiently large quantities to be exported. It 
might be made a useful article on the plantations, as it 
does not deprive the seeds of their valuable properties as a 
manure. When boiled, they furnish an excellent food for 
cattle, but are poisonous to hogs when eaten in the raw 
state. Much use is made of the roots in this state, in the 
treatment of asthma — a decoction being employed. It 
appears to have, moreover, a specific action on the uterine 
organs. Dr. Heady, of Edgefield district, informs me that 
his attention was called to its emmenagogue properties by 
an article which appeared in a journal published some 
years since. (New Orleans Med. Journal.) He has since 
used it in suppression of the menses, but more particularly 
in many cases of flooding, with entire success. It seems 
to produce as active contractions of the uterus as ergot 



95 

itself. Three ounces of the root are infused in one pint of 
boiling water, of which from three to four ounces are taken 
internally every fifteen minutes. More extended experi- 
ments with this remarkable plant, in cases of this descrip- 
tion, might furnish very valuable results, and I would 
invite particular attention to it. See also Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 
568; Med. and Surg. Journal, xiii, 215; U. S. Disp. 357; 
Lond. Med. Gazette, Nov. 8, 1839; West. Journal Med. 
and Surg. 1840; Boyle, Illust. 84, and Mat. Med. 288; 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 409 ; Marcgrave's 
Brazil, 60; Diet, des Sc. Nat. xxxiv, 15; and Gov. W. B. 
Seabrook's (of S. C.) paper on the cotton plant. 

The fibre of our great staple is applicable to many pur- 
poses in surgery, in dressing burns, preserving the temper- 
ature of the extremities in depressed conditions of the 
system, and also for stuffing and padding in the application 
of fracture boxes ; but it is not, as has been confidently 
stated, a substitute for lint in any sense of the term. On 
account of the oil which it contains, it cannot absorb pus 
or liquids from wounds, unless it has been previously pre- 
pared. This, indeed, is a peculiarity of cotton fibre in its 
natural state: water or fluids will roll from it; the slightest 
experience or observation would convince any one of this ; 
and yet it has been extensively distributed as a substance 
for dressing wounds, which it only tends to render hotter 
and more inflamed. 

The plant has also been highly recommended as a sub- 
stitute for quinine in intermittent fever. I will refer the 
reader to some of the later volumes of the Charleston Med. 
Journal and Review. I have not my volumes at hand to 
refer to. It has been used with great confidence by many 
persons throughout the South and West. I introduce the 
following slip from a newspaper (1862) in default of more 
precise information from the medical authorities who have 
used it. 

II. D. Brown, of Copiah county, Mississippi, communi- 
cates the following notice of the use of cotton seed tea as a 
substitute for quinine: 



96 

" I beg to make public the following certain and thor- 
oughly tried cure for ague and fever : One pint of cotton 
seed, two pints of water boiled down to one of tea, taken 
warm one hour before the expected attack. Many persons 
will doubtless laugh at this simple remedy, but I have tried 
it effectually, and unhesitatingly say it is better than qui- 
nine, and could I obtain the latter article gratuitously, I 
would infinitely prefer the cotton seed tea. It will not 
only cure invariably, but permanently, and is not at all 
unpleasant to the taste." 

The seeds of the black seed cotton, parched and ground, 
are considered by many as one of the best substitutes for 
coffee, both in smell and taste. In a paper by G-. C. 
Shaeffer, on the cotton fibre, Patent Office Report, Agricul- 
ture, 1854, p. 181, he says : "Still, in the present scarcity of 
paper making material, it may be well to look to the bark 
of the cotton plant as a partial supply for the common kinds 
of paper. Fermentation, or any of the known methods of 
separating the wood, may be employed." If the cotton 
is gathered, the plant has then become too woody. See, 
also, 1 Okra (Hibiscus esculentus.) Governor ~W. B. Seabrook, 
of S. C, has written perhaps the most full description of 
the cultivation of cotton, in a pamphlet published a few 
years since. 

Townsend Glover, entomologist, employed by the Patent 
Office, describes the diseases incident to the cotton plant in 
his successive papers, in the volumes of the Patent Office 
Report for 1855-'7, " On the Insects frequenting the Cotton 
Plant." These papers contain a good deal of information 
on the character and habits not only of insects infesting 
cotton, but many other plants, with illustrations on wood. 
He describes the rust, rot, and blight, and devises methods 
for preventing their spread. The English use cotton dipped 
in a solution of saltpetre as a moxa; see " Helianihus." 
"Gun cotton" is also a well known explosive agent, pre- 
pared by means of nitric acid. 

Cotton Seed Soap. The following I obtain from the 



97 

Charleston Mercury: Put cotton seed into a large and 
strong iron pot, in small quantities at a time, mash them 
well with a wooden pestle, and then pour in a certain quan- 
tity of common lye, and boil thoroughly; strain in an ordi- 
nary sieve, and proceed in the usual way in drying and 
cutting into cakes. The oil is thus yielded, and saponified. 
Machines are now manufactured in this country for 
decorticating the cotton seed, in manufacturing the cake. 
It is thus much improved as an article of food for cattle, 
not being near so liable to injure the animals. It brings a 
high price in England. Mills for the preparation of the 
cake have been established in Rhode Island. Strange that 
nothing of the kind has existed in Charleston, where the 
seed can be so easily obtained. The great value of the 
seed as a manure may account in part for the indifference 
of the planter. The seed has been pressed in ISTew Orleans. 
The oil is said to be "unsurpassed for dressing leather and 
lubricating machinery, and as an illuminator affords a clear 
and brilliant light" — as good as spermaceti, when refined. 
See also a paper on cotton seed oil, Southern Cultivator, p. 
iii, vol. 3. He states that there are thirty bushels of seed 
to every bale of cotton ; each bale will yield at least fifteen 
gallons of crude oil, and three hundred and sixty barrels 
of oil cake. "No difficulty exists in hulling, tempering, 
or expressing the oil," and the huller of Follet and Smith, 
of Petersburg, is referred to : hulling at the rate of a 
basket of kernels in four or five minutes. The machinery 
employed in French Flanders for rape seed, answers per- 
fectly for cotton seed. 

Cotton Seed OH. A good deal has been said of late in 
the Cincinnati and New Orleans papers on the subject of 
cotton seed oil and cake ; and if the half of what is pub- 
lished shall turn out to be true, we have reached the beo-in- 
ning of a new era in the cotton culture, not unlike that 
which marked the invention of the cotton gin. Mr. Wil- 
liam R. Free, of Cincinnati, has invented and constructed 
a cotton seed huller, which entirely separates the hull, and 
7 



x 98 

the little lint that adheres to it, from the meat part of the 
seed. The huller is said to he simple in construction, is 
made entirely of iron, and is easily kept in repair. It 
requires a two-horse power to drive it, and two hands to 
tend it — one to feed the mill, and one to remove the hulls 
from the screen. It will hull and screen one ton, or two 
thousand pounds, per hour, ready for the press — fifty per 
cent, of which is kernels, or the meats of the seed, from 
which forty gallons of oil may he obtained. This machine 
must he exceedingly valuable to prepare seed for all feed- 
ing purposes on the farm where no oil is expressed, as the 
hulls and lint are altogether undesirable as food. Hulls 
and cotton seed, and cut straw or corn stalks, boiled 
together in large iron boilers, or steamed in big tubs or 
vats, will make a superior stock feed. But as a gallon of 
this oil is cheap at a dollar, and enough seed to make forty 
gallons can be hulled in an hour, it is far better to feed the 
cake after most of the oil is taken out, steamed with straw 
or stalks, than to feed this precious oil to live stock. After 
cotton seed is hulled, a good cotton press for baling cloth 
will press out most of the oil in the kernels. Perhaps they 
may require beating, as in pressing flax seed. The art is 
very simple. Instead of sending cotton seed to distant 
markets, where the producer will lose the cake for feeding, 
and as a fertilizer, we earnestly recommend to each large 
plantation (or where their operations are small, for several 
to unite), to purchase a hulling machine, and, if neces- 
sary, construct or buy an oil press for home use. Ac- 
cording to the data furnished by the Cincinnati operators, 
four thousand pounds of common cotton seed will turn 
out fifty dollars worth of oil ; and every planter knows 
that in case he should wish to mix the hulls with the 
cake in feeding it, or as a manure, he can do so after 
the oil is expressed. The oil is nearly valueless as a 
fertilizer, being nothing but carbon and the elements of 
water, while in skilful hands it is worth some forty to fifty 
cents a gallon for making fat hogs, sheep, cows, and 
steers; but more for burning, and lubricating machinery. 



99 

At this time we would gladly pay twenty dollars per one 
thousand pounds for cotton seed cake, to feed cattle, sheep, 
and hogs. It is worth more than corn or wheat, pound 
for pound, to feed mules and hogs on a cotton plantation. 
It contains more of the muscle, sinew, and bone forming 
matter. It has less starch than corn, but is a healthier 
food than either peas, beans, wheat, or maize. If the hulls 
were in the cake, the result would be quite different. In 
flax seed cake the hull of the seed is not removed. It is 
owing to the richness of the clean meats of cotton seed 
that straw, or coarse forage of some kind, should be fed 
with the cake, except to hogs. 

Consequent upon the increased amount of cotton raised 
in the Southern states, and the great bulk of the seed, there 
had been several establishments in operation before the 
war for economizing the oil. At one in New Orleans, 
driven by a thirty-five horse power steam-press, five hun- 
dred gallous of oil and five tons of oil cake a day were pre- 
pared. It required for the day's work, as is stated in the 
Southern Farmer and Planter, about fifteen tons of cotton 
seed to produce this amount of oil and cake, each ton of 
seed yielding about forty gallons of oil and seven hundred 
or eight hundred pounds of cake. The proprietor shipped 
eight hundred tons to England, where it was used by the 
farmers, who are extensive importers of linseed oil cake. 
The cotton seed cake "is highly esteemed for fattening cat- 
tle and sheep." In Memphis, Tenn., it was also made in 
very large quantities. The oil, refined by a secret process, 
is made of two qualities — " the best used for illuminating 
and lubricating purposes, as well as for currying leather, 
etc. The inferior is found to answer the purpose of soap 
making equal to palm oil, making soap of every quality, 
even to the most refined toilet soap." Cotton seed cake 
might be used as a substitute to a certain extent for corn 
for fattening stock. " Cotton seed meal and corn meal, if 
applied directly to the hay that is fed in fattening ani- 
mals, instead of the latter being fed alone and dry, and the 
corn unground, would add vastly to the profits of fatten- 



100 

ing." Cotton seed cake sold at the mills for about the 
same price that flax seed cake sold for. 

Browne, in his "Field Book of Manures," New York, 
1853, says of the cotton seeds: "They abound in a mild 
oil, and are accounted very nutritious (as manures) after the 
oil is expressed. A bushel of seed weighs thirty pounds, 
and yields two and a half quarts of oil, and twelve and a 
half pounds of fine meal. The oil cake is very brittle, and 
breaks down much more readily than linseed oil cake. Its 
taste is not unpleasant, and it is stated that it can be 
employed with success in fattening stock." 

In the Patent Office Eeport, 1855, p. 234, are some 
"Chemical Researches on the Seed of the Cotton Plant," 
by Prof. C. T. Jackson. In this article a patent is referred 
to as having been taken out by D. W. Mesner for "separat- 
ing the hulls from the cotton seeds." The yield of the un- 
prepared and woolly seeds is very small, in comparison 
with what is obtained from those which have been hulled. 
Analyses are given of the oil, the seed, the cake, etc. 
Prof. Jackson says : Separation of the oil : In order to sep- 
arate the fixed oil, pure ether was employed, and it was 
found that one hundred grains of the dried pulverized 
seeds yielded in one experiment 39.7, and in another 40 
per cent, of pure fatty oil. By pressure, I was able with a 
small screw-press to obtain only thirty-three per cent, of 
oil ; but I have no doubt a more powerful one would have 
given a larger yield. The specific gravity of the oil which 
I obtained from the ethereal solution was 0.923 — water 
being unity. This is also the specific gravity of purified 
whale oil. Cotton seed oil is stated by Dr. Wood to be a 
drying oil, but that which I have obtained does not appear 
to possess drying properties, serving perfectly well for the 
lubrication of machinery, and for burning in lamps, as well 
as for making soap. It will also serve as a substitute for 
olive oil in many cases, and perhaps may be eaten as a 
salad oil, for it has no disagreeable odor or taste. 

Chemical examination of the oil cake: Linseed oil cake is 
well known both in Europe and in this country as valu- 



101 

able food for cattle, and as an excellent fertilizer — worth 
from forty to fifty dollars per ton for the latter purpose. On 
examining my cotton seed oil cake, I found it possessed a 
sweet and agreeable flavor, and was much more pure and 
clean than linseed oil cake. One hundred grains of the 
seed leave sixty grains of oil cake. This cake, examined 
for sugar, was found to contain 1.1 grains, and for gum, 
thirty-five grains were obtained. Iodine gave no proof of 
the existence of any starch in cotton seed, nor in the oil 
cake. Alcohol dissolves out the sugar, which is like that 
obtained from raisins, and is grape sugar. Boiling water 
dissolves the gum, and becomes very mucilaginous. The 
gum is precipitable from the water by means of pure alco- 
hol. 

Madura aurantiaea. Osage Orange. IS. America. Not 
included by Chapman in his Flora of Southern United 
States ; position irregular. 

From the Patent Office Report, 1848, an article taken 
from the Prairie Farmer, by Prof. J. B. Turner. The 
osage orange, the favorite hedge plant of the United States, 
has already become too well known to need any particular 
description. It grows in the wilds of North America, in 
regions further North than New York, and further South 
than the Carolinas. It is usually in this country from ten 
to fifteen feet in height, though, like the English thorn, it 
is said sometimes to attain in its native soil a height of fifty 
and even sixty feet. Its utility as a hedge plant is no 
longer an experiment. Hedges of the rarest beauty and 
excellence have been growing in Boston, Philadelphia, and 
Cincinnati; in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Northern Mis- 
souri; and, in short, in all the Middle and Southern states. 
Some of these hedges have been standing for ten or twelve 
years ; they were planted by gentlemen of wealth and taste 
around their favorite walks and grounds at a time when the 
plants sold at the rate of five dollars per thousand. Among 
all who have written on the subject, no unfavorable account 
has come to my knowledge. Great losses have been incur- 



102 

red with the seed, as might be expected, but the plant and 
hedge are universally admired and commended, and it is 
confidently believed by the best judges that it will double 
the real value of any farm it surrounds. Recent writers 
enumerate thus its many advantages : First — its tenacity of 
life is scarcely equalled ; it is a native of the prairies, and 
will grow on any soil where common prairie grass will 
grow. Overflowing the land does not harm it. It will 
live for weeks and months entirely under water. The dead 
wood is exceedingly hard and durable, and fresh shoots 
from the stumps soon supply the place of all which have 
been killed by fire or cutting. Second — its protection is 
perfect. It is armed with a very sharp, stout thorn under 
each leaf. Its dense iron branches soon become so inter- 
locked, that no domestic animal, and not even a common 
bird, can pass through it. Both its thorns and its acrid, 
bitter juice prevent all animals from browsing or feeding 
on its branches. Its seed is like the Orange, and its roots 
like the hickory, consequently it can never spread into the 
field, either from the seed or root, but keeps its own place, 
growing stronger and thicker year by year. It thus per- 
fectly secures orchards, fruit-yards, stables, sheepfolds, and 
pasture grounds from all thieves, rogues, dogs, wolves, etc., 
and one good gate, well locked, makes a whole farm secure 
from all intruders of whatever description. It may be 
trained so high as to afford shelter to stock, and break off 
the rough prairie winds from all grounds needing such pro- 
tection. Plants may also be prepared so that it can be set 
in the open prairie without fence with perfect success. See 
also in Patent Office Report, 1854, p. 419, an article on the 
best mode of cultivating the osage orange for hedges, and 
1855, p. 315, on "Live fences." The insects which feed 
on it are described, viz: a "chinch-bug," and the mole 
known as the gopher in Southern Illinois. In Illinois con- 
tractors set out and tend the hedge at one dollar a mile, till 
a good fence is produced. See Cerasus Carolhiiana. The 
juice of the osage orange, says Wilson, is exceedingly abun- 
dant, and flows freely from incisions, and quickly separates 



103 

into a feculant matter, and a supernatant, clear liquid. The 
wood is uncommonly tine and elastic, and is used by the 
American Indians for making their bows. It seems well 
adapted to many purposes of turners. It is said to equal 
fustic as a yellow dye stuff, and may be much more easily 
produced. Rural Cyclopaedia. 

The Cherokee rose forms a most valuable hedge plant. 
A writer praises highly the "cabbage tree." See also 
" Cratcegus ;" in this volume. 

TiLiACEiE. [The Linden Tribe.) 
They have all a mucilaginous, wholesome juice, 

Tilia Americana, Linn., T. and G. ) Lime tree. Bass 
" glabra, Vent, and Ell. Sk. J wood. An ornamental 
tree, found in the mountain valleys of South Carolina; 
Florida to North Carolina; Kewbern. 

Ell. Bot. 22. The bark, when macerated, forms a strong 
cordage, used for domestic purposes. The wood is white 
and soft, and is used by carriage and cabinet-makers. 

The inner bark of the European linden [T. Europea), 
forms a strong cordage. Doubtless our American species 
are also thus distinguished. The plants or branches may 
be steeped in water for three months, dried, and stripped; 
for every purpose of cordage on the plantation or garden, 
this material will be found useful. It forms throughout 
England the material for "bass," and is used by the horti- 
culturist. The flowers of our American tilia, sent to me 
from Pendleton district, S. C, I find quite as useful as the 
imported "Tilleul," a material for quieting, antispasmodic 
teas, so much employed in France. It is particularly grate- 
ful and soothing to lying-in women : quieting nervous ex- 
citement, and pleasant to the taste. I would particularly 
recommend a larger use of these flowers in the Confeder- 
ate States. It can be used wherever tea is required. 
Honey dew is generally most abundant on lime, sycamore, 
and beech trees ; on the cotton plant also. The above re- 
marks apply to T. pubescens also, which is indigenous. 



104 

The wood of the T. Americana is white and soft. In the 
Northern states, where the tulip poplar does not grow, it is 
used for the panels of carriage bodies and the seats of 
"Windsor chairs. It is, however, apt to split, and is not 
considered equal to poplar for such and other useful pur- 
poses. 1ST. Am. Sylva. 

Camellie^:. 

Thea viridis. The introduction of the tea plant into the 
Confederate States is so important that I will, at any rate, 
endeavor to give all suitable references to sources of in- 
formation concerning its culture, preparation, etc. See a 
pretty full account of the history of its production in the 
United States in Patent Office Report, 1855, p. 42. The 
best mode of growing the plant, drying and preparing the 
leaves, is also described. 

For some account of the experiment in the cultivation 
of foreign tea in South Carolina by Dr. Junius Smith, see 
P. 0. Report, 1848, p. 168, and 1859, p. 6. See also vol. 
for 1857, p. 167, for article on " Practicability of the Tea 
Culture in the United States." A description is given of 
the varieties of soil and climate adapted to the growth of 
tea, its cultivation and preparation, with a notice of the 
plants set out in Washington. This communication should 
be read by any one who proposes entering upon the busi- 
ness of raising tea plants; also vol. 1859, p. 5, et. seq., 
containing successful experiments in Brazil. See Ceano- 
thus Americanus, red-root, New Jersey tea tree, as a sub- 
stitute. 

Among our indigenous plants, the Gardenia (S. pubescens 
and lasianthus, growing from Florida to North Carolina)* 
belongs to the same natural family, Camellieae, as the tea 
plant, and it should be experimented with. Our Linden 
tree (Tilia Americana), the flowers of which are used in 
making an antispasmodic tea, is closely related to Gar- 
denia and Thea ; so the botanical relationship and the 
natural properties are again substantiated. See Tilia. It 



105 

is said that a pleasant tea can be made likewise from the 
Holly [Ilex opaca). 

The introduction of both coffee and tea into Brazil was 
at first very slow, but was subsequently successful. 

A writer in the " Country Gentleman " makes this state- 
ment : " A few days ago I drank a cup of real American 
tea, from the Chinese tea plant, of which Dr. J. P. Barrett, 
near New Market, S. C, has a fine shrub, about four feet 
high, which has borne fruit during several years. By its 
side was a thrifty specimen of the Olea fragrans, or Chinese 
olive, with which the tea is scented." I have seen a plant 
of the Thea growing out in the open air, near Stateburgh, 
South Carolina. In the cultivation of the tea in China, "the 
lower slopes of the hills are preferred, at 1,000 feet above 
the level of the sea. In India, from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. 
The best description of soil for the tea plant is a light 
loam, well mixed with sand, and enriched with vegetable 
matter, moderately moist, but neither wet nor sour. Slop- 
ing or undulating land of this kind, on which good crops 
of millet or Indian corn may be produced, is likely to be 
suitable. Any aspect will do, but east or west is preferred. 
The tea plant will not flourish in a wet or stagnant soil. 
* * * When produced from seeds, the tea plant first 
flowers in the second year. The usual period of flowering 
is in November, and the seeds ripen the next autumn. 
The ground is prepared for planting by being dug or 
trenched in the usual ways. Manure is rarely used in tea 
culture in China; but where the land is poor, stable-litter 
and sewage of all kinds are sometimes applied indiscrimi- 
nately, in moderate quantities, and a top dressing of rich 
loam is considered valuable. The best time to apply 
manure is in the spring, before the plants begin to grow, or 
during mild weather in winter. * * * When the plant 
is about 18 inches high the leading shoots are pinched off, 
and the shrub is forced to throw out laterals. Naturally, it 
has a tendency to grow tall and straggling, with few side 
shoots. * * * As the leaves used in making tea are 
produced yearly at the ends of the shoots, the object of 



106 

this system of treatment is apparent. * * * A small 
crop of leaves may be gathered the third year after plant- 
ing. In the eighth or tenth year, the product may be con- 
sidered at its maximum. About ten pounds to an acre is 
produced in China the third year, sometimes three hundred 
pounds in the tenth year." Art. cit. sup. 

Meliace^e. (The Bead Tree Tribe.) 

Bitter, astringent, and tonic properties characterize the 
species of this order. Some of them are active and dan- 
gerous. 

Melia Azedarach, Linn. Pride of India. Nat. ; diffused ; 
grows in the streets of Charleston. Fl. May. 

Chap. Therap. ii, 70; Ell. Bot. 475; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. iv, 290 ; U. S. Disp. 135 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 
308 ; Bell's Prac. Diet. 87 ; Eberle, Mat. Med. 207 ; Frost's 
Elems. pt. 1 ; Archives Generates de Med. xvii, 112 ; Lind. 
!N"at. Syst. 102 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 128. Barton considered 
it our most active anthelmintic. It is also a febrifuge, 
adapted to verminous fevers, where no worms are voided. 
Diet, des Drogues, par Chevallier, iii, 27. Tournon relates 
a case where a little girl was thrown into convulsions by 
eating three of the seeds. Merat also mentions cases. 
Journal Gen. de Med. xlviii, 25; Gazette de Sant6, Mars, 
1824. We have frequently seen them eaten by children in 
South Carolina, with no bad effect. As an anthelmintic, 
four ounces of the bark of the fresh root are boiled in 
one pint of water, till it becomes of the consistence of 
coffee, of which from one ounce to half an ounce may 
be given every two hours; it may be drunk sweetened, 
and should be followed by a cathartic. The dried ber- 
ries, in spirits, have also been employed against ascara- 
dides, taenia, and verminous maladies generally. Accord- 
ing to Thacher, the pulp of the berry, stewed in lard, 
is used advantageously as an ointment in tinea capitis. 
The decoction of the leaves is regarded as astringent and 
stomachic, and Dr. Skyston says he uses it with success 



107 

in hysteria. This plant is employed in Java and Persia. 
See Bev. Medicale, iv, 82. The tree is planted around 
stables, in order that horses, by eating the berries, may 
be prevented from having "bots." The leaves and ber- 
ries of the Pride of India, packed with dried fruits, will 
preserve them from, insects. It is much valued in this state 
as a shade tree, growing equally well in dry pine land resi- 
dences, and in cities ; during the expansion of the flowers, 
however, it gives out a disagreeable odor. It is easily 
blown down, and is not long-lived. The wood is beauti- 
fully grained, and adapted for table-covers, drawers, etc., 
never being injured by worms. 

A solution or decoction made with the berries of the 
Pride of India (to a half bushel of the berries put into a 
barrel add fifteen gallons of water, and let them soak one 
or two days), aud sprinkled with a water-pot over the 
plants, will, in most cases, prevent the depredation of the 
black grub or cutworm. The elder (Sambucus canadensis) 
is also said to be excellent, used in the same way. F. S. 
Holmes' So. Farmer. The oil from flax seed (Linum) will 
also destroy all kinds of animals infesting quadrupeds, 
when rubbed into the skin. 

A soap is made from the berries of the Pride of India, 
which is called "Poor man's soap." 

Aurantiaceje. ( The Orange Tribe.) 

Citrus aurantium, W. Orange. This well known tree is 
cultivated in Charleston, and grows abundantly in Beau- 
fort district, on the sea-coast; also in Florida, and coast 
of Georgia. I will refer to the Lemon, also, in this con- 
nection. 

To obtain the fragrant essences from the fresh rinds of lemons, 
oranges, etc., the rinds are rubbed against large lumps of 
loaf sugar until the yellow rind is completely absorbed. 
Those parts of the sugar which are impregnated with the 
essence, are, from time to time, to be cut away with a 
knife, and put into an earthen dish. The whole being thus 
taken off, the sugared essence is to be closely pressed, and 



108 

put by in pots, where it is to be squeezed down hard, have 
a bladder over the paper by which it is covered, and tied 
tightly up. It is at any time fit for use, and will keep for 
many years. Exactly in the same manner may be ob- 
tained and preserved, at the proper seasons, from the fresh 
roots, the essences of the rinds of bitter or sweet oranges, 
lemons or limes, bergamots, etc., some of which are often 
unattainable in a fresh state at any price. Thornton's 
Herbal, p. 659. By this simple means those who have, or 
can obtain lemons, may preserve the essence for the prepa- 
ration of cooling, acidulous drinks at any time. Wine may 
also be made from the orange. Thornton, in his medical 
work, gives the method as follows: Put twelve pounds of 
powdered sugar, with the whites of eight or ten eggs, well 
beaten, into six gallons of spring water, boil them three 
quarters of an hour ; when cold, put into it six spoonfuls 
of yeast and the juice of twelve lemons, which, being 
pared, must stand, with two pounds of white sugar, in a 
tankard, and in the morning skim off the top, and then put 
it into the water ; add the juice and rinds of fifty oranges, 
but not the white or pithy parts of the rinds ; let it work 
all together two days and two nights ; then add two quarts 
of Rhenish or white wine, and put it into a vessel. 

In P. O. Rep. 1859, p. 106, is a communication on the 
products of the Ionian islands and Italy. The following 
may be useful to those in Florida who raise the lemon in 
quantity: At Agrami, "the most considerable, and some- 
times the most valuable portion of the fruit is Scarito, or 
that rejected as unfit for exportation, from which the essen- 
tial oil contained in the rind, and the juice, or citric acid, 
in the pulp, are extracted. The essential oil is expressed 
by the hand, in a room from which the air is carefully 
excluded, as, owing to its highly volatile nature, the oil 
produced would be greatly diminished by currents of air. 
The skin cut from three sides of the lemon is pressed be- 
tween the thumb and finger, and ten or twelve ounces 
may be expressed in a long day by an expert workman. 
The oil thus expressed is put into large receivers, whence 



109 

(after remaining some days to deposit the extraneous mat- 
ter that comes off with the oil) it is transferred to copper 
bottles for exportation. 

"The juice, or citric acid, is obtained by submitting the 
pulp to a powerful press, which, though rustic in con- 
struction, is efficient. This is worked during the season 
night and day. The quantity of juice produced from one 
press during twenty-four hours averages 126 gallons. * * 
Lemon juice intended for exportation is put into well 
seasoned oak casks, and filled to the bung, so as entirely 
to exclude the air. When of a good quality, and the till- 
ing of the cask is completed, the article may be kept in a 
cellar or cold place for any reasonable time." Lemon 
juice, used for calico printing, was afterward boiled down, 
or evaporated, in leaden pans, over steam, to a certain con- 
sistency — the citric acid and mucilage only remaining in 
a highly concentrated stage. Consult Mulberry (Morus 
rubra, in this volume. See P. 0. Rep. 1858, p. 257, for 
Mr. Glover's report on the insects feeding upon it, and a 
history of the tree in Florida. See also Ure's Dictionary 
of Arts, article Citric Acid. To prevent attacks of the 
" scale," an insect, hot water or steam is the best remedy. 
The Persian powder (see P. 0. Rep. 1857, p. 129) is also 
advised (Pyrethrum caucasicum) — allied to the ox-eyed daisy 
{Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) growing in the Confederate 
States. 

Rhamnace^e. (The Buckthorn Tribe.) 

Ceanothus Americanus, L. New Jersey tea tree. Red- 
root. Two varieties exist in this state. Diffused in dry 
pine barrens ; Richland ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity 
of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 108; Ferrein, Mat. Med. iii, 338; 
IT. S. Disp. 1240 ; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 291 ; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 165 ; Boston Med. and Surg. Jour- 
nal, 1835. See also the Supplement to Mer. de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. 1846, 155. This plant possesses a considerable 
degree of astringency, and has been used in gonorrhoea! 



110 

discharges. It is applied by the Cherokee doctors as a 
wash in cancer, and may be used wherever an astringent is 
likely to be useful. The Indians employed it in lues 
venerea, preferring it to lobelia ; if the case was violent, 
the root of the blackberry (Bubus villosus) was mixed with 
it. Stearns' Am. Herbal, 97. Referring to its antisyphi- 
litic powers, Ferrein says: "Elle guerit aussi en moins de 
quinze jours, les veneriens les plus inveteres." It is not 
now supposed to be endowed with any very decided virtue 
in this respect. Dr. Hubbard prescribes it with advantage 
in the aphthous affections of infants, in malignant dysentery 
and in other maladies dependent upon debility ; he usually 
combines with it a little borax. See Journal de Pharm. xxiii, 
354. Mr. Tuomey, State Geologist, informs me that much 
use is made of it in domestic practice in Chesterfield dis- 
trict. An infusion of the leaves was employed during the 
Revolutionary war as a substitute for tea. We have experi- 
mented with the leaves, and obtained a liquor somewhat 
resembling common tea both in color and taste. It imparts 
to wool a fine, persistent, cinnamon, nankeen color. 

The above was included in my report on the Medical 
Botany of South Carolina, published in 1849. Since the 
beginning of the war I called the attention of our citizens 
to this plant as a substitute for foreign tea, in a brief com- 
munication to the Charleston Courier (Oct. 1861), having 
again collected and used it, and induced others to do the 
same. I quote from this article : " Without any desire to 
exaggerate, I commend the substitute. It grows abun- 
dantly in our high pine ridges. The tea prepared from this 
shrub, drawn as common tea, is certainly a good substitute 
for indifferent black tea. Properly dried and prepared, it 
is better than none. I am glad to report it as a most 
excellent article to be used in war times in place of a high- 
priced commodity, which in every respect it closely resem- 
bles, if it does not equal." Dr. John Bachman, also, at a 
later period (1862) directed attention to the plant, stating 
that he had used it for two months in his own family. 
The leaves should be carefully dried in the shade. 



Ill 

Euphokbiace^. {The Ewphorbium Tribe.) 

The general property, according to Jussieu, is an exci- 
tant principle, residing principally in the milky secretion, 
and proportioned in its strength to the abundance of the 
latter. 

Buxus sempervire?is. Box. Ex. ; cultivated in gardens. 

Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 799 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 512 ; 
Le. i, 244 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 602. The leaves have been 
affirmed to be violently purgative, and are employed as a 
substitute for guaiacum. Dem. Elem. de Botanique, iii, 
434 ; Bull. Plantes Ven. de France. A fetid oil is obtained 
from it, and the wood is prized by engravers for their 
blocks. 

The timber-bearing box tree is planted in England from 
the seeds to great profit, Besides being ornamental, its 
timber is very valuable. It attains a great height in Tur- 
key and Asia Minor, and the wood is used by the engrav- 
er, and for the manufacture of combs, and musical and 
mathematical instruments. It will grow on poor lands. 
The garden box is always dwarfish. 

Croton balsamiferum. Willd. South Florida. 

This plant, C. maralimign, Walt., and several other spe- 
cies, natives of the Confederate States, should be examined 
on account of their alliance with C. tiglium, which produces 
croton oil. Cascarilla bark, and a dye, are obtained from 
the genus Croton. 

Ricinus communis. Castor oil plant. Ex ; grows luxu- 
riantly in rich spots. This valuable plant thrives so well 
in this state, that it might be made a source of profit. On 
some of the plantations the seeds are boiled, and the su- 
pernatant oil given as a cathartic. It might with great 
advantage be more generally used. See authors passim. 

It is believed by some that one variety of the castor oil 
bean hulls itself spontaneously. I remember no distinc- 



112 

tion of this kind mentioned in Pereira's lengthy descrip- 
tion of the plant. I have been applied to to ascertain the 
relative value of the small and large-seeded variety. Pere- 
ira states that the oil is equally good and abundant in each. 
See also the Dictionnaire de Mat. Medicale. 

It is being planted extensively by planters for home use 
in the Confederate States; and at present, 1862, the oil 
sells at from eight to eleven dollars a gallon. As it is im- 
portant that this plant should be largely grown, on account 
of its great value and enormous consumption, I will be at 
the trouble to insert all the practical information at my 
disposal. 

A brief paper can be found in the Patent Office Report, 
1855, p. 27. The writer says that the Palma Christi 
" has proved itself well adapted to the soil and climate of 
the Middle and Southern states, and were its culture ex- 
tended for the manufacture of castor oil, there is no doubt 
it would be profitable under improved methods of extract- 
ing it, and we should no longer be dependent upon other 
nations for a supply. At present we annually import an 
amount of this article exceeding in value $30,000." 

Although an annual, herbaceous plant in the gardens of 
the cooler parts of Europe and the United States, within the 
tropics, and the warm climates adjacent thereto, the Palma 
Christi becomes a tree of several years standing, often 
having a woody trunk of the size of a man's body, and fif- 
teen or twenty feet high. This plant thrives best in a light, 
sandy loam, although it may be cultivated with success in 
almost any soil tolerably fertile, or in any climate or soil 
where Indian corn will thrive. In the cooler parts of the 
Union it may be planted in hills two feet by three apart, 
two seeds in a place, as early in the spring as the warmth 
of the ground and the season will admit; but in the South, 
where the season is longer, and the plant assumes the 
character of a tree, the hills should be six or seven feet in 
one direction, and three and a half feet in the other, re- 
ceiving one seed to a hill, covered to the depth of two 
inches. The culture is so simple, that it only requires to 



113 

keep the plants free from weeds, with a small, flat hill to 
each. The only difficulty to contend" with is, that in saving 
or harvesting the beans, the outward coats, as they become 
dry and elastic, fly off the plants to a considerable distance, 
causing the seeds to drop to the ground. . In order to pre- 
vent this, it has been recommended to cut off' the branches 
from the plants, as soon as the pods begin to explode, and 
spread them on the floor of a close room ; and after the 
beans and their shells have parted, to separate the husks 
from the seeds with a fanning-mill, as with wheat, or try 
the common riddle and a draught of air. The seeds of 
this plant furnish the well known medicine, castor oil, 
which is obtained both by decoction and expression. The 
former method is performed by freeing the seeds from 
their husks, which are gathered upon their turning brown, 
and when beginning to burst open are first bruised in a 
mortar, afterward tied up in a linen bag, and then thrown 
into a large pot with a sufficient quantity of water, and 
boiled until the oil has risen to the surface, when it is 
carefully skimmed off", strained, and preserved for use. 
In extensive operations, a mill should be provided, moved 
by the agency of animal power, water, or steam, for bruis- 
ing the seeds ; and the other apparatus used in obtaining 
the oil should be of appropriate dimensions. The oil thus 
obtained, however, has the disadvantage of becoming ran- 
cid sooner than that procured by expression. The best 
mode, . therefore, is to subject the seeds to a powerful hy- 
draulic press, in a similar manner to that in which the oil 
is extracted from almonds and cotton seeds. The seeds 
yield about one-quarter of their weight in oil. 

The reader interested in the varieties, mode of pressure, 
etc., of castor oil seeds, may consult with profit Merat and 
De Len's Diet, cle Mat. Med., Pereira's Mat. Med., the U. S. 
Disp., and in addition the material included in, this paper; 
also, Ure's Diet, of Arts, article u Oils," and Wilson's 
Rural Cyc. 

The oil may be extracted from the seeds (see U. S. Disp.) 



114 

in three ways: by decoction, expression, and by the agency 
of alcohol. 

The process by decoction consists in bruising the seeds, 
previously deprived of their husks, and then boiling them 
in water. The oil rising to the surface is skimmed or 
strained off, and afterward again boiled with a small 
quantity of water, to dissipate the acrid principle. To 
increase the product, it is said that the seeds are some- 
times toasted. The oil is thus rendered brownish and 
acrid, and the same result takes place in the second boiling 
if care is not taken to suspend the process soon after the 
water is evaporated. Hence the color of the West India 
oil, where this method is pursued. " The oil obtained in 
this country is by expression. The following, as we have 
been informed, are the outlines of the process usually 
employed by those who prepare it on a large, scale. The 
seeds having been thoroughly cleansed from the dust and 
fragments of the capsules with which they are mixed, are 
conveyed into a shallow iron reservoir, where they are sub- 
mitted to a gentle heat, insufficient to scorch or decompose 
them, and not greater than can be readily borne by the 
hand. The object of this step is to render the oil suffi- 
ciently liquid for easy expression. The seeds are then 
introduced into a powerful screw-press. A whitish, oily 
liquid is thus obtained, which is transferred to clean iron 
boilers, supplied with a considerable quantity of water. 
The mixture is boiled for some time, and the impurities 
being skimmed off as they rise to the surface, a clear oil 
is at length left upon the top of the water — the mucilage 
and starch having been dissolved by this liquid, and the 
albumen coagulated by the heat. The latter ingredient 
forms a whitish layer between the oil and water. The 
clear oil is now carefully removed, and the process is com- 
pleted by boiling it with a minute proportion of water, and 
continuing the application of heat till aqueous vapor ceases 
to rise, and till a small portion of the liquid, taken out 
in a vial, preserves a perfect transparency when it cools. 
The effect of this last operation is to clarify the oil, and to 



115 

render it less irritating, by driving off" the acrid, volatile 
matter. But much care is requisite not to push the heat 
too far, as the oil then acquires a brownish hue, and an 
acrid, peppery taste. After the completion of the process, 
the oil is put into barrels, and is thus sent into market. 
There is reason, however, to believe -that much of the 
American oil is prepared by merely allowing it to stand 
for some time after expression, and then drawing off the 
supernatant liquid. One bushel of good seeds yields five 
or six quarts, or about twenty-five per cent, of the best 
oil. If it is not very carefully prepared, it is apt to de- 
posit a sediment upon standing ; and the apothecary -fre- 
quently finds it necessary to filter it through coarse paper 
before dispensing it. Perhaps this may be owing to the 
plan just alluded to, of purifying the oil by rest and clecan- 
tation." A large proportion of oil was obtained through 
New Orleans from Illinois. The American castor oil, says 
Wood and Bache, is also prepared by mere expression, 
rest, and decantation. See Bent (" Sesamum") for oils and 
method of expression. 

Doctor John Bachman ("J. B."), who has exhibited the 
character of the true patriot during our present struggles, 
communicates the following on the castor' oil plant: 

Mode of Culture. — Break up the land with a plough, 
and lay it off in rows six feet apart, each way. The best 
time to plant is from the middle of April to the second 
week in May. Drop three seeds in each hill. Half a 
bushel of seed will plant ten acres. Treat the plant in the 
same manner as corn. Be careful in looking after the cut- 
worm, which gives it the preference to corn. When the 
plants are six inches high, they should be thinned to one 
stalk in a hill. New lands, broken up the same season, are 
not suited. 1 One hand can tend five acres. In a good, dry 
soil, the yield will be from fifteen to twenty bushels per 
acre, each bushel yielding seven quarts of pure oil. 

Gathering the Seed. — About the middle of August the 
seeds begin to ripen, and will continue until checked by 
the frost. A writer in the Western Plough Boy, of 1832, 



116 

says: "Previous to the ripening of the seeds, the yard for 
spreading them on should be prepared. It should be made 
on ground of a gradual descent, open to the sun, and made 
very smooth and firm. The first and second parcels that 
ripen must stand till the pods on the ear begin to crack, 
otherwise a part of the bean will be imperfect. Later in 
the season, when the stalk is more mature, they must be 
cut when two or three pods begin to open, or they will 
waste. They are laid in the yard one ear deep. In warm 
weather a layer will pop out in three days. When all have 
opened the stems are raked oft'. The hulls are swept oft' 
with a broom made with naked switches ; which, if care- 
fully done, will not leave more than one bushel of hulls in 
eight of beans. They may be cleaned with a common 
wheat-fan, with a riddle suited to the size of the bean." 

Mode of Extraction. — The oil is obtained both by coc- 
tion and expression. The former method is performed by 
tying up the seeds, previously broken and bruised, in a 
bag, which is suspended in boiling water till the oil is ex- 
tracted and rises to the surface, when it is skimmed oft". 
This is the usual mode adopted by farmers. The smallest 
quantity of water, however,- remaining in the oil, causes it 
to become rancid. The "cold expressed oil" is prefer- 
able, and will continue pure for a long time. The process 
is easy and simple. The screw and the lever used in bal- 
ing cotton will express the oil from the beans. The cap- 
sules, or unopened beans, are to be moderately heated in a 
furnace, not so hot as to be distressing to the naked hand. 
Under the screw is fixed a strong iron cylinder, into which 
the beans are put, and covered with an iron follower, of 
diameter proportioned to the cylinder. The oil is now fit 
for use. I have seen it stated that "a Southwestern plant- 
er began with- making 500 gallons of oil in 1825, and in 
1831 he produces 13,000." It was then a profitable busi- 
ness at one dollar and fifty cents per gallon. 

I trust our planters will see the necessity of preparing to 
plant the castor oil bean extensively. The great value of 
the oil as a purgative is the mildness and rapidity with 



117 

which it operates. It is much needed by the brave defend- 
ers of our soil. It has saved thousands of lives-; and if 
we cannot obtain it, thousands must perish by our inatten- 
tion to the production of this necessary medicine. That 
the profits, under moderate prices, are greater than. the 
production of any other article, I am fully aware. 

N. B. — Planters should be encouraged to plant largely 
of the ground-nut — it makes an admirable oil; so does the 
benL Oils are needed not only for table use, but on our 
machinery of every description. 

Mr. W. Toney, a writer in the Southern Field and Fire- 
side, says "there are several varieties, all yielding castor 
oil, but only one kind which is self-hulling, and this is the 
true, genuine oil-bean." If this is so, I am not aware of it. 
I have only seen a large and a small seed variety, and ho 
writer refers, so far as I am aware, to any other distinction. 
The writer referred to says that, for the common varieties, 
some machinery, like the cotton seed huller, is necessary 
to decorticate them. 

A recent writer says that when the capsule is about to 
expel the bean it is ripe ; the ripe bunches should be re- 
moved from the stalk with a knife, and laid thinly over a 
hard and dry floor of earth, plank, etc., on a hot and sunny 
day, when the heat of the sun will cause the capsules to 
expel the contained beans. Now rake away the straw, and 
winnow away the chaff. 

The cleaned beans are now to be beaten in a mortar with 
a pestle, or ground in a mill to a good degree of fineness. 
The mass may then be made to give out the contained oil, 
either by decoction or by expression. 

The beaten beans may be used as 'a purgative, but an 
overdose is sure to act powerfully as a cathartic, and often 
as an emetic. Three beans (a little more or less) are gen- 
erally enough for a dose. 

The castor oil bean, after being exposed in the sun, may 
be thrashed with a flail, or slightly pounded in a mortar, to 
loosen out the seeds. I would suppose that the best plan 
would be to winnow out the seeds from their coverings. 



118 

To purify the oil of mucilage, which will render it rancid, 
the oil should be boiled in a little water; the mucilage being 
insoluble in the water, may be skimmed off. Any water 
remaining with the oil should be evaporated, taking care 
not -to burn or overheat the oil in the process. Soubeiran 
considers that all processes in which heat is employed are 
objectionable, as a quantity of fatty acids is produced, which 
renders the oil acrid; only, too high a temperature should 
be avoided. Pereira says that in England the oil is ex- 
pressed either by Bramah's hydraulic press, or by a common 
screw-press, in a room artificially heated. It is purified by 
rest, decantation, and filtration. It is bleached by exposure 
to light on the tops of houses. In Calcutta it is prepared 
as follows, Pereira adds : The fruit is shelled by women, 
the seeds are crushed between rollers, then placed in 
hempen cloths, and pressed in the ordinary screw or h}^- 
draulic press. The oil thus procured is afterward heated 
with water in a tin boiler until the water boils, by which 
the mucilage or albumen is separated as a scum. The oil 
is then strained through flannel, and put into canisters. 
The small seed variety is supposed to yield the most oil. 
Beans of ricinus are said by Boussingault to be about four 
times more rich in oil than either flaxseed, olives, or sun- 
flower seed. He says that 62 pounds of oil can be pro- 
cured in 100 of the castor oil bean. It is stated that in 
Jamaica castor oil is often obtained by simply bruising the 
iseeds in a mortur, and boiling them in bags under water — 
the oil rises to the surface, is skimmed off, strained, and 
bottled for use. This was the plan used on the plantations 
in South Carolina during the war of Independence. It 
would not do for operations on a large scale. See also 
Encyc. Britannica, art. "Ricinus." The oil is considered 
good for illuminating purposes. A writer in the Southern 
Cultivator, p. 29, vol .7, refers to the discovery of a proc- 
ess for separating stearine from the pure oil in the seeds, 
and making the former into candles. 

The cake left after the expression of castor oil is very 
advantageously applied to land as a manure for wheat and 



119 

other crops/ An interesting communication upon this 
subject may be found in the first volume of the Farmer's 
Register, from T. Or. Peachy, Esq., of Williamsburg, Va., 
the results of whose experiments show the great value of 
the article. In one experiment he applied from fifty to 
sixty bushels per acre on seven and a half acres of land 
sown with ten bushels of wheat, and the product was 
twenty-six bushels of wheat per acre. In this case the 
land was so poor that not over five bushels could, be ex- 
pected from it without dressing. He recommends about 
forty bushels as an ordinary dressing. Mr. Peachy does not 
think the common impression correct, that the chief effi- 
cacy of the cake resides in the portion of oil which it re- 
tains. His press, he says, " is a very powerful one, and 
leaves a very small portion of oil in the cake. There is, 
moreover, other refuse matter in such an establishment as 
ours, which contains a vast deal more oil than the cake, 
which I have used as manure, and been uniformly disap- 
pointed in its effects. Accident has enabled me, I think, 
to solve the difficulty, and to declare my belief that the 
fertilizing qualities of the oil cake reside chiefly in the 
farina it contains. Some time last year, a vessel laden 
with flour was stranded near Jamestown, and the flour 
ruined. Mr. John Mann, who owns a farm in the neigh- 
borhood, took two or three of the barrels, and top-dressed 
a small portion of his wheat with it. I was not an eye- 
witness of its effects ; but I was informed that it produced 
as great an increase of that portion of his crop as my oil 
cake would have done. 

"By experiment, I find that fifty bushels of the cake will 
weigh 1,800 pounds; and of this quantity I have discovered 
that ten-eighteenths is farina or flour — equal to five barrels 
of flour. The cotton seed, I fancy, contains more farina, 
in proportion to the oil, than the castor bean, and, I be- 
lieve, would produce as great an effect after being deprived 
of its oil as it would do in its original state." 

Jatropha stimulosa y Mx. Stinging nettle. Grows in dry 



120 

pine land ; vicinity of .Charleston ; collected in St. John's ; 
Richland, Div<L. Gibbes; Newborn. Fl. Aug. The leaves 
are prickly, and highly irritating when'applied to the" skin. 
It might be employed like the nettle (Urtica), as a counter- 
irritant in epilepsies, and diseases requiring stimulating 
applications. 

Acahjpha Virginica, L. Grows in dry, fertile lands ; 
vicinit3 7 of Charleston; collected in St. John's, Berkley ; 
JSTewbern. Fl. Sept. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 645. Said by Dr. Atkins, of 
Coosawhatchie, to be expectorant and diuretic; he has 
employed it successfully in cases of humid asthma, ascites, 
and anasarca. . 

Jtvppomdne mancinella, L. Manchineel. South Florida. 
Chap. 

I find it closely related to Stillingia (queen's delight), and 
it belongs to the EupliorbiacecE. "Wilson describes it as a poi- 
sonous, evergreen, tropical tree, of the spurge family. It 
attains a height of eighty feet, and was esteemed a great 
curiosity in the hot-houses of Britain. The fruit is the 
size of an apple. A milky, caustic juice abounds in every 
part of the tree, and if it touches the human eye, is in 
danger of causing blindness ; and if it falls on any part of 
the human skin, will blister it; if upon linen, it will make 
it black, and afterward eat a hole through it; yet this 
forms, adds the author from whom I quote, some of the 
well known caoutchouc of commerce. The timber of the 
manchineel is very durable, and takes a fine polish, and is 
much esteemed for various kinds of cabinet-work; but the 
woodsmen require to dry and consolidate it by surround- 
ing it with artificial fires before felling the trees, else they 
might be blistered and blinded by its juice. And the cab- 
inet-makers must cover their faces with fine lawn while 
working it, else they might get their eyes inflamed, and 
temporarily blinded, with its exhalations and sawdust. The 



121 

fruit violently inflames the mouth and throat of any person 
who tastes it, and it is exceedingly dangerous. Any avail- 
able part of the plant is so dreadfully active that it cannot, 
even in the 'smallest doses, be safely introduced into medi- 
cine. A notion prevails among the Americans that the 
dew which falls beneath the tree is inflammatory and blis- 
tering ; but this seems to be, the author adds, an absurd 
exaggeration. The name Hippomane signifies horse-mad- 
ness, ascribing to the tree a maddening effect upon the 
horse. Rural Cyclopaedia. Its resemblance to our Stttlin- 
gia, which is a mere shrub, is close, and the tree wants a 
careful investigation at the hands of those living in Florida. 
I have collected the milk from the Euphorbia and Asclepias, 
and hardened it, though not in sufficient amount to test its 
qualities. 

Stillingia sylvatica, L. Queen's delight. Collected in the 
pine barrens of St. John's, Berkley, in great abundance; 
Richland ; vicinity of Charleston ; JSTewbern. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Disp. 687 ; Frost in So. Journal Med. and Pharm., 
Oct. 1846 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 535. This 
plant exudes a milky juice, very pungent to the taste, and 
flowing in great abundance from the bruised surface. It is 
used to some extent in this state, as an alterative in scrof- 
ula, in syphilis, in cutaneous diseases, in chronic hepatic 
affections, and in the composition of diet drinks ; it adds 
to the efficacy of sarsaparilla. We are informed by a phy- 
sician residing in South Carolina, that he has treated syph- 
ilis successfully with i't. It is believed to be possessed of 
valuable properties, and greater attention should be paid to 
it by those living in the country where it is easily obtained. 
A tincture is made with the root two ounces, of diluted 
alcohol a pint. Dose a fluid drachm. A decoction is made 
of the bruised root one ounce, water one and one-quarter 
pints. Boil to one pint. Dose, one or two fluidounces 
several times a day ; an overdose is cathartic or emetic. 
The milky juices should be examined. I have inspissated 
that from the Asclepias and Euphorbia. See these genera, 



122 

ia sebifera, L. Tallow-tree. Nat. from China; 
collected in St. John's, forty-five miles from the ocean. 
I have seen it growing abundantly near Charleston, on 
the King street road. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 476; see Oroton 
sebif of Mich. An ointment made from this is applied in 
nocturnal fevers. The Chinese, according to Thunberg, 
employ the concreted oil extracted from the plant, in man- 
ufacturing candles. The Reporters of the Patent Office, 
for 1848, speak very favorably of it, and recommend its 
Introduction, seeming not to be aware of its being already 
found here. See their method of extracting the oil. 

In my report on the Medical Botany of South Carolina 
to the American Medical Association, in 1849, I had, as 
above, reported the fact of this tree being already natural- 
ized. I have recommended it particularly to the soap 
manufacturers of Charleston and the Confederate States, 
as a rich material for oil. The seeds, when burned, give 
out a great deal of light. It could be planted with profit. 
In the Patent Office Report, 1851, p. 54, there is also a 
paper on the uses of the S. sebifera, with a notice of the 
Pe-la, or Insect Wax of China. By D. J. Macgowan, M. 
D., dated Ningpo, August, 1850. In this article, it is stated 
that the Encyclopaedia Americana refers to its being grown 
along our coast. "Analytical chemistry shows animal 
tallow to consist of two proximate principles — stearine and 
daine. Now, what renders the fruit of this tree peculiarly 
Interesting, is the fact that both these principles exist in it 
separately, in nearly a pure state." "Nor is the tree prized 
merely for the stearine and elaine it juelds, though these 
products constitute its chief value : its leaves are employed 
as a black dye ; its wood, being hard and durable, may be 
easily used for printing-blocks, and various other articles ; 
and, finally, the refuse of the nut is employed as fuel and 
manure." Dr. Roxburgh, in his Flora Indica, had con- 
demned the plant as of little value, because, in simply 
crushing and boiling the seeds, the two principles referred to 
as existing together are not properly separated. I had my- 



123 

self, long since, in my report, published in 1849, and also in 
my paper in DeBow's Review, August, 1861, recommended 
tliis plant to the candle and soap manufacturers for the 
large amount of oil it contained, and because of its abun- 
dance around Charleston. I also gave some of the seeds 
to a manufacturer of castor oil, to experiment with, in 
1851. I will now quote from the paper mentioned, and 
also refer the reader to a paper on the subject in the 
Charleston Medical Journal, by H. W. Raven el. 

" The Stillingia sebifera is chiefly cultivated in the provin- 
ces of Brangsi, Kongnain, and Chekkiang. In some districts 
near Uangchan,. the inhabitants defray all their taxes with 
its produce. It grows alike on low, alluvial plains, and on 
granite hills, on the rich mould, at the margin of canals, 
and on the sandy sea-beach. The sandy estuary of Hang- 
chan yields little else. Some of the trees are known to be 
several hundred years old, and, though prostrated, still send 
forth branches and bear fruit. Some are made to fall over 
rivulets, forming convenient bridges. They are seldom 
planted where anything else can be conveniently cultivated 
— in detached places, in corners about houses, roads, canals, 
and fields. Grafting is performed at the close of March, or 
early in April, when the trees are about three inches in 
diameter, and also when the} 7 attain their growth. The 
Fragrant Herbal recommends for trial the practice of an old 
gardener, who, instead of grafting, preferred breaking the 
small branches and twigs, taking care not to tear or wound 
the bark. In midwinter, when the nuts are ripe, they are 
cut off, with their twigs, by a sharp, crescentic knife, 
attached to the extremity of a long pole, which is' held in 
the hand, and pushed upward against the twigs, removing 
at the same time such as are fruitless. The capsules are 
gently pounded in a mortar, to loosen the seeds from their 
shells, from which they are separated by sifting. To facili- 
tate the separation of the white, sebaceous matter envelop- 
ing the seeds, they are steamed in tubs having convex open 
wicker bottoms, placed over caldrons of boiling water. 
When thoroughly heated, they are reduced to a mash in 



124 

» 

the'mortar, and thence transferred to bamboo sieves, kept 
at a uniform temperature over hot ashes. A single opera- 
tion does not suffice to deprive them of all their tallow ; 
the steaming and sifting are therefore repeated. The arti- 
cle thus procured becomes a solid mass on falling through 
the sieve, and, to purify it, is melted and formed into cakes 
for the press. These receive their form in bamboo hoops, 
a foot in diameter, and three inches deep, which are laid on 
the ground over a little straw. On being filled with the 
. hot 'liquid, the buds of the straw are drawn up and spread 
over the top, and when of sufficient consistence, are placed 
with their rings in the press. This apparatus, which is of 
the rudest description, is constructed of two large beams, 
placed horizontally, so as to form a trough capable of con- 
taining about fifty of the rings, with their sebaceous cakes. 
At one end it is closed, and at the other it is used for 
receiving wedges, which are successively driven into it by 
ponderous sledge-hammers, wielded by athletic men. The 
tallow oozes in a melted state into a receptacle below, 
where it cools. It is again melted, and poured into tubs 
smeared with mud, to prevent its adhering. It is now 
marketable, in masses of about eighty pounds each, hard, 
brittle, white, opaque, tasteless, and without the odor of 
animal tallow. Under high pressure it scarcely stains 
bibulous paper; melts at 104° Fahrenheit. It may be 
regarded as nearly pure slearine; the slight difference 
is doubtless owing to the admixture of oil expressed 
from the seeds in the process just described. The seeds 
yield about eight per cent, of tallow, which sells for 
about five cents per pound. The process for pressing the 
oil, which is carried on at the same time, remains to be 
noticed. It is contained in the kernel of the nut — the 
sebaceous matter which lies between the shell and the 
husk having been removed in the manner described. The 
kernel, and the husk covering it, are ground between two 
stones, which are heated to prevent clogging from the seba- 
ceous matter still adhering. The mass is then placed in a 
winnowing machine, precisely like those in use in western 



125 

countries. The chaff being separated, exposes the white, 
oleaginous kernels, which, after being strained, are placed 
in a mill to be mashed. This machine is formed of a cir- 
cular stone groove, twelve feet in diameter, three inches 
deep, and about as many wide, into which a thick, solid 
stone wheel, eight feet in diameter, tapering at the edge, is 
made to revolve perpendicularly by an ox harnessed to the 
outer end of its axle, the inner turning on a pivot in 
the centre of the machine. Under this perpendicular 
weight the seeds are reduced to a mealy state, steamed in 
the tubs, formed into cakes, and pressed by wedges in the 
manner above described; the process of mashiLg, steaming, 
and dressing being repeated with the kernels likewise. 
The kernels yield about thirty per cent, of oil. It is called 
ising-yu, sells for about three cents a pound, answers well 
for lamps, though inferior for this purpose to some other 
vegetable oils in use. It is also employed for various pur- 
poses in the arts,*and has a place in the Chinese pharmaco- 
poeia because of its quality of changing gray hair black, 
and other imaginary virtues. The husk which envelops 
the kernel, and the shell which encloses them and their 
sebaceous covering, are used to feed the furnaces — scarcely 
any other fuel being needed for this purpose. The resid- 
uary tallow cakes are also employed for fuel, as a small 
quantity of it remains ignited a whole day. It is in great 
demand for chafing-dishes during the cold season, and, 
finally, the cakes which remain after the oil has been 
pressed out are much valued as a manure, particularly for 
tobacco fields, the soil of which is rapidly impoverished 
by the Virginia weed. Artificial illumination in China is 
generally procured by vegetable oils ; but candles are also 
employed by those who can afford it, and for lanterns. In 
religious ceremonies no other material is used. As no one 
ventures out after dark without a lantern, and as the gods 
cannot be acceptably worshipped without candles, the quan- 
tit} 7 consumed is very great. With an unimportant excep- 
tion, the candles are made of what I beg to designate as 
vegetable stearine. When the candles, which are made by 



126 

dipping, are of the required diameter, they receive a final 
dip into a mixture of the same material and insect wax, by 
which their consistency is preserved in the hottest weather. 
They are generally colored red, which is done by throwing a 
minute quantity of alkanet root (Anchusa tinctoria), brought 
from Shangtung, into the mixture. Verdigris is sometimes 
employed to dye them green. The wicks are made of rush 
coiled round a stem of coarse grass, the lower part of which 
is slit to receive the pin of the candlestick, which is more 
economical than if put into a socket. Tested in the mode 
recommended by Count Iiumford, these candles compare 
favorably with those made from spermaceti, but not when 
the clumsy wick of the Chinese is employed. Stearine 
candles cost about eight cents per pound. 

Euphorbia corolhta, L. "Wild hippo ; wild ipecac. Col- 
lected in St. John's, Berkley; Charleston district; in dry 
soils ; vicinity of Charleston ; ISTewbern. * Fl. Aug. 

Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 82; Bell's Pract. Diet. 199; 
Am. Journal Med. Sci. xi, 22 ; U. S. Disp. 321 ; Big. Am. 
Med. Bot, iii, 119 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 542 ; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. iii, 179; Clayton's Phil. Trans. Abriclg. 
331 ; Zollickotfer, Mat. Med. 1819 ; cit. in Bart. loc. sup. ; 
Coxe, Am. Disp. 272 ; Griffith, Med. Bot, 593. It is emetic, 
diaphoretic, and cathartic. Dr. Zollickoft'er thinks that, as 
a diaphoretic, combined with Dover's powder, it is not in- 
ferior to ipecacuanha. He tried it in seven cases. Twenty 
grains of the powdered root would produce emesis, some- 
times followed by hypercatharsis. Dr. McKeen states that 
twelve grains of the root in substance have double the pur- 
gative power of an equal quantity of jalap. "Combined 
with opium and the sulphate of potassa, an excellent 
diaphoretic in dropsy." See Diet, de Mat. Med. Dr. Frost, 
Prof. Mat. Med. South Carolina Med. Coll., thinks it quite 
as active as the ipecacuanha, and fully entitled to the con- 
sideration of the profession, he having used it with benefit 
in his own practice. "Even should they not be employed, 
every physician should be instructed in their properties, 



127 

and, when occasion requires", know the substitute he can 
apply to in case of need." Op. cit. 82. A drachm to eighty 
or one hundred grains may be added to a half pint of 
hot water, which may be given in tablespoonful doses 
every five or ten minutes till vomiting is induced. This is 
a convenient mode of administration. According to ex- 
periment, the contused root will excite vesication and 
inflammation if applied to the skin. Maj. John Leconte, 
of New York, informs me that he has been much pleased 
with its effects as a sudorific. Dose as an emetic, twenty 
grains ; as a cathartic, ten grains ; as a diaphoretic, four 
grains. This plant is easily obtained, and can be conven- 
iently prescribed. It should be used with caution in cases 
of insensibility of the stomach. 

Euphorbia ipecacuanha. Carolina hippo. Grows in Abbe- 
ville, Edgefield, and Colleton districts ; Newbern. Fl. 
June. 

U. S. Disp. 223 ; Barton's Med. Bot. 120. . An energetic 
and tolerably certain emetic ; but liable sometimes to pro- 
duce excessive nausea by accumulation ; hence, thought by 
some writers "wholly unfit to supersede the officinal ipe- 
cacuanha." "This opinion, however, has been questioned 
by Hewson, lioyal, and others. Barton said it was equal, 
and in some respects superior. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 114 ; 
Shec. Flora Carol. 555 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
iii, 182 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 272 ; Schoepf, Mat. Med. 74 ; B. 
S. Barton, Collec. 26; W. P. Barton, Veg. Mat. Med.; 
Griffith's Med. Bot. 592 ; Frost's Eleins. 81. It sometimes 
has its action extended to the bowels, and operates w T ith a 
considerable degree of activity. Dose as an emetic, fifteen 
to twenty grains ; as a diaphoretic, five grains. Bigelow 
notices among its constituents caoutchouc, resin, mucus, 
and fsecula. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 109. It is evident, from 
the variety of opinions expressed in relation to this plant, 
that it should be given with caution. Both species are 
considered to be more active than the imported ipecac- 
uanha. 



128 

Euphorbia hypericifolia, L. Spurge ; eye-bright. Grows in 
the upper district, according to Elliott; vicinity of Charles- 
ton, Bach ; Collected in St. John's ; found by Dr. Boykin, 
in Georgia. Fl. July. 

IT. S. Disp. 321. Highly recommended by Dr. Zol- 
lickofi'er, of Baltimore, in dysentery, after due depletion. 
In diarrhoea, meuorrhagia, and leucorrhcea, a half ounce of 
the dried leaves is infused in a pint of boiling water, of 
which a fluid half ounce must be taken every hour in dys- 
entery, and the same quantity after every evacuation in di- 
arrhoea, and two ounces morning, noon, and night, in 
amenorrhcea, fluor albus, etc. See, also, Mer. and de L. 
Supplem. to the Diet, de M. Med. 1845, 282, where Dr. 
Zollickoffer's success in twelve cases is referred to ; also, 
Am. Journal of Med. Sci. Nov. 1832 ; M. and de L. iii, 181. 
It possesses some narcotic power, also, which contributes 
to render it peculiarly applicable in these diseases. Journal 
Med. de la Gironde, 161, 1825. Martius says it has the 
same properties as the E. linearis the milky juice of which 
is used in Brazil in syphilitic ulcers. He had often tested 
its value in ulcers of the cornea. Journal de Chim. v, 427. 
The juice applied to the eye causes severe smarting, and it 
is thought to cause the severe salivation to Which grazing 
horses are subject. From several of the spurge tribe a 
gum (euphorbium) is obtained by incision, which concretes 
by exposure to the air. It is a dangerous irritant, and has 
to be handled with caution. Mixed with starch to weaken 
it, it may be used externally. Our Euphorbias should be 
examined for caoutchouc, and the juice investigated care- 
fully and cautiously; so, also,, the juice of the Stillingia. 

Euphorbia maculata, L. Cultivated soils ; vicinity of 
Charleston ; collected in St. John's. El. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 184 ; Ainslie, Mat. 
Med. Ind. ii, 76. Juice employed with great success in 
cleansing the cornea of the spots and pellicles (les pelli- 
cules) following small pox. Merat says the ancients recom- 
mended these plants in diseases of the eye. Dr. Zol- 



129 

lickoffer speaks of this species, also, as possessing valuable 
properties. All are endowed with some emetic power. 

Euphorbia heUoscopia. Grows near the Horseshoe bridge, 
Ashepoo, and on Hutchinson's island. See Ell. Sketches. 
Fl. May. 

Dem. filem. de Botanique, ii, 21. "A valuable purga- 
tive." According to Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 
181, it is useful in spyhilis when mercury is contraindicated. 
Dr. Eonne assures the profession of its utility. See Bulk 
des Sci. de Fer. ii, 354. 

Euphorbia thymifolia, L. Included by Thomas Walter, in 
his Flora Carolina, among the South Carolina species- 
Mich, says it grows on the Mississippi. Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. iii, 188. In India, the powder is admin- 
istered in the verminous disorders of infants. Ainslie, 
Mat. Med. Ind. 275. 

Mercurialis annua. Grows around Charleston. Intro- 
duced. 

A poisonous, narcotic plant, with emetic properties, but 
less active than the M. perennis. Seeds purgative. It par- 
takes, to a certain extent, of the acrid qualities of the 
Euphorbiacese. 

Celastrace^e. 

De Oand. says an acrid principle has been detected among 
the species. 

Euonymus Amerkanus. Rare ; grows in swamps ; col- 
lected in St. John's, Berkley. Fl. May. 

Griffith's Med. Bot. 220. Emetic, discutient, and anti- 
syphilitic. It is also thought to be narcotic. The seeds 
are said to be nauseous, purgative, and emetic, and are 
used in some places to destroy vermin in the hair. Leaves 
are poisonous to cattle. 

Euonymus atropurpureus. Possesses properties similar to 
the above. 
9 



130 

Staphyleace.e. (Bladder-nut Family.) 

Staphylea trifoha, L. Three leaved bladder-nut. Damp 
woods North Carolina, Tennessee, and northward (Chap). 

The nut of our tree ^resembles closely that of the S. pin- 
nata, which is used in Catholic countries for making rosa- 
ries. Rosaries are also made of the seeds of the Pride of 
India tree (Melia). The nuts of the 8. trifoliata resemble a 
large, inflated bladder. 

Cyrilla racemiflora, Walter. Grows in swamps, and inun- 
dated lands ; collected in St. John's, where it is found in 
abundance; vicinity of Charleston; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 295. The outer bark of the old- 
est shrubs, near the root, is extremely light and friable, and 
absorbs moisture. It has been used with advantage as a 
substitute for agaric and other styptics. I learn that it is 
much confided in for this purpose by those living in Dar- 
lington district, South Carolina. When rubbed on the 
hand, it produces a sensation similar to that produced by 
the application of an astringent fluid. It has also been 
applied to ulcers when the indication is to cicatrize them. 
This plant merits further attention. 

Cliftonia ligustrina, Banks. (3fylocarium, Willd.) Titi. 
Pine-barren ponds and swamps, Florida, and lower dis- 
tricts of South Carolina and Georgia. 

Mr. Johnson, of Beaufort, S. C, informs me that the 
stems, when dried, are found to suit admirably for pipe- 
stems — a heated wire being passed through the pith. 

Clusiace^e. (Balsam. Tree Family.) 

Clusia Jfava, L. South Florida. 

Wilson, in his Rural Cyclopaedia, says that the balsam 
tree, Clusia rosea, grows in Carolina and West India islands. 
"A balsam resembling turpentine exudes from every part 
of the tree, and has been much used as a plaster for the 
cure of sciatica. The West Indians call this balsam ho^ 



131 

gum, from a belief that wild hogs rub themselves against 
it to obtain a cure of their wounds." 

Canella alba. Swartz. South Florida. Chap. 
This is an aromatic tree, bearing black berries. 

Portulacace^e. (The Purslane Tribe.) 

Portalaca oleracea, Walter. Garden purslane. Grows in 
yards and rich soils; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. 
John's; Newbern. Fl. Aug. 

Linn. Veg. M. Med. 88; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. v, 458. It is antiscorbutic, diuretic, and anthelmin- 
tic, and vaunted as an antidote for poisoning from can- 
tharides. According to Linnaeus, the herb was used in 
strangury. It will coagulate milk. The American dispen- 
satories do not vouchsafe it the same notice that it has 
received in various parts of Europe. It has long been used 
as a salad and potherb. The young shoots are gathered 
when from two to live inches long. Rural Cyclopaedia. A 
blue color is obtained from this plant. The following is 
given by an agricultural journal : Boil a bushel of garden 
parsley or purslane till soft in an iron pot or kettle, and 
strain off the liquor; boil a pound of logwood, also in iron, 
for two hours, strain off the liquor, and mix the purslane 
water; then dissolve half a pound of alum in soft water, 
sufficient to cover three pounds of yarn ; put it in a brass 
or copper kettle, and simmer the yarn in it for three hours ; 
then wring and put into the dye ; simmer this three hours, 
with frequent stirring. The depth of the color may be 
varied by varying the quantity of the logwood. A very 
desirable blue dye is obtained. See Ohio and Southern 
Cultivator. 

Silenece^;. (The Dianthus Tribe.) 

Uniformly insipid. 

Silene Virginica, L. Grows on the margin of roads ; 
vicinity of Charleston; collected in St. John's. Fl. June. 



132 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 188 ; Barton's Collec. i. 39 ; U. S. 
Disp. 1296 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 342 ; De 
Cand. Essai, 94 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 125.* The decoc- 
tion of the root acts as an anthelmintic. 

Saponaria officinalis, Linn. Soapwort. Nat. in upper 
districts ; Newbern. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Disp. 1293. This plant imparts to water the pro- 
perty of forming a lather, from a principle it contains 
called saponine, which is allied to the active constituent of 
sarsaparilla, and as a substitute for which it is frequently 
used. This is obtained by treating the watery extract 
with alcohol, and evaporating. It has been used in Ger- 
many in visceral and scrofulous affections, cutaneous erup- 
tions, and by some is thought superior to sarsaparilla in 
efficacy. The decoction or the extract may be given. 
Audiw said the inspissated juice would generally cure 
gonorrhoea in two weeks, without any other remedy. Op. 
tit Wade's PI. Rariores, 32 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. vii, 220; Flore Med. vi, 311. It is regarded as diu- 
retic, aperient, and sudorific, recommended in engorgement 
of the abdominal viscera, stomach, intestines, lymphatic 
glands, and in icterus, cachexy, etc. On account of its 
sudorific properties, it is advised in syphilis, rheumatism, 
and gout. Perrihle gave it combined with mercury; while 
fresh, administering it in doses of one-half ounce of the de- 
coction, or from twenty-four to forty-eight grains of the 
extract. Journal de Chim Med. vi, 747, and vii, 710 ; 
Ludolff, Diss, de Rad. Sap. Offic. Erfordire, 1756; J. F. 
Cartheusen, Diss, de Sap. Frankfort ; Amielhon, " Si le 
Struthium des anciens est veritablement la saponaire des 
modernes." Mem. Nat. des Sci. et des. Arts, i. 587. 

A decoction of this plant has been used in some coun- 
tries as a substitute for soap, and is well capable of cleans- 
ing woollen fabrics; the leaves were considered laxative. 
Wilson's Rural Cyc. Consult "Sapindus " and " JEsculus." 
in this paper, for other plants used as substitutes for soap. 
The Sapindus (soapwort) also furnishes one species, S. 



133 

mar [fin alas, which may he useful. Found in Florida and 
Georgia, near the coast. 

Salsola soda. Barilla plant. I would particularly advise 
the planting in the Confederate States of this plant (culti- 
vated so largely in Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia), on ac- 
count of its great value in the ready manufacture of crude 
soda — which is now supplanting, on account of its cheap- 
ness, the use of potash in the manufacture of soap. Be- 
side, soda gives a hard soap. According to the analysis 
of life, "good barilla contains twenty per cent, of real 
alkali, associated with muriates and sulphates of lime, 
soda," etc. Caustic lyes made from it are used in the 
finishing process of hard soap manufacture. 

The Salsola kali, L. Saltwort. S. Carolmiana of Walt. 
It grows in Georgia, and northward ; and- 1 have little doubt 
is rich in soda, and may be made of great use to us in the 
production of this most important product. 

The barillas, Ure says, " always contain a small propor- 
tion of potash, to which their peculiar value, in making a 
less brittle or more plastic hard soap than the fictitious 
sodas, may, with great probability, be ascribed." 

I will give the method of preparing soda from the Sal- 
sola: "Of manufactured soda, the variety most anciently 
known is barilla, the incinerated ash of the Salsola soda. 
This plant is cultivated with great care by the Spaniards, 
especially in the vicinit}^ of Alicaut. The seed is sown in 
light, low soils, which are embanked toward the sea-shore, 
and furnished with sluices for admitting an occasional 
overflow of salt water. When the plants are ripe, the 
crop is cut down and dried; the seeds are rubbed out, and 
preserved ; the rest of the plant is burned in rude fur- 
naces, at a temperature just sufficient to cause the ashes 
to enter into a state of semifusion, so as to concrete on 
cooling into cellular masses, moderately compact," etc. 
"Another mode of manufacturing crude soda is by burn- 
ing sea-weed into kelp." Ure. Now, crude soda, and the 



184 

soda ash of commerce, are made altogether by the decom- 
position of sea salt. I am not aware whether our native 
Salsola kali grows in abundance upon the coast of the 
Carolinas and Georgia. See "Corn" {Zea mays) for eco- 
nomical mode of making soda from corn-cobs. 

Directions for making "Home-made" Soda. — The Rich- 
mond Dispatch publishes the following: "The prepara- 
tion more closely resembles saleratus than soda, and is a 
comparatively pure article for making bread. It is more 
valuable in view of the scarcity and high price of soda in 
our drug stores. After making a strong lye from ashes, 
boiling down to dryness, and burning till white, take the 
residue and add its own weight of cold water, set in a cool 
place for several days, say a week, stirring frequently ; 
then strain through a fine cloth, and boil down again to 
dryness, stirring frequently, and. finally, cork up the pow- 
der so obtained in a bottle. These operations should all 
be conducted in an iron vessel, not in glass or stoneware." 

I insert the following from a journal of the day, hoping 
that they may prove useful : 

Soap Receipts. — In these times of war and blockade, 
when our people are thrown almost entirely upon their own 
resources, every item looking to domestic economy and 
home production should be carefully observed. Our people 
are passing through a trying ordeal, but they are learning 
lessons which will be of practical utility in after times. 
Habits of economy, and elements of self-reliance, which 
have been pushed aside by the pressure of an extravagant, 
sentiment, by an increasing love for easy and luxurious 
living, and by the versatility of Yankee genius in supply- 
ing our almost every want, are now, from the influences 
of necessity, being resumed, while they are found to em- 
body all of practical utility which they possessed in days 
of yore. 

Looking to the general principle of domestic economy 
and home effort, we annex the following receipts for mak- 
ing soap, which we find in the "Wilmington Journal. One. 



135 

of these receipts lias been patented at the North. If tried, 
they will no doubt be found valuable at this time: 

To Make Family Soap*. — Take six quarts of soft water, 
six pounds of bar soap, one-quarter of a pound of sal-soda, 
three teaspoonfuls spirits turpentine, one and a half tea- 
spoonful hartshorn, one teaspoonsful of .camphor, two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt. Cut the soap up fine, boil the water, 
and add all the ingredients, and boil thirty minutes; take 
off, and pour into shallow vessels to cool and harden. 

Another. — Five pounds bar soap, four pounds sal-soda, 
two ounces borax, and one ounce hartshorn. Dissolve in 
twenty-two quarts of soft water, and boil fifteen or twenty 
minutes. 

To 31ake Jelly Soap. — After pouring out of the vessel the 
above soaps, pour in water enough to wash off the sides 
and bottom, and boil twenty minutes. Then pour off to 
cool, and you have excellent jelly soap for washing clothes, 
etc. 

To Make Soft Soap. — Take ten pounds potash well pul- 
verized, fifteen pounds grease, and three buckets boiling 
water. Mix, and stir potash and water together until dis- 
solved. Then add the grease, stirring well ; put all into a 
barrel, and every morning add two buckets cold water, 
stirring it well each time, until the barrel is nearly full, or 
mixed to the consistency of soft soap. 

Consult hickory, Garya, for manufacture of potash and 
potash soap from ashes. 

Spergula arvensis. Walt ; Linn. Spurrey. Grows in cul- 
tivated lands, lower country of South Carolina; vicinity of 
Charleston ; collected in St. John's. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 497 : " Cows which 
feed on it give milk of a richer quality, and in larger quan- 
tities." The seeds of a variety of this plant growing in 
German}* continue green during fall and winter, are far 
superior to pasture grasses, and yield an oil suitable for 
lamps upon expression. They are also ground up with rye, 
and used for making bread. Poultry eat spurrey in any 



136 

form, and are thought to become very prolific of eggs when 
fed upon it. Rural Cyclopaedia, and Thaer's Agricultural 
Chemistry. 

Stellaria media. Smith. Chickweed ; stitchwort. Intro- 
duced. Yards and gardens. 

The herbage is greedily devoured by hogs, and is said to 
be nutritive, and suitable for being boiled and eaten in the 
manner of spinach. It has the reputation, when boiled in 
vinegar and salt, of possessing virtue to cleanse eruptions 
of the hands and limbs. The flowers serve in some degree 
as a natural barometer ; for when rain is approaching 
they remain closed, and in dry weather they are regularly 
open from about nine o'clock in the morning till noon. 
"Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia. 

Xanthoxylaceje. 

The species belonging to this order are generally aro- 
matic and pungent. 

( Americanum, T. & Gray, ~\ 
Xanthoxylum. Ifraxineum, Wi\W. I Prickly ash; 

] ramiflorum, Mich. f toothache bush. 

^ Clava Herculis, Linn. J 
Barham's Hortus Americanus. The scraped root is 
applied to ulcers in order to heal them. The plant pos- 
sesses stimulating powers, and is a "powerful sudorific 
and diaphoretic;" remarkable, according to Barton, for its 
extraordinary property of exciting salivation, whether ap- 
plied immediately to the gums, or taken internally. It is 
reported to have been used successfully in paralysis of the 
muscles of the mouth, and in rheumatic affections. Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 179 ; Journal Gen. de Med. 
xl, 226. Dr. Gillespie asserts that it is a good tonic and 
febrifuge. According to Cam, the Indians employed the 
decoction as an injection in gonorrhoea: "Voyage to Can- 
ada." It has been given in syphilis as a substitute for 



137 

guaiacum, and also for mezereon. See Anc. Journal cle 
Med. ii, 314. A peculiar principle, xanthopierite, is 
afforded by it. See also X. fraxineum, with which this 
plant is frequently confounded, as well as with the Aralia 
spmosa. U. S. Disp. Its acrimony is imparted to boiling 
water, and to alcohol. According to Dr. Staples, besides 
fibrous substances, it contains volatile oil, a greenish, fixed 
oil, resin, gum, coloring matter, and a peculiar crystal- 
lizable principle, which he calls xanthoxylin. Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pharm. i, 165. It is stimulating: producing, 
when swallowed, a sense of heat in the stomach, arterial 
excitement, and a tendency to diaphoresis. It enjoys con- 
siderable reputation in chronic rheumatism. Dose of pow- 
der from ten grains to half a drachm. It has been tried by 
many with advantage in this disease. Barton's Collec. i, 
25, 52; Thacher's Disp. sub. A. spinosa; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. iii, 162. In rheumatism an infusion is given, made of 
one ounce of the bark to one quart of boiling water; one 
pint to be administered in divided doses during the twenty- 
four hours. Rep. from Surgeon-Gen. Office, 1862. 

X. Carolinianum, Lam. and T. and G. 1 This species is 
tricarpum, Ell. Sk. J supposed to be 

possessed of similar properties with the above. It is the 
prickly ash of the Southern states. T. and G. 

Chapman, in his Flora of Southern states, does not 
include X. Americanum (toothache bush, Hercules' club) 
among our Southern plants. 

These plants have the reputation in America of being 
powerfully sudorific and diaphoretic, and excite copious 
salivation, not only when made to act directly on the 
mouth, but when taken internally, and have been found 
highly efficacious in paralysis of the muscles of the mouth. 
Rural Cyc. This may account for their utility in tooth- 
ache. ' 

Simarubace^e. (Quassia Family.) 

Simaruba Glauca. D. C. Quassia. South Florida. A 
large tree. Chap. 



138 

This species of quassia, though not the officinal, should 
be examined for any bitter tonic properties it may contain. 

Geraniaceje. [The Geranium Tribe.) 

Characterized by an astringent principle, and an aro- 
matic or resinous flavor. 

Geranium maculatum, Linn. Cranesbill; crowfoot; alum 
root. 

Lind. Nat. Syst, Bot. 137; Coxe, Am. Disp. 304; Eberle, 
Mat. Med. i, 382; Bell's Pract. Diet, 218; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. 189; Thacher's Am. Disp. 224; U. S. Disp. 350; 
Royle, Mat. Med. 73; Bart. M. Bot. i, 140; Pe Mat. 
Med. and Therap. ii, 751; Am. Journal Pharm. iv, 190; 
Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. i, 171; Ed. and Yav. Mat, M6d. 
135; Schoepf, Mat. Med. 107; Barton's Collec 7; Cutler, 
Mem. Am. Acad, i, 469; Mer. and de L. Diet, de Mat. 
Med. iii, 369 ; Journal Pharm. xiii, 287. It is a powerful 
astringent, adapted to passive hemorrhages, chronic diar- 
rhoea, and cholera infantum. It is injected with advantage 
in cases of gleet and leucorrhcea, and is used as a wash for 
old ulcers. Bigelow speaks of it as a very powerful astrin- 
gent, very similar to kino and catechu, and a useful substi- 
tute for the more expensive articles. It forms an excellent 
local application in sore throats and ulcerations of the 
mouth, and is adapted to the treatment of such discharges 
as continue from debility after the removal of their excit- 
ing causes. Colden and Schcepf also speak highly of the 
root in dysentery; and Dr. B. S. Barton, in cholera infan- 
tum, used the decoction in milk. Eberle Avas successful 
with it, in his treatment of aphthous affections of the 
mouth, and of ulcerations of the fauces and tonsils. Grif- 
fith, Med. Bot, 209. By Staple's examination, Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pharm. i, 171, it contains tannin, gallic acid, 
mucilage, a small proportion of aniadin, and red coloring 
matter; from the bark, a small quantity of resin and a 
peculiar crystallizable principle. 

Dose of the powdered root in substance, is twenty to 



139 

thirty grains, one to two ounces of the tincture, and ten to 
fifteen grains of the extract. The decoction is made by 
boiling one ounce of the root in one pint of water, the dose 
of which is one to two tablespoonfuls. The extract is said 
to be the best form; alcohol and proof spirits, however, 
readily dissolve the active principle, and the tincture keeps 
best. 

Balsaminace^e. [The Balsam Tribe.) 

According to De Cand., the species are diuretic. They 
are chiefly remarkable for the elastic force with which the 
valves of the fruit separate at maturity, expelling the 
seeds. Lind. 

f 'pallida, ISTutt. ; T. and G. ) Touch-me-not; 

Impatiensi 7 - . ttvh en -• i in 

1 \ noli me tangerc, Ell. Sk. J jewel-weed. Grows 

in inundated swamps; vicinity of Charleston; collected in 
St. Johns. Fl. July. 

Bull Plantes Yen. de France, 166: "The whole plant is 
very acrid, and is used as a cataplasm." Elem de Bot. iii, 
58. Six grains of the dried leaves will produce nausea. 
The IT. S. Disp., 1264, speaks of it as a dangerous plant, 
possessed of acrid properties; when taken internally, act- 
ing as an emetic, cathartic, and diuretic. 

OXALIDACEyE. 

Leaves generally acid. 

Oxalis acetosella, L. White wood-sorrel. Mountains of 
North Carolina, and northward. Chap. 

The plant is a very agreeable and wholesome salad, and 
possesses refrigerant, antiscorbutic, and antiseptic proper- 
ties. The juice coagulates milk, and precipitates lime from 
solution. When boiled in milk, it gives off its acidulous-' 
ness to the whey; and either this whey, or the expressed 
juice of the plant, much diluted with water, may be used 
as a good refrigerant drink in fevers. Rural Cyc. The 
herb is powerfully and most agreeably acid, making a re- 



140 

freshing and wholesome conserve with fine sugar; its flavor 
resembles green tea. 

Oxalis violaced, L. Wood-sorrel. Grows in rich soils ; 
vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's. Fl. May. 

IT. S. Disp. 66. It contains the oxalate of potash, which 
imparts to it its pleasant, acid taste. 

Oxalis corniculata, L. "i Vicinity of Charleston ; similar 
" furoata Ell. Sk. j in properties to the Ox. violacea. 

Rosacea. (The Rose Tribe.) 

None of the species are unwholesome ; they are generally 
characterized by the possession of an astringent principle. 
The sub-order, Amygdalece, are better known for yielding 
Prussic or hydrocanic acid. 

Poteatilla (canadensis f). Grows in meadows, in lower and 
upper districts; St. John's, South Carolina. 

Dr. Richard Moore, of Sumter district, South Carolina, 
informs me that this plant, on account of its bitter, mucil- 
aginous qualities, has been found, by repeated experiment, 
to be a most efficient and useful remedy in the treatment 
of chronic colds, threatening phthisis. The decoction is 
used. He refers to the plant as the P. reptans (?). 

Rubus villosus, Ait. High bush blackberry. Diffused ; 
observed in Fairfield district; collected in St. John's; 
vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Eberle, Mat. Med. i, 386; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 453; Ed. and 
Vav. Mat. Med. 134; Royle, Mat. Med. 374; IT. S. Disp. 
603-4; Ball, and Gar. Mat, Med. 267; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 
ii, 160; Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. ii, 474; Thacher's 
IT. S. Disp. 341 ; Bind. Nat, Syst, 144 ; Barton's Collec. ii, 
157; Griffith, Med. Bot. 270. Bigelow considers it a power- 
ful astringent, and is satisfied of its efficacy, administered 
both internally and externally, in a variety of cases admit- 
ting of relief from this class of remedies. Dr. Chapman 



141 

also speaks highly of it in the declining stage of dysentery, 
after the symptoms of active -inflammation are removed ; 
he asserts that nothing in his hands had done so much to 
check the inordinate discharges in cholera infantum — two 
or three doses sufficing to bind up the bowels. The decoc- 
tion is made of one ounce of the root in a pint and a half 
of water, boiled down to one pint, of which the dose for a 
child is two or three teaspoonfuls ; for an adult, a wine- 
glassful several times a day ; orange peel may be added. 
Dose of the powdered root, twenty or thirty grains. No 
analysis has yet been made. In the old work on "Herbs," 
by Nicholas Culpepper, gentleman, " Student in Physic 
and Astrology," the author observes of one of the genus 
Mubus : "Either the decoction or powder of the root being 
taken, is good to break or drive forth gravel, and the stone 
in the reins and kidneys." " The berries, and the flowers, 
are a powerful remedy against the poison of the most 
venomous serpents." — p. 48. 

Mubus trivialis, Mich. Low bash dewberry; creeping 
blackberry. Diffused ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in 
St. John's; Newbern. Fl. April. 

Watson's Pract. Physic, 820 ; U. S. Disp. 603 ; Pe Mat, 
Med. and Therap. ii, 543 ; Royle Mat. Med. 375 ; Chap, 
on Dis. of Thorac. and Abdom. Viscera, 279 ; British and 
For. Med. Review, Jan. 31, 1845; Ball, and Gar. Mat. 
Med. 268. This is, no doubt, possessed of astringent prop- 
erties similar to the above ; a decoction of the root is said 
to be a safe, sure, and speedy cure for dysentery — a remedy 
derived from the Oneida Indians. 

As Blackberry wine is much used as a substitute for more 
costly foreign wines, I will introduce the following receipt 
for making it, communicated by Mrs. Summer, of South 
Carolina, which was said to have been introduced from 
Virginia by the Rev. Richard Johnson. Blackberry wine, 
as well as cordial made from the wild cherry, is a pleasantly 
stimulating beverage, useful as a cordial, capable of being 
medicated, and very serviceable in families, as well as in 



142 

camps and hospitals. It can easily be made with whisky, 
or this may be omitted. It is only strange that so useful 
and pleasant a drink, and one within the reach of every 
one, should, until recently, have been so little made: "To 
every three pints of berries, add one quart of water ; suffer 
it to stand twenty-four hours, strain through a colander, 
then through a jelly-bag, and to every gallon of the juice 
add three pounds of good brown sugar, the whites of three 
eggs beaten to a froth, and stirred in the juice; a little 
spice, with two dozen cloves, beaten together, and one nut- 
meg grated, should be put in a small linen bag and dropped 
in.. After all are mixed, put it in a stone jug, filled up, 
and kept full with some of the same juice, reserved for 
that purpose, until it is done working, which will be in 
two or three weeks. Cork it tightly, and keep it in a 
cold place for three or four months, then pour it off into 
bottles, with a little loaf sugar in each bottle; cork, and 
seal close. If the wine is kept for twelve months, it will 
be still better." It is not easy to overvalue the great 
utility of so mild an alcoholic drink, combining slightly 
astringent vegetable properties, and which may be placed 
within the reach of almost every one. I have seen this 
wine of such an agreeable flavor and taste as to be pre- 
ferred to more valued wines. Cheap good wines are cer- 
tainly the greatest boon that could be conferred on any 
country. See "Grape," Vitis. 

The following is an approved method of making Black- 
berry wine, in vogue in St. John's, Berkley, South Caro- 
lina. I insert it in a work of this kind for its general 
utility, and as it forms an approved liquor which " cheers 
but not inebriates." Blackberries, six quarts; boiling 
water, two quarts; brown sugar, tw x o pounds. The whites 
of six« eggs frothed, added when the jug is nearly full. 
Mash the berries, pour in the water — let it remain twenty- 
four hours. Strain through a hair sieve, and add the 
sugar. Leave the jug open for two weeks, until fermenta- 
tion ceases — then you may add a glass of alcohol. ("I?. 
S.") See " Cera-sus," for manufacture of " blackberry 
cordial." 



143 

A correspondent in the Mobile Register gives the fol- 
lowing method of making blackberry cordial : 

Cordial for Sickness in the Army. — To alleviate the 
sufferings, and perhaps save the lives of many of our sol- 
diers, whose sickness may be traced to the use of unwhole- 
some water in limestone regions, I recommend the use of 
blackberry cordial. The following is a good recipe : 
Bruise the berries, and strain the juice through a bag; 
to each quart of the juice allow a half pound of loaf 
sugar, a heaped teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, the 
same of powdered cloves, and a grated nutmeg; boil these 
ingredients fifteen or twenty minutes, skimming them 
well. When cool, stir into each quart a half pint of 
brandy; then bottle, and cork well. In case brandy and 
loaf sugar cannot be had, substitute good whisky and 
sugar-house molasses. Avoid plantation molasses, brown 
sugar, and bad whisky. So much for the cure. 

To prevent the disorder, boil the water of the country 
before drinking it. The process of boiling precipitates the 
impurities, and when cool, the water may be poured from 
the sediment and used. 

Compound Syrup of Blackberries. — Medicated Black- 
berries. — Useful as a drink in diarrhoea, and to supply 
soldiers in camp, either as a remedy in mild cases of 
diarrhoea or as a vehicle for medicines. To two quarts 
of the juice of blackberries, add half an ounce each of 
cinnamon, allspice, and nutmegs, and one quarter of an 
ounce of cloves, well pulverized. Boil them together for 
fifteen to twenty minutes in a preserve pan or kettle, to 
get the strength of the spices; strain through a piece of 
flannel, then add loaf sugar to make very sweet, and while 
still hot add to every two quarts of the juice one pint of 
Cognac brandy. The dose of this for an adult is about two 
tablespoonfuls repeated. One-fifth portion of the mixture 
is brandy. The blackberry root is an easily obtained and 
valuable astringent. A decoction acts as an astringent, and 
will check diarrhoea. The rind of pomegranate, which is 
easily portable, boiled in milk, is an excellent remedy in 



144 

diarrhoea in the army, to be used during scarcity of medi- 
cines. The tree grows abundantly in the Confederate 
States ; all parts of it are medicinal. 

From frequent trials, I know of no remedy for diarrhoea 
and dysentery of teething children, superior to the decoc- 
tion of the blackberry root; also, during the convalescence 
from dysentery in adults. 

The leaves of blackberry and raspberry are recommended 
as substitutes for foreign tea. 

Rabus occidentalism Linn. Virginian, or wild raspberry. 
Grows in the upper districts ; collected in St. John's ; 
jSTewbern. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 131. Properties 
identical with the above. It is thought to be a specific in 
dysentery. 

Fragaria vesca. Ex. cult. Strawberry. 

Flore Med. iii, 169; Griffith Med. Bot. 277. Gesner 
speaks of the good effects of the fruit in calculous dis- 
orders, and Linnpeus extols its efficacy in gout, having, he 
says, prevented paroxysms of it in himself by partaking of 
this fruit very freely. They are also supposed to possess 
vermifuge properties, and to be useful in phthisis. The 
leaves are astringent, and are recommended in bowel com- 
plaints ; and the roots are much used in Europe as diu- 
retics ; frequently given in dysuria, in infusion, made with 
an ounce to the pint of water. Op. cit. Lallemand, in his 
work on Spermatorrhoea, p. 310, states that strawberries are 
quite serviceable in relieving irritable conditions of the 
bladder and urethra. 

Fragaria Virginiana, Erhart. Scarlet Virginian straw- 
berry. Rich woods ; Florida to Virginia. Chap. 

It was introduced into England in 1629, and possessed 
a fame equal to the hautbois. The pulp has a fine flavor. 
Rural Cyc. This plant is well known, and its economical 
value and application require no description. The use of 



145 

the fruit often acts beneficially upon dyspeptics, who are 
benefited by acids. The celebrated Rousseau was always 
relieved of a calculous affection by eating this fruit. See his 
Confessions. "The old Carolina strawberry is a well known 
and much esteemed variety. The pulp is colored and juicy, 
and has a fine vinous flavor." By pinching off all the first 
flowers of early bloom varieties, the flowers will appear 
and fructify the present autumn. Rural Cyc. They re- 
quire constant watering to bear almost constantly. 

Geum Virginianum, Linn. ) . 

r, t . -r Tr -,, y white avens. 

" Carolinianum, Walt, j 

Griffith, Med Bot. 279 ; Raf. Med. Fl. i, 220. This plant 
is possessed of tonic and astringent properties, recom- 
mended by Ives and Bigelow in dyspepsia, and debility of 
the viscera ; employed, also, with success in leucorrhcea 
and chronic hemorrhages. It is not supposed, however, to 
be possessed of much power; one drachm of the powdered 
root may be used, or a decoction made by one ounce to one 
pint of water, of which the dose is one ounce several times 
a day. In domestic practice, it is given in the shape of a 
weak decoction, as tea. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria, L. Agrimony ; cockle burr. Dif- 
fused in cultivated lands ; ISTewbern. Fl. July. 

Parr's Med. Diet. art. A, Sup. ; Pe. Mat. Med. and 
Therap. ii, 76; Le. Mat. Med. i, 1251; Royle, Mat. Med. 
602; Hoffman's Obs. Phys. Chim. i; Obs. i; Ell. Bot. Med. 
Notes, i, 403, note ; IT. S. Disp. 145 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. 
Med. i, 281 ; Ball and Gar. Mat. Med. 431 ; Bergii, Mat. 
Med. 287 ; Mer. and cle L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 63; Woodv. 
Mecl. Bot.; Ann. de Chim, lxxxi, 332; Coxe, Am. Disp. 18; 
Shec. Flora Carol. 96; Dem. filem de Bot. i, 442. The 
root and leaves, before the flowers are produced, are acrid 
and astringent, and are serviceable in passive hemorrhages, 
diarrhoea, leucorrhcea, and gonorrhoea, and are highly 
recommended as a deobstruent in obstructions of the 
spleen, and in diseases arising from torpor of the liver, 
10 



146 

as hydrops, icterus, etc. The roots and leaves have been 
found efficacious in involuntary discharge of urine (enure- 
sis). Ray's Cat. Plantarum ; Am. Herbal, by I. Stearns, 
89; Lightfoot's Fl. Scotica. It is styptic; it strengthens 
the tone of the stomach, and it has been employed in 
chronic diarrhoea. The plant, digested in whey, affords a 
very grateful diet drink. See Linnaeus Veg. M. Med. 88. 
The Indians used it in intermittent fever. Colonel Sea- 
born, of Pendleton district, S. C, writes me word that he 
has known the plant, boiled in milk, given successfully in 
snake bites, and injuries arising from the stings of spiders. 
The dose of the powder is one drachm ; of the infusion of 
six ounces of root in one quart of boiling water, the dose 
is one ounce. In popular practice, the leaves are applied 
as a cataplasm to contusions and fresh wounds. It is used 
by the steam practitioners. See Howard's Imp. Syst. Bot. 
Med. 284. The leaves and stalks impart a beautiful and 
permanent gold color to animal wool, previously impreg- 
nated with a weak solution of bismuth, and the flowers are 
employed by tanners for curing soft and delicate skins. 

Spiraea trifoliata and siipulacea. See Gillenia. 

Spirma tomentosa, Linn. Hardhack; steeple-bush. Grows 
in the upper districts, and in Georgia; Newbern. Fl. 
July. 

IT. S. Disp. 682 ; Raf. Med. Fl. ii, 91. A valuable tonic 
and astringent; administered in diarrhoea, cholera infantum, 
and other complaints where medicines of this class are in- 
dicated. Wood says it is peculiarly adapted, by its tonic 
powers, to cases of debility, as it does not disagree with 
the stomach ; but it should be avoided during the exist- 
ence of inflammatory action or febrile excitement. It was 
employed by the Indians, and brought to the notice of the 
profession by Br. Cogswell, of Conn. Dr. Ives is of the 
opinion that the root is the least valuable portion : tannin, 
gallic acid, and bitter extractive are among its constituents, 
and its virtues are extracted by water. Mer. and de L. 



147 

Diet, de M. Med. vi, 507. According to Mead's Thesis, it 
is given with, success in the second stages of dysentery and 
diarrhoea, having virtues attributed to it analogous to those 
of quinine. See, also, Journal Univ. des Sci. Med. xxiv, 
238, and Thesis in New York Med. Repos. (Merat, op. 
tit.) The extract is said to be fully equal to catechu, and 
might very well take its place. As it does not disagree 
with the stomach, it is considered a very valuable addition 
to the materia medica. Griffith, Med. Bot. 280. From five 
to fifteen grains of extract may be taken, or two ounces of 
the decoction, prepared by the addition of one ounce of 
the plant to one pint of water. The extract is preferable ; 
made by evaporating the decoction of the stems, leaves, or 
root. This is taken cold, and repeated several times dur- 
ing the day. Great use might be made of this plant, par- 
ticularly by practitioners residing in the country. In a 
communication from Dr. S. B. Mead, of Illinois, he in- 
forms me that he has employed it in obstinate diarrhoeas 
in place of opium. 

Spiraea opulifolia, Linn. Nine-bark. Grows along streams. 

Griffith's Med. Bot. 282. This is not so astringent as 
the S. tomentosa, though Rafmesque (Med. Flora) says it is 
possessed of similar properties. It has an unpleasant odor, 
which renders it objectionable as an internal remedy. It 
is, however, much employed as an external application, in 
the form of fomentation, or as a cataplasm to ulcers and 
tumors. The seeds are extremely bitter, and are said to 
be tonic. 

G-illenia trifoliata, Nutt. | Indian physic. Grows in the 
Spiraea, Linn. . f upper districts ; also in Geo. 

Fl. July. 

Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 10 ; Bart. M. Bot. 165 ; U. S. 
Disp. 353. It is a mild emetic according to some writers ; 
largely employed as a substitute for ipecacuanha. Bige- 
low thinks it is not a certain emetic, but Zollickoffer, Bar- 
ton, Eberle, and Griffith unite in testifying to its value; 



148 

the latter entirely disproves Baume's unfavorable report. 
In small doses, it acts as a gentle tonic, especially in torpid 
conditions of the stomach. According to Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. 509 (see Spircea trifoL), its properties par- 
take also of a stimulating character. Coxe, Am. Disp. 
305 ; Carson's Illust. Med. Bot. pt. 1st, 40, 1847. Shreeves 
(Ex. in the Am. Journal Pharm. vii) found in it starch, 
gum, resin, wax, fatty matter, red coloring matter, and a 
peculiar principle, soluble in alcohol and dilute acids, but 
insoluble in water and ether. According to the statement 
of Dr. Staples, it contains no emetine. It may be con- 
veniently given as an emetic, by boiling the root and giv- 
ing one or two ounces of the decoction at a dose till 
vomiting is induced. " The tincture of the root is an in- 
fallible remedy for milk sickness." Cherokee Doctor. The 
dose of the powdered root is thirty grains, persisted in till 
vomiting takes place ; two to four grains act as a tonic, 
and sometimes as a sudorific. The infusion will occasion- 
ally produce hyperemesis and catharsis. Lind. Nat. Syst. 
144 ; Frost's Elems. 80 ; Inaug. Diss, of Dr. De La Motta, 
of Charleston, published in Philadelphia ; Schoepf, M. 
Med. 80; Bart. M. Med. 26; Griffith's Med. Bot. 283; 
Griffith, in Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. iv, 177. 

Glllenia stipulacea, Nutt. 1 Grows on the Saluda moun- 

Spircea of Mich. J tains. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 144. It is emetic, and probably 
tonic, and is possessed of properties similar to those of the 
S. trifoL, though it is said to be more certain in its effects, 
and not to have been deteriorated by cultivation. U. S. 
Disp. 353; Griffith's Med. Bot. 284. 

Oratcegus crus galli. Grows in swamps. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 460. Dr. Darlington 
regards it as one of the best thorn plants for hedges ; 
it is much used in Delaware. Fl. Cestrica. It is better 
than the Washington thorn, C. cordata. 



149 

Pyrus coronaria, Linn. Crab-apple. Newbern. Fl. May. 

It is not employed medicinally. The fruit is very acid to 
the taste, and is often made into preserves. The bark, 
with that of the white hickory, gives a yellow dye. Alum 
must be used as a mordant. The yarn should first be 
boiled with soap and water, then wrung out, and boiled in 
the preparation. 

Pyrus mains. Cultivated. The apple, pear (P. com- 
munis), and quince (P. cydonia), grow very well in the 
Confederate States. The pulp surrounding the seeds of the 
latter is often dissolved in water, and used as a mucilage. 
See authors. 

Perry from pears is made very much like cider. Hitt's 
method of keeping pears and apples is described by Wilson 
in his Rural Cyc. Art. "Fruit storing." Having prepared 
a number of earthenware jars, and a quantity of dry moss 
(different species of hypnum and sphagnum), he placed a 
layer of moss and of pears alternately, till the jar was 
filled ; a plug was then inserted, and sealed around with 
melted rosin. These jars were sunk in dry sand to the 
depth of a foot — preferring a deep cellar for keeping them 
to any fruit room. Millar's plan is also described. After 
sweating and wiping, in which operation great care must 
be taken not to bruise the fruit, the pears are packed in 
close baskets, having some wheat straw in the bottom and 
around the sides, to prevent bruising, and a lining of thick, 
soft paper, to hinder the musty flavor of the straw from 
infecting the fruit. Only one kind of fruit is put in each 
basket. A covering of paper and straw is fixed on the top, 
and the basket is then deposited in a dry room, secure 
against the access of frost ; and the. less air is let into the 
room the better the fruit will keep. Some preserve apples 
and pears in glazed earthenware jars, with tops, by placing 
dried sand between each layer of fruit — the jars to be kept 
in a dry, airy situation, secure from frost. 

The gum exuding from the apricot tree dissolved in 
water acts as a substitute for gum arable, as an adhesive 



150 

agent ; see, also, Bletia aphylla. I find that from the wild 
orange, in boiling water, acts admirably as a glue for 
paper. The wood of the pear and apple is very hard, and 
will probably supply some of our best material for wood 
engraving; see Amelanchier, with which it is closely related. 
The pear and apple are employed to make wooden type for 
mammoth letters. The apple is the best material for plane 
stocks, as it becomes harder and more polished the more it 
is used. A species of wine is made from apple cider by 
adding sugar and alcohol. Cider may be kept by digging 
under ground dry cellars, and covering from the sun. 
Vinegar made from cider is of the best quality. It is 
easily made in a warm place by adding a little mother of 
vinegar to the sour cider in a barrel. It is ready for use in 
a few weeks. The strength and purity of vinegar, as de- 
termined by the framers of the United States Pharmaco- 
poeia, is as follows : " One fiuidounce is saturated by about 
thirty grains of crystallized bicarb, of potassa. It affords 
no precipitate with solution of chloride of barium, and is 
not colored by sulphohydric acid." 

The bug, or plant louse, which in the shape of a hoary 
covering destroys the apple tree, is generally an aphis or an 
eriosoma ; see Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia, a full account; 
also, papers on the "Insects destructive to Trees," in 
Pateut Office Report on Agriculture. In these the reme- 
dies are given. " The best of the methods, as to at once 
cheapness, cleanliness, and efficiency, are syringing with 
soap suds and tobacco water, minutely brushing with spirits 
of turpentine, brushing with a mixture of soap lees and 
one of oil of turpentine, and brushing with brown, impure, 
pyroligneous acid." Wilson, See "peach," "pear," mode 
of keeping, etc. Planting apricots near by will divert the 
insects to their fruit. Turning hogs in orchards, which 
consume the fallen fruit, is one of the best means of 
destroying the larvse, which produce the fly of the next 
season. 

Good cider is deemed a pleasant, wholesome liquor dur- 
ing the heats of summer; and Mr. Knight has asserted, 



151 

and also eminent medical men, that strong;, astringent 
ciders have been found to produce nearly the same effect 
in cases of putrid fever as Port wine. 

The unfermented juice of the apple consists of water 
and a peculiar acid called the malic acid, combined with the 
saccharine principle. Where a just proportion of the latter 
is wanting, the liquor will be poor and watery, without 
body, very difficult to preserve and manage. In the process 
of fermentation, the saccharine principle is in part con- 
verted to alcohol. Where the proportion of the saccharine 
principle is wanting, the deficiency must be supplied either 
by the addition of a saccharine substance before fermenta- 
tion, or by the addition of alcohol after fermentation ; for 
every one must know that all good wine or cider contains 
it, elaborated by fermentation, either in the cask or in the 
reservoirs at the distillery. The best and cheapest kind is 
the neutral spirit — -a highly rectified and tasteless spirit, 
obtained from New England rum. Some, however, object 
to any addition of either sugar or alcohol to supply defi- 
ciencies, forgetful that these substances are the very 
elements of which all wine, cider, and vinous liquors are 
composed. 

The strength of the cider depends on the specific gravity 
of the juice on expression : this may be easily ascertained 
by weighing, or by the hydrometer. 

Newark, in New Jersey, is reputed one of the most 
famous places in America for its cider. The cider apple 
most celebrated there is the Harrison apple, a native fruit; 
and cider made from this fruit, when fined and fit for 
bottling, frequently brings ten dollars per barrel, according 
to Mr. Coxe. This and the Hughs' Virginia Crab are the 
two most celebrated cider apples of America. Old trees, 
growing in dry soils, produce, it is said, the best cider. A 
good cider apple is saccharine and astringent. 

To make good cider, the first requisite is suitable fruit; 
it is equally necessary that the fruit should be not merely 
mellow, but thoroughly mature, rotten apples being excluded ; 
and ripe, if possible, at the suitable period, or about the 



152 

first of ISTovernber, or from the first to the middle, after the 
excessive heat of the season is past, and while sufficient 
warmth yet remains to enable the fermentation to progress 
si owl}-, as it ought. 

The fruit should be gathered by hand, or shaken from 
the tree in dry weather, when it is at perfect maturity ; and 
the ground should be covered with coarse cloths or Russia 
mats beneath, to prevent bruising, and consequent rotten- 
ness, before the grinding commences. Unripe fruit should 
be laid in large masses, protected from dews and rain, to 
sweat and hurry on its maturity, when the suitable time 
for making approaches. The earlier fruits should be laid 
in thin layers on stagings, to preserve them to the suitable 
period for making, protected alike from rain and dews, and 
where they may be benefited by currents of cool, dry air. 
Each variety should be kept separate, that those ripening 
at the same period should be ground together. 

In grinding, the most perfect machinery should be used 
to reduce the whole fruit, skin, and seeds, to a fine pulp. 
This should, if possible, be performed in cool weather. 
The late Joseph Cooper, of Xew Jersey, has observed em- 
phatically, that "the longer a cheese lies after being ground, 
before pressing, the better for the cider, provided it escapes fer- 
mentation until the pressing is completed;" and he further 
observes, " that a sour apple, after being bruised on one 
side, becomes rich and sweet after it has changed to a 
brown color, while it yet retains its acid taste on the oppo- 
site side." When the pomace united to the juice is thus 
suffered for a time to remain, it undergoes a chemical 
change ; the saccharine principle is developed ; it will be 
found rich and sweet. Sugar is in this case produced by 
the prolonged union of the bruised pulp and juice, which 
could never have been formed in that quantity had they 
been sooner separated. 

Mr. Jonathan Rice, of Marlborough, who made the pre- 
mium cider so much admired at Concord, Massachusetts, 
appears so sensible of the important effects of mature or 
fully ripe fruit, that, provided this is the case, he is willing 



153 

even to forego the disadvantage of having a portion of 
it quite rotten. Let me observe, that this rottenness 
must be the effect, in part, of bruises by improper modes 
of gathering, or by improper mixtures of ripe and unripe 
fruit. He always chooses cool weather for the operation of 
grinding; and, instead of suffering the pomace to remain 
but twenty-four hours or forty-eight hours at most before 
pressing, as others have directed, he suffers it to remain 
from a week to ten days, provided the weather will admit, 
stirring the mass daily till it is put to the press. See his 
communication in vol. vii, p. 123, 1ST. E. Farmer. 

The first fermentation in cider is termed the vinous ; in 
this the sugar is decomposed, and loses its sweetness, and 
is converted into alcohol ; if the fermentation goes on too 
rapidly, the cider is injured ; a portion of alcohol passes off" 
with the carbonic acid. 

The design of frequent raokings is principally to restrain 
the fermentation ; but it seems to be generally acknowl- 
edged that it weakens the liquor. It is not generally prac- 
tised, although the finest cider is often produced by this 
mode. Various other modes are adopted with the view of 
restraining fermentation — one of which is the following: 
After a few gallons of cider are poured into the hogshead 
into which the cider is to be placed when racked off", a rag 
six inches long, previously dipped in melted brimstone, is 
attached by a wire to a very long, tapering bung; on the 
match being lighted, the bung is loosely inserted ; after 
this is consumed, the cask is rolled or tumbled till the 
liquor has imbibed the gas, and then filled with the liquid. 
This checks the fermentation ; yet the French writers 
assure us that the effect of much sulphuring must necessa- 
rily render such liquors unwholesome. 

Black oxide of manganese has a similar effect; the crude 
oxide is rendered friable by being repeatedly heated red hot, 
and as often suddenly cooled by immersion in cold water. 
When finely pulverized, it is exposed for a while to the 
atmosphere, till it has imbibed again the oxygen which 
had been expelled by fire. An ounce of powder is deemed 



154 

sufficient for a barrel. If the cider is desired to be very 
sweet, it must be added before fermentation, otherwise not 
till afterward. Mr. Knight, from his long experience and 
observation in a country (Herefordshire, England) famous 
for its cider, has lately, in a letter to the Hon. John Lowell, 
stated that the acetous fermentation generally takes place 
during the progress of the vinous, and that the liquor from 
the commencement is imbibing oxygen at its surface. He 
highly recommends that new charcoal, in a finely pulver- 
ized state, be added to the liquor as it comes from the 
press, in the proportion of eight pounds to the hogshead, 
to be intimately incorporated ; "this makes the liquor at 
first as black as ink, but it finally becomes remarkably 
fine." 

Dr. Darwin has recommended that the liquor, as soon as 
the pulp has risen, should be placed in a cool situation, in 
casks of remarkable strength, and the liquor closely con- 
fined from the beginning. The experiment has been tried 
with good success ; the fermentation goes on slowly, and 
an excellent cider is generally the result. 

A handful of well powdered clay to a barrel is said to 
check the fermentation. This is stated by Dr. Mease. 
And with the view of preventing the escape of the car- 
bonic acid, and to prevent the liquid from imbibing oxygen 
from the atmosphere, a pint of olive oil has been recom- 
mended to each hogshead. The excellent cider exhibited 
by Mr. Rice was prepared by adding two gallons of New 
England rum to each barrel when first made. In Febru- 
ary or March it was racked oft* in clear weather, and two 
quarts more of New England rum added to each barrel. 
Cider well fermented may be frozen down to any requisite 
degree of strength. In freezing the watery parts are sep- 
arated, and freeze first, and the stronger parts are drawn 
oft' from the. centre. I fiuish by adding the following- 
general rules — they will answer for all general purposes; 
they are the conclusions from what is previously stated: 
1. Gather the fruit according to the foregoing rules ; let it 
be thoroughly ripe when ground, 'which should be about the 



155 

middle of November. 2. Let the pomace remain from two 
to four days, according to the state of the weather, stirring 
it every day till it is put to the press. 3. If the liquor is 
deficient in the saccharine principle, the defect may be 
remedied in the beginning by the addition of saccharine 
substances or' alcohol. 4. Let the liquor be immediately 
placed in a cool cellar, in remarkably strong, tight, sweet 
casks ; after the pulp has all overflown, confine the liquor 
down by driving the bung hard, and by sealing; a vent 
must be left, and the spile carefully drawn at times, but 
only when absolutely necessary to prevent the cask from 
bursting. The charcoal, as recommended by Mr. Knight, 
deserves trial. 

Fresh and sweet pomace, directly from the press, and 
boiled or steamed, and mixed with a small portion of meal, 
is a valuable article of food, or for fattening horses, cattle, 
and swine. 

Sour casks are purified by pouring in a small quantity of 
hot water, and adding unslacked lime ; bung up the cask, 
and continue shaking it till the lime is slacked. Soda and 
chloride of lime are good for purifying. When casks are 
emptied to be laid by, let them be thoroughly rinsed with 
water and drained, then pour, into each a pint of cheap 
alcohol, shake the cask and bung it tight, and it will 
remain sweet for years. Musty casks should be con- 
demned to other uses. Cider should not be bottled till 
perfectly fine, otherwise it may burst the bottles. The bot- 
tles should be strong, and filled to the bottom of the neck. 
After standing an hour, they should be corked with velvet 
corks. The lower end of the cork is held for an instant in 
hot water, and it is then instantly after driven down with a 
mallet. The bottles must be either sealed or laid on their 
sides in boxes, or in the bottom of a cellar, and covered 
with layers of sand. 

Most of the above information relative to cider making 
is derived from the American Orohardist, by W. Kenrick, 
of Boston, Massachusetts, whose list of apple and other 
nursery trees comprehends almost every kind desirable for 
any purpose. 



156 

The reader will find very explicit instructions for the 
manufacture of cider in the Penny Cyclopasdia, vol. vii, p. 
161 ; in the Lib. of Useful Know. ; British Husb. vol. ii, 
p. 364 ; Low's Pract. Agr. p. 379 ; Croker, On the Art of 
Making and Managing Cider; in the Quart. Journal of 
Agr. vol. viii, p. 332, by Mr. Towers ; and in Baxter's Agr. 
Lib. p. 135, by Andrew Crosse, Esq., of Somerset. The 
following instructions for making cider are by a Devon- 
shire lady : Gather the fruit when ripe ; let it remain in 
a heap till the apples begin to get damp, then grind them 
in a mill (similar to a malt mill) ; take the pulp and put it 
into a large press like a cheese press, only on a much larger 
scale ; place a layer of reed in the bottom of the vat and a 
krver of pulp alternately until the vat is full. The vat is 
square, and the ends of the reed must be allowed to turn 
over every la}-er of pulp, so as to keep it from being pressed 
out at the sides. The layers of pulp must be five or six 
inches thick. When you have finished making your cheese, 
press it as hard as you can, and let it remain three or four 
hours ; then cut down the corners of it, and lay them on 
• the top with reed as before ; then press it again, and allow 
it to remain for another three or four hours. Repeat this 
process as long as necessary, or until the cheese is quite 
dry. It takes seven bags of apples for one hogshead of 
cider, and the vat ought to be large enough to make from 
three to four hogsheads at a time. The best sort of apple to 
make mild cider is the hard bitter-sweet. Any sort of sour 
apple will do to make the harsh cider. The liquor must 
be strained through a fine sieve into a large vessel, and 
allowed to ferment for three or four days, taking off' the 
scum as it rises ; then rack it, and put it into casks stopped 
down quite close. Before the cider is put into the cask, 
a match made of new linen, and attached to a wire, is 
lighted and put into the cask, and the bung is put in to 
keep the wire from falling into it. After a few minutes 
the match is removed, and the cider poured into the cask 
while yet full of the smoke. 

A person would require three or four years experience 



157 

before lie would be qualified to superintend the making 
of sweet or made cider. Much depends on the year, or 
rather on the ripening of the apples; it should be the 
second, not the first falling ; and the "green bitter-sweet," 
and the " pocket-apple," are the best for making it. After 
pounding, isinglass and brimstone are used to sweeten and 
fine it, and many other ingredients. 

The sweet cider, above described, is distinct from the 
other two kinds of cider (the harsh and mild). Cider, 
according to Brande, contains about H 9 7 parts per cent, of 
alcohol. It is a wholesome beverage for those who use 
much bodily exercise. Willich's Dom. Erie. ; McCulloch's 
Com. Diet. 

Under this genus, I insert the following from Chaptal's 
Chemistry Applied to Agriculture, as the subject of the 
manufacture of Liquors from fruits, grain, etc., is important 
in the present exigency: " Grood water is undoubtedly the 
most wholesome drink ; but man has almost everywhere 
contracted the habit of using fermented liquors, and this 
habit has created in him a want of them; so that if he be 
deprived of their use, he loses his strength and energy, and 
becomes less able to work. The best fermented drink is 
wine ; but excepting the wine countries, where the low 
price of ordinary wine renders the use of it common, the 
laborer has seldom the means of procuring it daily. It is, 
therefore, necessary that its place should elsewhere be 
supplied by such other liquors as will produce nearly the 
same effect, and this is done by the fermentation of grains, 
fruits, milk, the sap of trees, etc., from the product of 
which there is formed in Europe a great variety of liquors; 
some of these have become very important articles of con- 
sumption and of commerce. The peasants, in the greater 
part of our districts, have acquired the habit of preparing 
their liquors from the fermentation of most of these sub- 
stances ; and as the only object I have in view is to furnish 
information in regard to extending and perfecting these 
processes, I shall confine myself to pointing out such 
methods as are easily executed, and which require the em- 



158 

ployment of such substances only as are everywhere in the 
hands of the agriculturist : 

"All mucilaginous fruits, all fleshy stone fruits, excepting 
those which yield oil, all grains which contain gluten, 
sugar, or starch, are capable of undergoing the spiritous or 
alcoholic fermentation. 

" The expressed juice of saccharine fruits may be made to 
ferment by exposure to a sufficient degree of heat. The 
method most commonly pursued is that of crushing or 
grinding the fruits, and thus fermenting the pulp with 
the juice ; in this manner are treated apples, pears, grapes, 
cherries, etc. 

"For such fruits as are not very juicy, but contain, how- 
ever, some sugar and mucilage, and for such as can be 
made to keep better by being dried, some water is em- 
ployed to mix and dissolve the fermentable principles. In 
this class of fruits may be placed those of the service tree, 
the cornelian cherry, the medlar, the mulberry, the privet, 
the juniper, the Neapolitan medlar, the thorn apple, the 
wild plum, etc., and with them the dried fruits of the plum 
and fig tree, and some of the other trees and shrubs before 
mentioned. 

"To produce the development of the saccharine principle 
in bread corns by germination, they must be moistened 
with water ; the spiritous fermentation is afterward ex- 
cited in them by immersing them in water containing the 
yeast of beer, or leaven made of wheat flour. The opera- 
tion of germination may even be suppressed b} r mixing the 
meal with a portion of leaven and of lukewarm water. 
This dough may be allowed to ferment for twenty-four 
hours, and may then be gradually diluted with water; 
fermentation will take place in a few hours, and will 
go on regularly during two or three days. As directions 
for the manufacture of cider, perry, and beer for general 
consumption are much less necessary here than those 
for procuring for farmers (or soldiers, I add,) wholesome 
liquors at a trifling expense, I shall confine my obser- 
vations to this object. Grapes furnish the best liquor, 



159 

and that in the greatest quantity ; but when this is 
drunk clear, it serves but little purpose for quenching 
thirst ; when made use of in large quantities, it impairs 
the strength. The liquor called piquette, which is manu- 
factured by our farmers, supplies advantageously the place 
of wine, serving as a tonic, and at the same time quench- 
ing thirst. Piquette is made from the pressed and fer- 
mented mash of red grapes, by means of water filtrated 
through it till it acquires, in some degree, the color and 
appearance of wine ; it is, even in this state, a better 
drink than water, inasmuch as it is slightly tonic; its good 
qualities may, however, be much increased by fermentation. 
Piquette can be kept but a short time unchanged, and, 
from this tendency to sour, it is necessary that it should be 
made only in such quantities as are immediately wanted, 
and that the manufacture of it should be continued at in- 
tervals throughout the year. For this purpose the pressed 
mash of red grapes is put into a cask, care being taken to 
crowd it in till the cask is completely full, after which it is 
hermetically closed, so as to exclude air and moisture, and 
set in a cool, dry place. When the piquette is to be pre- 
pared for use, the head is taken out of the cask, and water 
is thrown upon the mash until the whole mass is moistened 
with it, and the water stands upon the top ; fermentation 
soon takes place, as becomes evident by the light foam 
which arises; it is completed by the end of the fourth or 
fifth day ; from this time the liquor may be drawn -off for 
daily use — the place of the portion removed being sup- 
plied by an equal quantity of water thrown in upon the top 
of the mash. In this manner a cask of mash, of the capac- 
ity of sixty-six gallons, may furnish about four gallons of 
drink per diem, and will continue to yield it for about 
twenty days. 

"As the mash of white grapes cannot be made to ferment 
with the juice, this last is separated and put into casks to 
ferment by itself, and the piquette is then made by adding 
to the mash the necessary quantity of water. This liquor 
is more spiritous than that made from red grapes, and 



160 

keeps better; it is therefore reserved for use during the 
latter part of the summer. If instead of throwing pure 
water upon the mash as is everywhere done, this liquid 
should first be slightly sweetened and heated, and then re- 
ceive the addition of a little yeast, piquette of a very superior 
quality would be obtained. In the absence of yeast or 
leaven, the scum which arises upon wine, especially white 
wine, during fermentation, may be used for the same pur- 
pose ; this foam or scum may be dried, and thus preserved 
for use without undergoing any change. 

" Well made piquette is a very wholesome drink for coun- 
try people, for its tonic properties, as well as its power of 
quenching thirst; it is far preferable, as a daily drink, to 
wine; but this resource is only local, as in most countries 
that are most fruitful in grapes, if the harvest fall short, 
there can be but little piquette made; it is necessary then to 
be able to supply its place from some other source, and 
this is done by the fermentation of certain fruits. 

"Apples and pears, as being the fruits that are most 
abundantly produced, are the most variable for the pur- 
pose of manufacturing liquors. A mixture of the two 
produces a more wholesome article of drink than does 
either treated separately. The juices of plums and other 
fruits may likewise be added, as their astringency renders 
the liquor more tonic. Excellent liquor may be produced, 
both from apples and pears, by following the well known 
method of making cider, which consists in grinding the 
fruit with a millstone, and fermenting the pulp and juice 
together; but upon farms, where we seldom find the 
means of preserving liquors unchanged, it is necessary 
that the processes be simple, and such as can be made use 
of for preparing them as they are needed. I shall, there- 
fore, recommend the following method: Begin to collect 
the apples and pears which fall from the trees toward the 
end of August, and continue to do so till they have arrived 
at maturity ; cut them in pieces as fast as they are gathered ; 
dry them first in the sun, and afterward in an oven 
from which the bread has been drawn. If the fruit be well 



161 

dried in this manner, though it may grow dark colored, it 
ma}' be kept unchanged for several years. When drink is 
to be prepared from these dried fruits, put about sixty 
pounds of them into a cask, which will contain sixty-six 
gallons; fill the cask with water, and allow it to remain 
four or five days ; after which, draw off the fermented 
liquor for use. The liquor thus prepared is very agreeable 
to the taste; when put into bottles it ferments so as to throw 
out the cork as frothing Champagne wine does. Though 
wholesome and agreeable, it may become still more con- 
ducive to health by mixing with the apples and pears one- 
twentieth of the dried berries of the service tree Amelanchier 
canadensis (Aronia botryapium, Ell. 8k., which grows in Caro- 
lina), and one-thirtieth of juniper berries ; from these the 
liquor acquires a slightly bitter taste, and the flavor of the 
juniper berries, which is very refreshing, and it is besides 
rendered tonic and antiputrescent. The use of this drink 
is one of the surest means that can be taken by the hus- 
bandman for preserving himself from those diseases to 
which he is liable in autumn, and for the attacks of 
which he is preparing the way during the greatest heats of 
summer. 

"After the spiritous portions of the liquor have been 
drawn off, very agreeable piquette may be made from the 
pulp which remains in the cask; for this purpose it is only 
necessary to crush the fruit, which is already soft, and to 
add to it as much lukewarm water, to which a small quan- 
tity of yeast has been added, as will fill the cask, fermenta- 
tion commencing in a short time, and terminating in three 
or four days. To flavor this liquor and render it slightly 
tonic, there may be added to it before fermentation a 
handful of vervain, three or four pounds of elder berries, 
and of juniper berries. 

" Cherries, and particularly the small bitter cherries, when 
ground and afterward fermented in a cask, in the same 
manner as the mash of grapes, and then pressed to separate 
the juice from the pulp, furnish a liquor containing much 
spirit. The wine made from cherries, when distilled, af- 
11 



162 

fords an excellent liquor, which, although not exactly the 
same as the good Kirschwasser of the Black Forest, is yet 
a valuable drink, and is sold in commerce under the same 
name. 

"The berries of the service tree, dried in an oven, and put 
into a cask in the proportion of about sixteen or eighteen 
pounds of fruit to twenty-six and a half gallons of water, 
furnish, after four or five days fermentation, a very good 
drink. Plums and figs, dried either by the sun or in an 
oven, may be made use of for the same purpose. In order 
to render the liquor more wholesome, or more agreeable, 
several kinds may be mixed together, and thus the defects 
of one kind may be compensated for by the good qualities 
of the other. A few handful s of the red fruit of the bird- 
catcher service tree counteract the flat, sweetish taste of 
certain other fruits. 

"In our farming districts the berries of the juniper are 
carefully collected and fermented, in the proportion of 
about thirty pounds of berries to thirty-eight and a half 
gallons of water. The drink procured from these is one 
of the most wholesome jDossible, but it requires a, little use 
to reconcile one to the odor and flavor of it; those, how- 
ever, who drink it, prefer it after a short time to any other 
liquor. The juice of the juniper contributes so much to 
health that I cannot too strongly recommend its being 
mixed, in greater or less quantities, with all fruits which 
are to be subjected to fermentation ; its flavor alone will 
disguise the taste of such liquors as, without being un- 
wholesome, are flat, sickish, or otherwise unpleasant. 
Count Chaptal probably refers here to the juniper growing 
in Holland, from which gin is procured. Our common red 
cedar, growing in South Carolina {Janiperus Virginiana), is 
closely related to the European juniper, and the berries, 
perhaps, may be used in flavoring drinks, and the leaves 
employed in place of savin. See Juniperus. 

" The rinds of oranges or lemons, aromatic plants, an- 
gelica roots (grow in South Carolina), peach leaves, etc., 
may likewise be mixed with any of these fruits which are 



163 . 

naturally too sweet, and thus serve to raise the flavor of 
the fermented liquor, and render it more strengthening 
and efficacious in preventing the attack of disease. 

" I do not doubt but that by the application of the true 
principles of science, and by employing only those prod- 
ucts which nature yields us abundantly and without ex- 
pense, we can procure from the husbandman a variety of 
drinks more healthy, more agreeable, and better adapted 
for quenching thirst than the weak and imperfectly fer- 
mented wines made from green grapes. 

"I have limited myself to pointing out the simplest 
methods in which such articles as are within the reach of 
every peasant may be made use of; if such liquors as are 
more spiritous be wished, they can be obtained by dissolv- 
ing from four to six pounds of the coarsest kinds of sugar 
in from five and a half to ten and a half gallons of warm 
water, and throwing the solution upon the mash when the 
cask is filled with it, supposing the cask to contain sixty- 
six gallons. To this may be added any number of pounds 
of raisins. 

" Liquors suitable for drinking may likewise be manufac- 
tured from the sap of several kinds of trees. In Germany, 
Holland, and some parts of Prussia, as soon as the return- 
ing warmth of spring begins to cause the ascent of the 
sap, holes two or three inches deep are bored with a gim- 
let in the trunks of the birch trees ; through the straws 
which are introduced into the gimlet holes there flows out 
a clear, sweet juice, which, after having been fermented for 
a few days, becomes a sprightly liquor, that is drunk by the 
inhabitants of those countries with much pleasure. It is 
thought by them to be very serviceable in counteracting 
affections of the kindneys, stomach, etc. A single tree will 
furnish a quantity of drink sufficient to last three or four 
persons a week. The natives of the Coromandel coast fab- 
ricate their colore from the sap of the cocoanut tree. The 
savages of America prepare their chica from the juice of 
the maize, and the drink of the negroes of Congo is made 
from the juice of the palm tree. 



. 164 

"-It caunot be doubted that the sap of all those trees 
which afford a saccharine substance can be made to yield a 
spiritous liquor, but I mention only these few as instances, 
because our own wants may be abundantly supplied from 
our fruits and grain. 

"The fermentation of rye and barley has afforded, from 
time immemorial, a liquor which has supplied the place of 
wine for the use of the common people in nearly all those 
countries in which the vine cannot be made to flourish ; in 
those where wine is made abundantly the use of beer is 
still very extensive, both on account of the nutritive quali- 
ties which it possesses in a high degree, and its power of 
quenching thirst. Though beer may be brewed upon so 
small a scale as to supply the wants of a single family, I 
shall enter into no explanation of the process. In Russia a 
wholesome drink called quass is made. One-tenth part of 
the rye to be employed in its manufacture is steeped in 
water till it becomes soft ; it is then spread thinly upon 
planks, in a place warm enough to produce germination, 
and it is there sprinkled occasionally with warm water. The 
remainder of the rye, after having been ground, is mixed 
with the germinated grain, and the whole is diluted with 
two gallons and a half of boiling water; the vessel is then 
set into an oven, from which bread has just been drawn, or 
exposed to an equivalent degree of heat, during twenty-four 
or thirty hours ; if the vessel be put into an oven which 
it is necessary to heat every day, it may be removed during 
baking, and returned again after the bread is taken out. 
After this first operation, the fermented substance is diluted 
by mixing with it two and a half gallons of water at the 
temperature of 12° or 15°. (If of the Centigrade, 53° to 
59°; if of Reaumur, to from 59° to 65°.) This mixture is 
stirred for half an hour, and then allowed to settle. As 
soon as a deposit is formed and the liquor becomes clear, 
it is then thrown into a cask, where fermentation takes 
place ; this is completed in a few days, when the cask is 
removed into a cellar, and the quass soon becomes clear. 
It is in this state that it is drunk by the peasants ; but it is 



165 

much improved by being drawn off' in jugs as soon as it 
has formed its deposit in the cask, and bottled, after hav- 
ing been preserved in these vessels till it has become clear. 
The liquor prepared in this manner has a vinous and sharp 
flavor, which is not unpleasant. The color of it is not 
very precise, being of a yellowish white. The imperfec- 
tions of quass might easily be remedied by adding wild 
apples, or pears, or juniper berries, to the fermented sub- 
stances. The fermented liquor might be racked off several 
times from its lees, and clarified by the same process which 
we use for wine. The different deposits which are formed 
during the manufacture of quass are entirely of malt, and 
afford a nourishing and fattening food for animals." The 
reader is referred to same authority for other methods of 
manufacturing drinks, beverages, etc., from articles fur- 
nished on our farms. 

On the subject of fermentation, Chaptal gives the follow- 
ing hints, which may avail us in our experiments upon 
the production of wine. It seems to me that they convey 
some doctrines similar to those brought forward by Pro- 
fessor William Hume, of South Carolina, in his ingenious 
essay : 

" Generally speaking, the French grapes, when ripe, con- 
tain such proportions of sugar and the vegeto-animal prin- 
ciples as are well adapted for producing the vinous fer- 
mentation ; but when the summer is cold or damp the 
proportion of sugar is less, and the predominance of the 
mucilage (it is from this mucilage that vinegar is formed) 
renders the liquor weak. In this case the small quantity of 
alcohol which is developed is not sufficient to -preserve the wine 
from spontaneous decomposition, and at the return of heat 
a new fermentation takes place, the product of which is 
vinegar. This evil may be easily obviated by artificial 
means; it is only necessary to" add to the liquor such a 
quantity of sugar as would naturally have been found in it 
under usual circumstances." Professor Hume advises the 
addition of alcohol, I believe, to preserve the wine from the 
acetic fermentation. See also "Treatise on Rural Chem- 



166 

istry," by Ed. Solly, F. R. S. From Lond. ed. Philada. 
1852 ; articles on manufacture of wine, brandy, etc., from 
fruits and vegetables. Several articles on manufacture of 
wine can be found in Patent Office Reports. See "Grape." 
A harvest drink is made by adding ten gallons of water 
to half a gallon of molasses, a quart of vinegar, and four 
ounces of ginger. Let the water be fresh from the spring 
or well ; stir the whole well together, and a refreshing 
drink is obtained. 

Pyrus communis. Pear. 

Fruit trees, particularly the pear, were formerly intro- 
duced into hedge-rows. It was objected that depredations 
would be made upon the hedge. Gerard, who wrote on 
this subject three hundred years ago, said: "The poore 
will breake downe our hedges, and wee have the least part 
of the fruit. Forward, in the name of God; grafte, set, 
plant, and nourish up trees in every corner of your ground. 
The labor is small, the cost is nothing, the commodity is 
great ; yourselves shall have plenty, the poore shall have 
somewhat in time of want to relieve their necessity, and 
God shall rewarde your good mindes and diligence." See 
paper on "Best trees for hedges," in Pat. Office Reports, 
1854, p. 416. To manufacture perry, cider, etc., consult 
Wilson's Rural Cyc. ; Ure's Dictionary of Arts, etc. ; see, 
also, "Apple." 

Dr. John Lindley has written a most instructive article on 
fecundation in plants, physiological principles, and meth- 
ods upon which fruits are produced. See his "Guide to 
the Orchard and Kitchen Garden," and a condensation in 
Patent Office Reports, 1856, p. 244. lie says that some 
fruits of excellent qualities are bad bearers, and recom- 
mends the following modes of remedying these defects : 
1st, by ringing the bark; 2d, by bending branches down- 
ward; 3d, by training; 4th, by use of different kinds of 
stocks. All these practices are intended to produce the 
same effects by different ways: "Physiologists know that 
whatever tends to cause a rapid diffusion of the sap and 



167 

secretions of any plant, causes also the formation of leaf 
buds instead of flower buds ; and that whatever on the 
contrary tends to cause an accumulation of sap and secre- 
tions, has the effect of producing flower buds in abun- 
dance;" so that a flower bud is often only a contracted 
branch. By arresting the motions, of the fluids and secre- 
tions in a tree, we promote the production of flower buds. 
See, also, same volume, for mode of preservation and trans- 
portation of seeds, with the longevity of seeds, their utility, 
and germinative powers. A long list is given of the length 
of time which seeds can be preserved. 

Pyrus Americana, D. C. (Sorbus microcarpa, Ph.) High- 
est mountains of North Carolina. Fruit acid. 

This plant yields malic acid. I insert the following from 
lire's Dictionary (Farmer's Encyclopaedia): 

Malic acid. This vegetable acid exists in the juices of 
many fruits and plants, alone, or associated with the citric, 
tartaric, and oxalic acids; and occasionally combined with 
potash or lime. Unripe apples, pears, sloes, barberries, the 
berries of the mountain-ash, elder-berries, currants, goose- 
berries, strawberries, raspberries, bilberries, bramble-berries, 
whortleberries, cherries, ananas, afford malic acid ; the 
house-leek and purslane contain the malate of lime. 

The acid may be obtained most conveniently from the 
juice of the berries of the mountain-ash, or barberries. 
This must be clarified by mixing with white of egg, and 
heating the mixture to ebullition ; then filtering — digesting 
the clear liquor with carbonate of lead till it becomes neu- 
tral ; and evaporating the saline solution till crystals of 
malate of lead be obtained. These are to be washed with 
cold water, and purified by reciws'tallization. On dissolving 
the white salt in water, and passing a stream of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen through the solution, the lead will be all 
separated in the form of a sulphuret, and the liquor, after 
filtration and evaporation, will yield yellow, granular crys- 
tals, or cauliflower concretions, of malic acid, which may 
be blanched by redissolution and digestion with bone-black, 
and recrystallization. 



168 

Malic acid has no smell, but a very sour taste, deliquesces 
by absorption of moisture from the air, is soluble in alcohol, 
fuses at 150° Fahr., is decomposed at a heat of 348°, and 
affords by distillation a peculiar acid — the pyromalic. It 
consists, in 100 parts, of 41.47 carbon, 3.51 hydrogen, and 
55.02 oxygen ; having nearly the same composition as citric 
acid. A crude malic acid might be economically extracted 
from the fruit of the mountain-ash (Sorbus aeuparia), ap- 
plicable to many purposes ; but it has not hitherto been 
manufactured upon a great scale. 

Punts Americana, D. C. "1 ,, , . , ^ 

.., ■ . -.-rr.,, n ! Mountain ash. Grows on 

Sorbus Americana, Willd. I ,, -, , , , . r 

. ' Vthe highest mountains oi 

" flC ^ m ' Mx Tnoi South Carolina. Fl. July. 
" microcarpa, ML 8k. J 

Dem Elem de Bot. 655. The flowers are purgative. 
The oil from the young branches is caustic, -and is em- 
ployed against ringworm. 

Amelanchier canadensis, L. (Aronia botryapium of Ell. Sk.) 
Wild currant ; shade trees ; service tree. Upper country ; 
Sarrazins ; St. John's, S. C. ; woods Fla. to Miss., Chap- 
man ; Newbern ; Croom's Catalogue. 

Upon examining with a sharp instrument the specimens 
of various Southern woods, deposited in the museum of the 
Elliott Society by Professor L. R. Gibbes, Dr. A. M. Foster, 
and W. Wragg Smith, Esq., I was struck with the singular 
weight, density, and fineness of this wood. I think I can 
confidently recommend it as one of the best to be experi- 
mented with by the wood engraver. It is also, it will be 
observed,* closely allied to the apple, pear, etc., which are 
all hard. From my brief examination of the excellent and 
useful collection above referred to, I would arrange the 
hard woods as follows, those just cited taking the first 
rank: next in order, Dogwood, Farcleberry (Vaccinium 
arboreum), Eedberry, (Azalea nudiflora), and Kahnia latifolia. 
The Holly (Ilex opaca) I find to be quite hard when well 
dried. The beech (Fagus sylcatica), the hornbeam (Ostrya 



169 

Virghiica), indigenous plants, have all been recommended 
for the purposes of the engraver. 

While engaged in completing a number of wood en- 
gravings for my prize Essay for the South Carolina Medi- 
cal Association, I used a piece of well seasoned dogwood, 
and obtained a very good impression from coarse figures 
cut with the graver's tools. I find that none, so far experi- 
mented with, equal the boxwood, but I have not yet fully 
tested the woods put to season. 

See Kalmia, etc. 

See apple (Pyrus malus) for stimulating beverages made 
from the fruit of the service tree. 

Prunus Virginiana. See Cerasus. Several South Caro- 
lina species furnish fruit, which is eatable, and often em- 
ployed for various domestic purposes. 

Cerasus serotina, T. & Gray. ) Wild cherry. Diffused in 
Prunus Virginiana, Ell. Sk. J upper and lower districts ; 
Newbern. Fl. May. 

IT. S. Disp. 576 ; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. x, 197, and 
xiv, 27; Eberle, Mat. Med. 300; Bell's Pract. Diet. 389; 
Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 538 ; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 487 ; 
Phjl. Trans. 418, and Michaux, K Am. Sylva, ii, 205; Ball 
and Gar. Mat. Med. 273; Cullen, Mat. Med. 288; Lind. 
3&t Syst. Bot. 147; Woodv. Med. Bot. ; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 288; Carson's Illust. Med. Bot. pt. 1. This is un- 
doubtedly one of the most valuable of our indigenous 
plants. The bark unites with a tonic power the property 
of calming irritation and diminishing nervous excitability, 
"adapted to cases where the digestive powers are impaired, 
and with general and local irritation existing at the same 
time." It is peculiarly suited to the hectic fever attending 
scrofula and consumption, owing to the reduction of ex- 
citability which it induces, it is supposed, by the Irydro- 
cyanic acid contained in it. Eberle states that the cold 
infusion had the effect of reducing his pulse from seventy- 
five to fifty strokes in the minute. In a case of hypertrophy 



170 

with increased action of the heart, I tried the infusion of 
this plant, taken in large quantities, according to Dr. 
Eberle's plan, but without very satisfactory results. It was 
persisted in for three weeks; the patient, a gentleman aged 
twenty-five, of nervous temperament, drinking several 
ounces of it three times a day. The force of the circula- 
tion was at first diminished; but the abatement was not 
progressive ; the individual was not made any worse by 
it. Tincture of digitalis had been likewise used with 
no beneficial effects. Dr. Wood speaks of the employ- 
ment of the wild cherry in the general debility following 
inflammatory fever. It is valuable, also, in dyspepsia, 
attended with neuralgic symptoms. Mer. and De L. 
Diet, de M. Med. v, 159 ; Bull des Sci. Med. xi, 303. The 
bark is indicated whenever a tonic is necessary, from im- 
pairment of the constitution by syphilis, dyspepsia, pul- 
monaiy, or lumbar abscess, etc. I am informed by a 
correspondent that he finds equal parts of this bark, 
rhubarb, and the gum exuding from the peach tree (Amyg- 
dalus communis), which likewise affords Prussic acid, when 
combined with brandy and white sugar, an excellent 
remedy in dj^sentery and diarrhoea ; one ounce of each is 
added to one pint of brandy, with a sufficient quantity of 
white sugar, a tablespoonful of which is taken every half 
hour. The sensible, as well as the medicinal properties of 
this plant, are impaired by boiling ; cold water extracts its 
virtues best. The inner bark is officinal. The bark of all 
parts of the tree is used, but that from the root is most 
active. Bark stronger, if collected from the root in au- 
tumn. Deteriorates by keeping. Tonic, sedative, expecto- 
rant. Infusion officinal. Thus made: bark bruised, half 
an ounce ; one pint water (cold). Macerate for twenty-four 
hours. Dose, two or three fiuidounces three or four times 
a day. Syrup officinal : Take of wild cherry bark, in 
coarse powder, five ounces; sugar, refined, two pounds; 
water, sufficient to moisten the bark thoroughly. Let 
it stand for twenty-four hours in a close vessel ; then 
transfer it to a percolator, and pour cold water upon it 



171 

gradually until a pint of filtered liquor is obtained. To 
this add the sugar, in a bottle, and agitate occasionally 
until it is dissolved. Dose, one-half fluidounce. By Proc- 
tor's analysis, it contains starch, resin, tannin, gallic acid, 
fatty matter, lignin, salts of lime, potassa, and iron, and a 
volatile oil associated with hydrocyanic acid. This proved 
fatal to a cat in less than five minutes. See Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pharm. vi, 8 ; Am. Journal Pharm. x, 197. 
The leaves, also, are sedative and antispasmodic ; used in 
coughs, angina pectoris, etc. The dose of the powdered 
root is from twenty grains to one drachm. The infusion 
is the most convenient form. A syrup is also made ; be- 
side several secret preparations. 

Method of making "Cherry" cordial by the Southern 
matrons in the lower country of South Carolina (Saint 
John's) — a most delectable drink at all times, but par- 
ticularly valuable in the present emergency: Fill the ves- 
sel with cherries (not washed, if gathered clean.) Cover 
with whisky. After several weeks pour off' all the clear 
liquor and press the cherries through a sieve. Put into the 
juice thus pressed out five pints of brown sugar, and boil 
with syrup enough to sweeten the whole demijohn. Pour 
five pints of water on the thick part ; boil and strain to 
make the syrup with the sugar. "Blackberry cordial" is 
made in the same way; or it can be stewed, strained, 
sweetened, and whiskey added. In the above, the sugar is 
to be boiled in the water which is obtained from the thick 
part, as directed. ("I. S. P.") 

The wood of this tree is highly valuable, being compact, 
fine grained, and brilliant, and not liable to warp when 
perfectly seasoned. "When chosen near the ramifications of 
the trunk, it rivals mahogany in the beauty of its curls. 
Farmer's Encyc. 

Cerasus Carolinana, Mich. \ Wild orange ; Fl. 

Brums " L. Ell. Sk. J March. 

This is one of the most ornamental of our indigenous 
evergreen trees ; and is planted around dwelling-houses. 



172 

The berries, bark, and leaves possess in a high degree the 
taste characterizing the genus. It deserves an analysis. 

This tree, the flowers of which are much frequented by 
bees, grows abundantly on the sea-coast of our states, and 
is certainly one of the most beautiful and manageable ever- 
greens that we possess. It can be cut into any shape, and 
is of a most attractive green color. It forms an impervious 
hedge, and grows rapidly. The black, oval berries contain 
an abundance of Prussic acid, as does the whole tree ; but 
I do not know of any use to which it is applied. Dr- 
Thompson has found great use from Prussic acid, largely 
diluted, as a local application in impetigo. He used the 
infusions of bayberry ; no doubt the infusions of the wild 
orange would be equally useful. In the Patent Office Re- 
ports, Agriculture, 1854, '55, p. 376, are papers on "Live 
fences," or the planting and management of quick-set 
hedges. In this the reader will find a most full and satis- 
factory account of the desirable plants for hedges, both 
American and European. This is not the place for a full 
description of these plants and shrubs ; but I will at any 
rate give a list of some of them, and refer the reader to the 
article. All are of course not adapted to our climate. 
The English sloe, or black thorn (Prunus sjrinosa), the haw- 
thorn ( Crakegus oxyacantha), and the buckthorn (Hhamnus ca- 
ihariicus) have been planted in this country with indifterent 
success on account of the intense heat of our southern 
sun. "The "'Washington Thorn' (C. cordata), growing in 
mountains of Georgia, was also brought into notice as a 
hedge plant toward the close of the last century, and was 
subsequently employed for that purpose in various sections 
of the Union ; but owing to improper management, and the 
tendency to disarm itself of its spines after a certain age, 
it has been discontinued. Similar results have attended 
the adoption of other species of thorny trees and shrubs 
in this country, with the exception of the 'Osage orange,' 
the 'Spanish bayonet' (Yucca), and the 'Cherokee rose.'" 
These are natives of this continent. See " Osage Orange." 
See article for modes of management, planting, etc., of 



173 

hedges, with illustrations on wood. The arbor vilce (Thuja 
obcidehtalis), one of our native plants, growing only in the 
highest mountains, is said to be " indigenous, and to 
grow abundantly on the banks of the Hudson, making the 
finest ornamental hedge known to this climate." The 
holly (Ilex opaca) and the hemlock spruce (Abies canadensis) 
should be mentioned ; also the willow box (Buxus sempervi- 
rens) ; prickly ash (Xanthoxylum fraxineuma) ; honey locust 
(Gleditschia triacanthus) — all these are either natives or are 
cultivated in the Confederate States. See Willow and 
Osage Orange. 

Amygdalus. The peach produces abundantly in the Con- 
federate States. The root, leaves, and kernels are sometimes 
employed in medicine, and in seasoning drinks, condiments, 
etc. — being indebted for any virtues which they possess to 
the hydrocyanic acid contained in them. A tea of the 
leaves is a favorite domestic palliative in whooping-cough, 
and in most pectoral affections. A tea made with either 
the bark, leaves, or flowers, will act freely as a purge. 
Dose for a child, a teaspoonful repeated every half hour till 
it operates. A syrup may be made by adding honey. The. 
gum of peach or pear dissolved in water acts like gum 
arabic. The kernel is used in seasoning, and in making 
the cordial known as ratifia; also in adding to tonics. The 
leaves are used in seasoning creams in imitation of vanilla 
bean. Leaves put in layers with cotton, and boiling water 
poured over, will dye yellow. The cotton or thread should 
first be boiled in a solution of alum. The leaves of arti- 
choke (Cynara) also dye a yellow color: see u Hhus." Sassa- 
fras roots with copperas yield a drab. Fumigation with 
tobacco smoke, syringing with tobacco water, and washing 
with strong lime water are requisite for destroying aphides 
whenever these exist in such swarms as to make a copious 
discharge of honey dew. See "Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia, 
Art. Aphis. 

Drying Peaches. • Several modes of effecting this are pur- 
sued. . When done in-doors, furnaces should be placed in 



174 

the cellar, from which the heated air may rise into the 
building suitably provided with shelves, etc. 

In some of the Southern states, says Mr. Kenrick, the 
process is facilitated by a previous scalding. This is 
effected by immersing baskets of the fruit a few minutes 
in kettles of boiling water. They are afterward halved, the 
stones separated, and being laid with the skins downward, 
the drying is effected in the sun in three days of good 
weather. They then may be stored in boxes. 

In France, as we are informed, peaches aud other fruits 
are thus dried whole. The peaches or other fruits, being 
pared, are boiled for a few minutes in a syrup consisting of 
one pound of sugar dissolved in three quarts of water, and 
after being drained, by being laid singly on board-dishes, 
they are placed in the oven after the bread is taken out, 
and when sufficiently dry they are packed in boxes. The 
following is the mode of drying practised by Mr. Thomas 
Bellangee, of Egg Harbor, 'New Jersey: He has a small 
house provided with a stove, and drawers in the sides of 
the house lathed at their bottoms, with void intervals. The 
peaches should be ripe, aud cut in two, not peeled, and laid 
in a single layer on the laths, with their skins downward, 
to save the juice. On shoving in the drawer, they are soon 
dried by the hot air produced by the stove. In this way 
great quantities may successively, in a single season, be 
prepared, with a very little expense in the preparation of 
the building and in fuel. 

Shepardia magnoides, ~N. Buffalo-berry tree. Mo. Nutt- 
all. I do not know the family of the plant. 

The fruit, resembling currants of a fine scarlet color, and 
growing in clusters, have a rich taste, and are considered 
valuable for making into tarts and preserves. Farmer's 
Encyclopaedia. 

Leguminos^, or Fabace^e. (The Bean Tribe.) 

The sub-orders are distinguished by nutritive, purgative, 
and astringent properties. 



175 

Cladrastis tindoria. Raf. ( Virgilia lutea Mx.) Yellow- 
wood. Hill sides Tennessee and Kentucky. 

The wood is yellow, and dyes a beautiful saffron color. 

Pistidia erythrina, L. Jamaica dogwood. South Florida. 
Chap. 

The piscidia is said to be used in America for stupefying 
fish, which are taken as readily by this means as with mix 
vomica. Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia. 

Baptisia tindoria, Ell. Sk. Wild indigo. Grows in rich, 
shaded lands ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. 
John's ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Barton's Med. Bot. ii, 57 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 158. Its 
virtues reside in the cortical part of the root. In large 
doses, it operates violently as an emetic, cathartic, and sub- 
astringent antiseptic. It is said to have proved useful in 
scarlatina, typhus fever, and the condition attendant upon 
mortification and gangrene. Dr. Comstock found it useful 
in the latter state, used both externally and internally. 
Eclectic Repert. vi ; IT. S. Disp. 1231. It was employed by 
Dr. C. not only in existing, but as a prophylactic in threat- 
ened mortification and gangrene. Dr. Thacher speaks 
highly of its efficacy as an external application to obstinate 
and painful ulcers, and Eberle (Diseases of Children, p. 98) 
used a decoction with advantage in the aggravated cases of 
ulcerated umbilicus, so frequently met with in infants. It 
may be employed topically, in the form of a cataplasm. 
The young shoots may be eaten as asparagus ; but after 
they assume a green color, they act as a drastic purgative. 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 232. The decoction, made with one 
ounce of the recent root to one pint of boiling water, is 
given in doses of a tablespoonful every three or four hours. 
The ointment, prepared by simmering the fresh root in 
lard, is applied to ulcers and burns. 

B. Imcophcea, Nutt. ") Grows in dry soils; found in 

bradeata, Muhl. Cat. j Georgia also. Fl. April. 
Sent to me from Abbeville district, by Mr. Reed, by whom 



176 

I am informed that a decoction of the leaves and branches 
is considered stimulant and astringent, and was used by Dr. 
Branch, of that district, with great satisfaction in all cases 
of mercurial salivation. 

Medicago lupulina, L. Yellow clover ; lucern; nonesuch. 
Introduced. Waste places Florida, and westward. 

It has been planted extensively as a clover, but is not so 
valuable as other species — the M. sativa, for example. See 
Wilson's Rural Cyclopsedia for long article on "Clover," 
and "Lucern." 

Melilotus officinalis, Ph. Melilot; sweet clover. Com- 
pletely nat. says Elliott, around Charleston. 

Dem. Elem. de Bot. iii, 37. The infusion of the flowers 
is emollient and anodyne, and is employed in inflammation 
of the intestines, retention of urine, tympanites, etc. Am. 
Herbal, 222; U. S. Disp. 1275. It is thought to be pos- 
sessed of very little efficacy in medicine, but is used as a 
local application, in the form of decoction or cataplasm, in 
inflammatory diseases. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 153 ; Journal 
de Pharm. xxi, 152. A .principle called coumarin exists 
abundantly in the flowers of the melilotus, and it possesses 
an odor which is attributed to the presence of benzoic 
acid. See Vogel's Anal. JSTouv. Journal de Med. viii, 270 ; 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 293 ; Flore Med. iv, 
229; Aublet, Voyage, ii, 454; Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. 
362. The flowers are employed in flatulent colic, and in 
rheumatism, and the decoction for fomentations. Several 
species of it are used to flavor Chapziger cheese. Wilson 
states that it is used in making the famous Gruyere, or 
Schabzieger cheese, and is the cause of its peculiar flavor 
— the flower and the seeds in a dried state being bruised 
or ground, and mixed with the curd before pressing. Any 
mixture of the seeds with bread corn renders the latter 
very disagreeable. Melilot, Wilson adds, was long used in 
making a blister plaster which bore its name, and acquired 
from it a green color and a disgusting smell, and was of 
exceedingly little value. Rural Cyc. 



177 

Trifolium pratense., L. Red clover. Vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Newbern. 

Dem. Elera. cle Bot. ii, 36. All, the species contain a 
mucous, nutritive principle. In Ireland, when food is 
scarce, the powdered flowers are mixed with bread, and are 
esteemed wholesome and nutritious. Fl. Scotica, of Light- 
foot. Some are said to produce vertigo and tympanites in 
cattle which feed on them. 

Trifolium arvense, Linn. Rabbit-foot; field clover. — 
"Grows sparingly in the upper districts." Collected in St. 
John's ; Charleston district ; Newbern. Fl. April. 

Wade's PI. Rariores, 56. Dickerson observes that the 
dried plant is highly aromatic, and retains its odor. It has 
been used in dysentery. Withering, 636; FL Scotica, 406. 

Trifolium reflexum. "Wild buffalo clover. Upper dis- 
tricts ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's. 

It affects very sensibly the salivary glands. In horses, 
this may frequently be noticed. 

Trifolium repens, L. White clover. Vicinity of Charles- 
ton; collected in St. John's ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Ell. Bot. ii, 201. This also affects the salivary glands, 
sometimes producing complete salivation. Fl. Scotica, 
404. Its leaves are a good rustic hygrometer, as they are 
always relaxed and flaccid in dry weather, but erect in 
moist and rainy. 

Astragalus. Milk-vetch. 

There are five species of this genus within our limits. I 
refer to them because the seeds of A. boeticus, planted in 
Germany and England, are found to be the very best sub- 
stitute for coffee yet tried, and so used — roasted, parched, 
and mixed with coffee. Our species of Vicia, tare, vetch, 
and Lathyrus should also be tried. 

Psoralea esculenta. Edible psoralea. 

The bread root, growing in Missouri, is eaten by the 
12 



178 

inhabitants of the plain, and the Rocky mountains. Rural 
Cyclopaedia. 

Indigofera Caroliniana,. Walt. Grows in dry soils; 
vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's, Berkley ; 
Newbern. M. May. 

Not inferior, says Nuttall, to the cultivated indigo. It 
does not, however, possess so much coloring matter. The 
decoction of the leaves is said to act as an emetic when 
given in large quantities; in smaller doses it is cathartic. 
"F. I. S." a correspondent of the Charleston Mercury, 
says: "Our country ladies gather wild indigo, and ferment 
from it a blue powder equal to the commercial indigo, 
which dyes a beautiful and lasting blue. A solution of 
this powder in water is a speedy and certain relief for 
cramp and asthma. The red sumach dyes a rich dark or 
light purple, as is required." 

Indigofera tinctoria. Indigo. Once cultivated in South 
Carolina to a large extent ; see Indigofera anil. Collected 
in St. John's, Berkley. Fl. June. 

Drayton's View of South Carolina. Merat and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. iii, 601. According to Laennec, the de- 
coction of the root possesses the property of action against 
poison, and is useful in nephritic diseases. In Jamaica, it 
is employed to destroy vermin. The leaves are alterative, 
and are given in hepatic disorders. Ainslie, Mat. Med. 
Ind. i, 180; ii, 33; Journal de Botanique, v, 11; Ann. de 
Chim. lxviii, 284; M. and de L. Supplem. 1846, 383; Mar- 
tius, Syst. Mat. Med. 126 ; Perollet, Mem. sur la culture des 
indigoferes tinctoriaux, Paris, 1832; L'Herminier, Resume 
des obs. faites sur plusieurs especes indigoferes de Guade- 
loupe : see Jourual de Pharm. xix, 257 ; A. Saint Hiliare, 
"Hist. Indigo, from the first account of it till the year 
1833" (Ann. des Sci. Nat. vii, 110); Mem. on Indigo, in 
the Comptes Rendus Hebdom. of Acad. Nat. Sci. 19th Dec. 
1836, 445 ; Dumas' Mem. upon Indigo, its Composition, 
etc., in the Journal de Chim. Med. iii, 6Q, 1837 ; D. Erd- 



179 

• 
mann, Rech. upon Indigo (in French, also), in the 26th vol. 

Journal de Pharra. 460, 1840 ; and the report upon the pro- 
posed extraction of indigo from the Polygonum tinctorium,. 
See Journal de Pharm. xxxvi, 274. The remains of the 
indigo plantations, with the vats in which indigo was pre- 
pared, are still to be seen in the lower districts of South 
Carolina, bordering on the Santee river. Since the intro- 
duction of cotton and rice it is cultivated, though not very 
largely. 

On the cultivation, preparation, etc., of indigo, Woad 
(Isatis tinctoria), see Chaptal's Chemistry applied to Agri- 
culture, p. 295 ; lire's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, 
and Mines, articles "•Indigo," "Calico Printing;" also, 
Penny Cj'cloptedia. I must content myself simply with a 
reference to the source of information. The I. anil is also 
used for the production of indigo. The So. Cultivator, vol. 
ii, p. 58. contains a full account of the preparation of 
indigo. To avoid the deleterious effects of fermented in- 
digo, Dr Roxburg, of India, states that he succeeds per- 
fectly by the "scalding process." This is doubted. See 
also, Southern Cultivator, p. 15, vol. 6, report of a Com- 
mittee of Georgia Agricultural Association. They recom- 
mend the Indigofera argentea, or wild indigo of Georgia. I 
insert the following : 

" The directions for preparing I obtained, many years 
ago, from an old and respectable planter in South Carolina. 
The manuscript which he delivered to me was from the pen 
of one who had been extensively engaged in the cultivation 
.and preparation of indigo for market, before the Revolu- 
tion. It has never been published; and may, therefore, 
impart information on a process little known by the present 
generation. 

"The pigment, or dyeing substance of the indigo, is 
obtained from the leaves. There are several species of this 
plant. The Indigofera tinctoria, or French indigo, yields 
the greatest quantity, and is cultivated in India; but the 
quality is inferior to the Indigofera argentea, or wild indigo. 
The former is distinguished by its pinnate leaves, the 



180 

smaller ribs expanding from the principal rib like the 
feathers of a quill, similar to the leaves of the pear and of 
the lime-tree, and by a more slender, ligneous stem. It 
rises, in a rich soil, and when well cultivated, to the height 
of six feet. 

" The seeds are sown as early in the spring as the climate 
and season will warrant. In the West Indies, the planting 
commences in March, in trenches about a foot asunder; 
and the weed is cut down in May. In South America, six 
months elapse before it can be cut. In the former, gener- 
ally four cuttings are obtained of the same plant in the 
course of a year ; but in the latter, never more than two, 
and often only one. The cutting takes place when the 
plant is in blossom, and is done with the sickle. Fresh 
plantings of the seed are required yearly. 

" Commence the cutting of the weed in the evening, in 
time to have the steeper set before it is dark. The plants 
are laid in strata, and pressed down by weights. When a 
sufficient quantity of them are laid, pour in water to the 
height of about four inches above them. One inch and a 
half above the surface of the water bore a hole through 
the side of the vat, and directly over the trough which is 
to convey the liquor into the beater.. When the fermenta- 
tion has commenced the liquor will rise and run over. 
Let it remain until the stream has ceased, or nearly so. 
This, in hot weather, will be from ten to fourteen hours 
after the water has been poured upon the weed, or on the 
following morning. Immediately draw off into the beater, 
and commence the agitation. Continue this for about . 
twenty minutes, and then let in the lime-water until you 
have plenty of grain, but not very coarse. The agitation 
must be carried on, and frequent use be made of the plate. 
As soon as a change in the color is perceived, from a 
muddy green to a purple or blue, the beating should cease. 
This operation usually requires an hour. There can be no 
certain rule as to the quantity of lime-water to be used, or 
the length of time for continuing the agitation. If the 
indigo be not sufficiently steeped, it will require more lime- 



181 

water, and longer beating, and vice versa. Having obtained 
the fine bine tint you wish, stop the agitation, and pour in 
an additional quantity of lime-water, which will cause the 
grains to collect and settle in a short time. Be careful, 
however, not to add so much as to give the liquor a yellow 
or red tinge : it should be of a clear, but pale green. As 
the sediment subsides, commence drawing off the water 
through the upper plugs, and so on to each successively, 
until the mud alone remains at the bottom of the vat or 
beater. In the evening this should be removed into the 
drainer, and by the morning following it will be well 
drained and cracked, which it should be before it is taken 
out. Having first pressed out the v^ater remaining in it, 
work up the mud ; give it a second pressure, and work 
it up again until it becomes stiff. After this, submit it to a 
third pressure, for cutting. Should your indigo incline to 
mould on the drying-boards, as it is apt to do in rainy or 
damp weather, the mould must be wiped off; otherwise it 
may turn to a gray color. Let it remain upon the drying- 
boards until you plainly see the quality ; afterward it 
may be put up in small barrels. In continued damp 
weather, during the manipulating and drying process, put 
the greenish indigo in the sun, and turn it frequently. As 
soon as it begins to crack, take it in. 

" Good indigo is known by its lightness, or small specific 
gravity, indicating the absence of earthy impurities ; by 
the mass not readily parting with its coloring matter, when 
tested by drawing a streak with it over a white surface : 
but above all, by the purity of the color itself. The first 
quality, estimated by this last test, is called, in commercial 
language, fine blue ; the next, ordinary blue, then fine purple, 
etc. The most inferior is known as ordinary copper."- 

The most satisfactory information can be got in the Pat- 
ent Office Reports, and from Mr. Spalding, Liebig, Chaptal, 
Encyclopaedia, etc., etc. Several varieties are cultivated. 
The Indigofera disperma is used in Guatemala, and makes 
the best and most beautiful article. The Indigofera tincioria, 
formerly cultivated in South Carolina and Georgia, is the 



182- 

most productive, and the increase in quantit}' will make tip 
the deficiency in price. 

Culture and Manufacture of Indigo (signed 'Oconee'). — 
" The soils best adapted to it are the rich, sandy loams, 
though it grows on most lands moderately well, provided 
they are not wet. The ground should be well broken, and 
kept light and free from grass by the plow. The nature of 
the manure used exerts a great influence upon the quantity 
and quality of its coloring principle. Those substances 
that act as stimulants to vegetation, such as lime, pou- 
drette, ashes, etc., etc., favor the growth of the plant with- 
out injuring the coloring matter. When barn-yard manure 
has been largely used, a crop of grain should first be raised 
on the land. 

"The seed should be mixed with ashes or sand, and sown 
in drills fourteen inches apart, four quarts of seed to the 
acre. . In this climate (Middle Georgia), the seed should be 
sown the first of April. When it first comes up it should 
have the grass picked out with the hand. When an inch 
or two high the' grass between the rows should be cut out 
with the hoe or scraper, and the soil loosened about the 
roots. Three weedings are enough before the first cutting, 
which should commence as soon as the plant throws out its 
bloom. It is so easily injured by the sun after being cut, 
that the operation should be commenced and end in the 
afternoon. After cutting with the reap-hook, it is put 
under the shed until it can be put in the vats. In Georgia, 
the two cuttings yielded sixty pounds of indigo to an acre, 
provided the roots were not injured in the first cutting, 
which at three acres to the hand would be one hundred 
and eighty pounds ($180). The price varies from 30 cents 
to $2.25 per pound for the best Guatemala. 

"Like other plants, it has its enemies. The leaves are 
frequently seen covered with yellow spots, owing to some 
change in the atmosphere. It often happens that in conse- 
quence of a degree of heat and drought, the plant is not 
fully developed; the leaves are not more than one-third 



183 

their proper size, yet exhibit all the properties of a perfect 
plant. If the plant is' cut in this imperfect state the crop 
is lost, for the indigo is not well developed. An insect (the 
ilea) often destroys the first crop of leaves. Next, a loose 
destroys the plant later in the season ; this, however, is not 
so bad as the first. The cutworm also commits some depre- 
dations upon it. 

" Manufacturing Process. — Two methods are used, the 
cold and the hot. The cold is the safest ; the plant must 
be in a certain state to use the hot. 

" 1st. By Cold Water. — The weed is put in the vat and 
covered with clear water, where it remains until the color 
of the liquid becomes a light olive; this is about ten hours; 
the weed must be pressed down by heavy scantling laid 
upon it. Draw the liquid off into the churn or beater. 
The churning must now be commenced, and kept up until 
the fluid becomes lighter in its general shade, and the blue 
fecula are seen in the water; which sooner begins from 
small quantities of lime-water being added from time to 
time during the process of beating. The quantity of lime- 
water that is used should be not more than one-tenth of 
the liquid that is in the vat. If the lime-water be all 
thrown in at once, the lime more than saturates the car- 
bonic acid, and the carbonate thus formed will be precipi- 
tated, and thus injure the indigo. After the fecula shows 
itself distinctly in the water, the vat is allowed to be still 
for four or five hours, then the clear water is drawn off by 
faucets at different heights, so as to allow the indigo to be 
precipitated in the bottom. 

" 2d. The Hot Process. — The weed is put in the vat, 
boling water is let on so as to saturate the plant, and fully 
cover it. The weed is kept down by scantling thrown 
upon it. Allow the water to stand from five to fifteen min- 
utes, according to the effect above mentioned. Draw it off 
through a faucet and sieve into the beater; repeat until all 
the coloring matter is extracted ; beat or churn as above, 
omitting the lime-water; remainder of the process the 
same. 



184 

" The precipitated indigo still requires some farther op- 
erations to bring it to a state of perfection (though it can 
be dried and sent to the market as it now is). It contains 
particles that are imperfectly oxyclated; consequently it has 
-neither the color nor properties of the best indigo. Con- 
tinued beating would bring these to a proper state ; but it 
would cause the particles first oxydated to imbibe an addi- 
tional quantity of oxygen, by which the color is too much 
deepened, and the article would be rejected in commerce as 
burnt To avoid this, throw over the liquid fecula a volume 
of warm water double the quantity of the fecula, stirring 
it all the while ; by this means the perfect indigo will be 
precipitated, the other held in suspension. This water is 
drawn off, and lime added, etc., as above, by which the 
green color becomes a yellow brown, and the indigo is ren- 
dered insoluble and precipitated. That indigo may be 
pure and brilliant, it should be twice washed — once in cold, 
and once in hot water. After washing, allow the fecula to 
settle, then draw off the water. 

"The. last purification now is to mix the fecula with 
another quantity of water, in a vat having several faucets. 
While it is suspended, the earths are precipitated ; draw off 
while stirring, and allow to settle. The last operation con- 
sists in putting the fecula in a coarse bag of hemp or wool, 
and this bag in an open basket to drain, placing weights 
upon it until it becomes tightly compressed. These last 
operations are not requisite if a very common article is to 
be made ; but it is well to follow all the purifications. The 
increase in price will cover the increase of trouble." 

" Indigo Vat. — Description. — For ever}- set of ten hands 
there should be what are called a set of works. These for- 
merly cost about one hundred dollars or more, and were .a 
vat or tank, made of plank two inches thick, well joined. 
This vat is twenty feet square, stands upon posts four feet 
from the ground, and is kept tight by wedges driven into 
the sleepers upon which the plank rests. The vat is three 
feet deep, and is called the steeper. Along-side of it is 



185 

another vat, twenty feet by ten, occupying the space be- 
tween the bottom of the steeper and the ground, into 
which the water is drawn in which the indigo is steeped 
when ready to be beat, or churned, as we may say. At the 
end of this last vat a small tank or cask must be placed, to 
furnish lime-water in the process of beating. The liquor 
is drawn from the steeper by a spigot at the bottom of the 
vat along the beater. Lengthwise of this is stretched a 
beam, resting on its upper ends, and revolving on journals, 
and furnished with cross arms, to the ends of which are 
fixed open buckets without bottoms, containing about two 
gallons each. Two men, standing on this beam, with a 
handspike fixed to the long beam, alternately plunge the 
open buckets right and left, thus churning the liquid until 
it begins to show a blue fecula, which is produced by small 
quantities drawn from the lime cask." 

Method successfully used by a negro (Geoffrey) on a 
plantation (Mrs. J. S. P.), St. John's, Berkley, South Caro- 
lina, to prepare a dye from the wild indigo : 

Cut the plant, put in a barrel, and cover with water. In 
about three days it commences to foam, and it is then 
ready to churn; take out the leaves, and press the liquid 
out *of them. It is then to be whipped up in a churn 
with a stick made like a dasher. When it foams, a greased 
feather applied to the surface will check the foam. In 
order to test whether the process is sufficiently advanced 
and the blue color extracted, it may be tested in a white 
plate put in the sunlight; the thickened grounds will be 
visible. About a quart of strong lye-water, or lime soaked 
in water, should be first thrown in to settle it. This should 
be done before it is churned. If the Coloring substance 
appears to be sufficiently separated by the test mentioned 
above, drain the supernatant water carefully away. The 
remainder, or sediment, should be placed in a bag to drain. 
This contains the indigo. This indigo may subsequently 
be moulded into cakes. I have seen yarn excellently dyed 
by it; also wool, which was dyed before it was carded, and 
made into cloth (1862). 



186 

The following process of manufacturing indigo in small 
quantities for family use is extracted from the Southern 
Agriculturist: 

Cut the indigo when the under leaves begin to dry, and 
while the dew is on them in the morning ; put them in a 
barrel, and fill this with rain water, and place weights on 
to keep it under water ; when bubbles begin to form on the 
top, and the water begins to look of a reddish color, it is 
soaked enough, and must be taken out, taking care to 
wring and squeeze the leaves well, so as to obtain all the 
strength of the plant ; it must then be churned (which may 
be done by means of a tolerably open basket, with a handle 
to raise it up and down) until the liquor is quite in a foam. 
To ascertain whether it is done enough, take out a spoon- 
ful in a plate, and put a small quantity of very strong lye to 
it. If it curdles, the indigo is churned enough, and you 
must proceed to break the liquor in the barrel in the same 
way, b} T putting in lye (which must be as strong as possi- 
ble) by small quantities, and continuing to churn until it is 
all sufficiently curdled ; care must be taken not to put in 
too much lye, as that will spoil it. When it curdles freely 
with the lye it must be sprinkled well over the top with 
oil, which immediately causes the foam to subside, -after 
which it must stand till the indigo settles to the bottom of 
the barrel. This may be discovered by the appearance 
of the water, which must be let off gradually by boring 
holes first near the top, and afterward lower, as it continues 
to settle ; when the water is all let off, and nothing remains 
but the mud, take that and put it in a bag (flannel is the 
best), and hang it up to drip, afterward spreading it to dry 
on large dishes. Take care that none of the foam, which 
is the strength of the weed, escapes ; but if it rises too 
high, sprinkle oil on it. 

Seven or eight species of indigo are found in the United 
States, most of which are in the South. The wild indigo 
(Dyers bapiisia), common in Pennsylvania and other Middle 
states, yields a considerable proportion of blue coloring 
matter of an inferior kind. (Flora Cestrica.) 



187 

Blue Dyes. — The materials employed for this purpose are 
indigo, Prussian blue, logwood, bilberry ( Vaccinium myr- 
tillus), elder-berries (Sambacus nigra)] mulberries, privet- 
berries (Ligiistmm vulgare), and some other berries whose 
juice becomes blue by the addition of a small portion of 
alkali, or of the salts of copper. I shall here describe the 
other, or minor blue dyes : To dye blue w.ith such berries 
as the above, we boil one pound of them in water, ad-ding 
one ounce of alum, of copperas, and of blue vitriol to the 
decoction, or in their stead equal parts of verdigris and tar- 
tar, and pass the staffs a sufficient time through the liquor. 
When an iron mordant alone is employed, a steel-blue 
tint is obtained; and when a tin one, a blue with a violet 
cast. The privet-berries, which have been employed as 
sap colors by the card-painters, may be extensively used in 
the dyeing of silk. The berries of the African night- 
shade (Solanmn guineense) have been of late years considera- 
bly applied to silk on the continent in producing various 
shades of blue, violet, red, brown, etc., but particularly 
violet. 

Glyceria tomerdosa. Grows in dry pine lands. Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 387. In Pondicherry, 
this is given to horses in place of oats. Mem. du Museum, 
vi, 326^ 

Tephrosia Virginiana, Ph. Turkey pea ; goat's-rue. Vi- 
cinity of Charleston ; grows in dry soils. Fl. July. 

Lindley's Med. Flora, 244 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 238. The 
roots were used by Indians, and are now employed in pop- 
ular practice as a vermifuge ; a decoction is said to act as 
powerfully and as efficiently as the pink root (Spigelia). 
Attention is invited to it. 

Amorpha fruticosa, L. Bastard indigo. Florida, Caro- 
lina, and Mississippi. 

This was formerly used in Carolina as an indigo plant, 
and continues to be extensively cultivated in Britain as an 
ornamental shrub. Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia. 



188 

Robinia p'seudacacia, L. Yellow locust tree ; locust ; false 
acacia. Grows in the mountains of South Carolina; vi- 
cinity of Charleston; collected in lower St. John's, Berk- 
ley, near Ward's plantation, Mrs. Prioleau's ; Newbern. 
Fl. May. 

Dem. JSlem. de Bot. The flowers are aromatic and emol- 
lient. An antispasmodic syrup is prepared from them ; 
and Gendrin states that when given to infants it produces 
sleep, vomiting, and sometimes slight convulsive move- 
ments ; he relates a case where it was swallowed by boys, 
in whom acro-narcotic effects were induced. Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 101 ; Desfont, Traite des Arbres, ii, 
304 ; Ann. d'Hort. ix, 168 ; Ann. Clin, de Mont, xxiv, 68. 
The inner bark is fibrous, and may be spun into cordage; 
the wood is of a fine, compact grain, and is used for manu- 
facturing purposes. Mem. sur la Robinia, Mem. de la Soc. 
d'Agricult. 1786 ; Francois, Letters on the Robinia, Paris, 
1803. Griffith, in his Med. Bot. 239, says that it has not 
received sufficient attention, for "every part is endowed 
with some good quality." On account of its durability, the 
wood is much used for treenails in ship-building ; the 
leaves, prepared in the same manner as those of the indigo, 
may be employed as a substitute: they afford an excellent 
nourishment for cattle, either in the fresh or in the dried 
state. Willich, Domestic Encyc. i, x. Grossier (Desc. de 
la Chine) says that they are used by the Chinese to produce 
the beautiful yellow color so remarkable in their silks. It 
is prepared by roasting half a pound of the half expanded 
flowers in a copper pan over a gentle fire, and stirring 
them continually ; after turning yellow, water is poured 
over, and it is boiled till it acquires a deep color. It is 
then strained, and half an ounce of alum, and the same 
quantity of shell lime are added, when the dye is fit for 
use. It is possible that this author may have confounded 
this plant with the R. flava. Merat says the flowers fur- 
nish a palatable dish when fried. The seeds are somewhat 
acrid, but afford a large quantity of oil on expression. By 
infusion in water, they become perfectly mild, and contain 
an excellent farina. 



189 

This tree, both the leaves and flowers of which are beau- 
tiful, has attracted great attention in England, and its seeds 
are largely imported, to be planted as a hedge and orna- 
mental plant, and for various purposes. Almost a mania 
prevailed upon the subject. "ISTo other tree grows more 
rapidly than this, excepting some species of the willow and 
the poplar." A sucker at Chiswick grew twenty feet in 
one season, with a circumference of three inches. When 
the tree is felled suckers spring from the trunk in great 
profusion. 

Large quantities are exported to Liverpool for fastening 
bolts in ship-building. C. W. Johnson and others write of 
it thus: "The wheelwright and the coach-builder have em- 
ployed it for axle-trees of carriages ; the turner has used it 
for various purposes of his art, and has been delighted with 
its smooth texture, and beautifully delicate straw color; 
fence-makers have used it for rail fencing, and have found it 
to stand wet and dry near the ground better than any other 
timber in common use, and to be as durable as cedar; land- 
scape gardeners have planted it for a combination of orna- 
ment and utility. * * Farmers might try it for the formation 
of hedges, and were they to transplant it from the nursery 
when it has a height of about four feet, they would find it 
forming a hedge quite equal in compactness, strength, 
economy, and manageableness, to hedges consisting of 
tried and approved plants, and a hedge available as a 
fence far earlier than any other, and capable of being raised 
to any desirable elevation. The flowers of the acacia tree 
are used in St. Domingo for making a distilled liquor, and 
its roots, and leaves, and juices contain a considerable pro- 
portion of sugar." Wilson's Encyc. Rural. The plants are 
easily propagated by pouring boiling water over the beans 
in the fall; let them remain twenty-four hours, and plant. 
They grow six or seven feet the first season. 

Robinia hispida; also Va. rosea. Rose acacia. Mountains 
of Georgia and North Carolina. Chapman. 

Wilson speaks of 'it as a " remarkably beautiful shrub." 



190 

Its shoots of each year, or newest and freshest twigs, carry 
the flowers ; so that its old wood may be annually pruned 
away to any extent which the taste of the cultivator or the 
situation of the plants may require. The flowers are large, 
odorless, and of a beautiful rose color. See, also, nearly 
all the English and Scotch authorities. 

The following highly interesting account of this tree, 
and the mode of cultivating it in the United States, is 
given by Dr. S. Ackerly : 

" The cultivation of the locust tree on Long Island, and 
in other parts of the State of N"ew York, has been attended 
to with considerable profit to the agricultural interest, but 
not with that earnestness which the importance of the sub- 
ject demands. This may have arisen from the difficulty of 
propagating it by transplanting, or not understanding how 
to raise it from the seed. 

^ jjs * ^c * ^ X 

" The locust is a tree of quick growth, the wood of which 
is hard, durable, and principally used in ship-building. To 
a country situated like the United States, with an extensive 
line of sea-coast, penetrated by numerous bays, and giving 
rise to many great rivers, whose banks are covered with 
forests of extraordinary growth, whose soil is fertile, rich, 
and variegated, and whose climate is agreeably diversified 
by a gradation of temperature ; to such a country, inhab- 
ited by an industrious and enterprising people, commerce, 
both foreign and domestic, must constitute one of the prin- 
cipal employments. As long as the country possesses the 
necessary timber for ship-building, and the other advanta- 
ges which our situation affords, the government will con- 
tinue to be formidable to all other powers. We have within 
ourselves four materials necessary for the completion of 
strong and durable naval structures. These are the live-oak, 
locust, cedar, and pine, which can be abundantly supplied. 
The former is best for the lower timbers of a ship, while 
the locust and cedar form the upper-works of the frame. 
The pine supplies the timber for decks, masts, and spars. 
A vessel built of live-oak, locust, and cedar, will last longer 



191 

than if constructed of any other wood. Naval architecture 
has arrived in this place, and other parts of the United 
States, to as great perfection, perhaps, as in any other coun- 
try on the globe. Our 'fir-built frigates' have been com- 
pared with the British oak, and stood the test ; and in 
sailing, nothing has equalled the fleetuess of some of our 
sharp vessels. The preservation and cultivation of these 
necessary articles in ship-building is a matter of serious 
consideration. It might not be amiss to suggest to the 
Congress of the United States to prohibit the exportation of 
them. The pine forests appear almost inexhaustible, and 
they will be so in all probability for many generations to 
come ; but the stately cedars of Mobile, and the lofty for- 
ests of Georgia, where the live-oak is of a sturdy growth, 
begin to disappear before the axe of the woodsman. The 
locust, a native of Virginia and Maryland, is in. such 
demand for foreign and domestic consumption that it is 
called for before it can attain its full growth. It has been 
cultivated as far eastward as Rhode Island, but begins to 
depreciate in quality in that state. Insects attack it there, 
which are not so plentifully found in this state, nor its native 
situations. These give the timber a worm-eaten appear- 
ance, and render it less useful. The locust has been exten- 
sively cultivated in the southern parts of the State of New 
York, but the call for it has been so great that few trees 
have attained any size before they were wanted for use. 
Hence they are in great demand, and of ready sale, and no 
ground can be appropriated for any kind of timber with so 
much advantage as locust. Beside its application to ship- 
building, it is extensively used for fencing; and for posts, 
no timber will last longer, in or out of the ground. On 
Long Island, where wood is scarce and fencing timber in 
great demand, the locust becomes of much local impor- 
tance from this circumstance alone, independent of its great 
consumption in this city among ship-builders. In naval 
structures it is not exclusively applied to the interior or 
frame. In many places where strength is wanting, locust 
timber will bear a strain which would break oak of the 



192 

same size. Thus an oak tiller has been known to break 
near the head of the rudder in a gale of wind, which has 
never happened with a locust one. Tillers for large sea 
vessels are now uniformly made of locust in JSTew York. 
It is the best timber also for pins or treenails (commonly 
called trunnels), and preferable to the best of oak. The 
tree generally grows straight, with few or no large limbs, 
and the fibres of the wood are straight and parallel, which 
makes it split well for making treenails, with little or no 
loss of substance. These are made in considerable quanti- 
ties for exportation. 

" The locust tree does not bear transplanting well in this 
part of our country, but this in all probability arises from 
the custom of cutting off the roots when taken up for that 
purpose. Most of the roots of the locust are long, cylin- 
drical, and run horizontally not far under the surface. In 
transplanting, so few of the roots are left to the body of 
the tree removed that little or no support is given to 
the top, and it consequently dies. If care was taken not 
to destroy so much of the roots a much larger proportion 
of those transplanted would live and thrive. So great has 
been the difficulty in raising the locusf in this way that 
another method of propagating it has been generally re- 
sorted to. Whenever a large tree was cut down for use, 
the ground for some distance around was ploughed, by 
which operation the roots near the surface were broken 
and forced up. From these roots suckers would shoot up, 
and the ground soon become covered with a grove of young 
trees. These, if protected from cattle by being fenced in, 
would grow most rapidly, and the roots continuing to 
extend, new shoots would arise, and in the course of a few 
years a thrifty young forest of locust trees be produced. 
The leaves of the locust are so agreeable to horses and 
cattle that the young trees must be protected from their 
approach. When growing in groves they shoot up straight 
and slender, as if striving to out-top each other, to receive 
the most benefit from the rays of a genial sun. 

" Another difficulty has arisen in propagating the locust, 



193 

from inability to raise it from the seed. The seed does not 
always come to perfection in this part of the State of New 
York, and if it does, it will not sprout, unless prepared 
before planting. The method best adapted to this purpose 
was proposed by Dr. Samuel Bard ; but it is not generally 
known, or if known, is not usually attended to. When 
this shall be w T ell understood and practised, the locust will 
be easily propagated, and then, instead of raising groves of 
them, the waste ground along fences, and places where the 
Lombardy poplar encumbers the earth will be selected to 
transplant them, as by having them separated and single 
there will be an economy in using the soil, the trees will 
grow much better, and the timber be stronger. 

"Dr. Bard's method of preparing the seeds was to pour 
boiling water on them, and let it stand and cool. The 
hard, outer coat would thus be softened, and if the seed 
swelled by this operation, it might be planted, and would 
soon come up." 

Robinia viscosa, Vent. Clammy locust. Grows among 
the mountains, and in Georgia. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 101. The young 
branches afford an abundant, glossy exudation, secreted by 
little superficial glands, which is dissolved by ether ; Vau- 
quelin considers it a peculiar product : An. de Chim. xxvii, 
223. Chevalier, however, doubts it : Diet, des Drogues, 
iii, 15. 

Rhyncosia tomentosa (?). Dollar-plant. Diffused in dry 
pine lands. 

This plant, receiving its name probably from the shape 
of the leaf, is reputed, in the neighborhood of Aiken, S. C, 
and elsewhere, to be a valuable agent in arresting trouble- 
some diarrhoea. A tea is given several times a day. Several 
cases have come to my knowledge where it was successfully 
employed — no doubt on account of tannin contained in it, 
as is evident from the taste. 
13 



194 

Vicia saliva, Linn. Walter. Tare. Grows abundantly 
around Charleston. Fl. June. 

In England, a decoction of the seeds in water is used as 
a sudorific in small-pox and measles. The seeds are a good 
food for pigeons. Fl. Scotica, 396 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. vi, 892. 

V. faba. Garden bean. Cultivated. 

Piswn sativum. Pea. 

Great use is made of the varieties of the pea on the plan- 
tations in this state, as articles of food for men and animals. 
The species called the cow-pea is most in use ; I have 
been unable to find, and do not believe that there exists 
any accurate botanical description of this very valuable 
plant. It seems, however, from my examination, to be 
included under the genus Vicia. 

Am-phicarpa monoica. Grows in rich lands. Fl. July. 
Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 322. The subterranean pod is 
cultivated as a vegetable. 

Arachis hypogxa. Ground-nut. Brought by the negroes 
from Africa. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med.; Supplem. 53, 1846. 
The fruit preserves its germinative powers for forty years. 
Boudich Excurs. 392. Large quantities are exported from 
■Senegal on account of the oil which is expressed from 
them, and which is much valued. Ermandel "On the 
cultivation of the ground-nut, and its employment as a sub- 
stitute for coffee," Journal de la Litter. Etrang. ix, 169 ; 
Du Buc, Mem. on the use of A. hypog., and an examina- 
tion of its oil (in French); see Journal de Pharm. viii, 231; 
Kivoli, Lettre sur l'Arachis hypogsea, Milan, 1807 ; Don- 
men, Notice sur l'Arachis, Montpellier, 1838. According 
to the analysis of Pagen and Henry, it is very difficult for 
the oil to become rancid. Journal de Chim. Med. i, 435 ; 
Ann. de Hist. Nat. iv, 206 ; Gurnin, Mem. sur l'Arachis, 



195 

Biblioth. Physice Econ. i, 145 ; Tessier, Mem. sur l'Ara- 
chis, Avignon. The seeds, parched and ground, can with 
difficulty be distinguished from cofl'ee, as I have myself 
experienced. In some portions of South Carolina it is 
employed as a substitute. The okra [Hibiscus esculentus) 
serves the same purpose. The ground-nut and bene make 
rich and nutritious soup, and act as substitutes for meat. 
They are often parched, and beaten up with sugar, and 
served as a condiment or dessert. The ground-nut is culti- 
vated to some extent in South Carolina, and great use is 
made of it on the plantations as an article of food, and for 
various domestic purposes ; it is exported with profit, but 
troublesome to prepare. I am not aware of any use being 
made in this state of the oil which it affords on expres- 
sion. The authorities cited above will afford much valu- 
able information. 

The above was published in my report on Med. Botany, 
S. C.j 1849. Since the war it is largely employed. The 
superintendent of the Rockfish Factory in North Carolina, 
writes that he has "used the pea-nut oil by the side of the 
sperm, and that it works fully as well.'' 

Gleditschia triacanthus, L. Sweet locust; honey locust. 
Diffused. As far west as Mississippi ; I have seen it in 
lower and upper districts of South Carolina. 

Beer is sometimes made by fermenting the sweet pods 
while ffesh. The pores of the wood are very open. When 
perfectly seasoned, the wood is extremely hard. It is far 
inferior to the black walnut or wild cherry for cabinet- 
making. Hedges of it are rendered impenetrable by its 
long thorns. Michaux, in Farmer's Encyc. 

Cassia Marylandiea, L. Wild senna. Grows along the 
banks of rivers ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 135 ; Griffith's Med. Bot, 261. 
It is said to be as safe and as certain in its operation as the 
imported senna, but more apt to gripe ; this may be cor- 
rected by infusing fennel seed or some other aromatic with 



196 

the leaves. It is prepared in large quantities by the 
Shakers, and is generally collected after the seeds ripen ; 
one ounce of the leaves is added to one pint of hot water, 
of which the dose is one to three ounces, repeated. I 
have specimens of the leaves of the officinal senna, which 
is cultivated successfully by Mr. W. Lucas, of South Caro- 
lina, for use on his plantation. He says that it does not 
appear to degenerate. 

Cassia occidentalis, L. ) Styptic weed; Florida cof- 

" Carolmiana, Walt. $ fee. Common around old 
buildings ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Columbia. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 130 ; Marcgrave, in 
his Hist, of Brazil, mentions it as a remedy in the poison 
of venomous animals, and in strangury. In the Supplem. 
to Merat, p. 150, 1846, properties are ascribed to it similar 
to those of the C. hirsuta, which is diuretic, acting on the 
lymphatic system, and employed in obstructions, debility, 
dropsy caused by derangement of the digestive organs, and 
as a vermifuge also ; forty grains, parched like coffee, are 
used. It is useful as an application, in the form of a decoc- 
tion of the leaves, in itch, erysipelatous eruptions, irrita- 
tion, and inflammation of the rectum. The negroes apply 
the leaves, smeared with grease, as a dressing for sores. 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 262; Bouditch, Exper. 392 ; Chernoviz, 
Form. 222. Once thought to be very valuable as a substi- 
tute for coffee ; roots thought to be injurious to hogs. 

(Jassia cham&crista, L. Golden cassia. Diffused in dry, 
sandy soils ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Xewbern. Fl. July. 

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. ; Shec. Flora Carol. 390; Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 129. The leaves are said to 
be purgative. It grows in abundance in South Carolina, 
and should be examined. It is employed in portions of the 
country for the recovery of worn-out lands ; those that are 



197 

sandy being particularly benefited by it. See Greenway's 
account of the domestic uses. Op. ant. cit. 

Cassia tora, L. Diffused in cultivated soils ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. Sept. 

Supplem. to Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 1846, 150 ; 
Ainslie's Mat. Med. Ind. ii, 405. Used in India. 

Cercis canadensis, L. Redbud ; Judas-tree. Swamps, vi- 
cinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's. Fl. March. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 380. "The wood is of great value for 
mechanical purposes, as it polishes exceedingly well, and is 
admirably veined with black and green." 

Schrankia angustata, T. and G. 1 Grows in pine lands. 
" uncinata, Ell. Sk. j Fl. July. 

The leaves of this plant possess a remarkable degree of 
sensibility, or irritability, closing up immediately upon 
contact with any surface. I have just repeated upon 
this plant, and in a measure verified the experiments with 
chloroform and sulphuric ether upon the Mimosa sensitiva, 
made by Prof. Marcet, of Geneva, in illustration of the 
relations existing between animal and vegetable sensi- 
bility.* After trying a number of substances, including 
the tinctures of opium, capsicum, and camphor, and the 
solutions of tartar emetic, sulph. morphine, and hyd. potash, 
without producing any impression, I ascertained that the 
two anaesthetic agents alone, when placed on the main 
petiole of the leaves, had, in about five minutes, their influ- 
ence gradually extended to those above, causing the leaf- 
lets to contract seriatim. Though sensibility to impressions 
was impaired by each successive attempt, yet it was never 
entirely lost. The result of my observations differed from 
those of Prof. Marcet, but agreed with De Candolle in his 
analogous experiments with nitric and sulph. acids in its 



* Read before the Soc.de Phys. et cl'Hist, Nat., Oct. 19th. 1849. See, also, Sill, 
Journal. July. 1849. 



198 

not disclosing any impressions transmitted downward, or at 
any rate beyond the junction of the branch experimented 
on with the main limb of the plant. A drop of the oil of 
aniseseed placed on a leaf-stalk seemed to have the effect 
of arresting the transit of any influence beyond it ; hence, 
we may be led to suspect that the impression is conveyed 
by organs of sensation arranged not far from the surface. 
In the examination I was assisted by Dr. Rene Ravenel. 

In sensitive plants, Mimosa, for example, the move- 
ments of the leaves, says Mr. C. Mackensie, quoted by 
Wilson, have their origin in certain enlargements situated 
at the articulation of the leaflets with the petiole, and of 
the petiole with the stem. If by a longitudinal section 
the lower half of this swelling be removed, the petiole will 
remain depressed, having lost the power of elevating itself. 
If the superior half be removed, the petiole will remain 
constantly elevated, having lost the power of depressing 
itself. These facts prove that the motious of the petiole 
depend on the alternate turgescence of the upper and lower 
half of the enlargement, situated at the point of articula- 
tion, and that contractility is not the principle of these 
motions. The irritation of a burning lens, for example, is 
felt either above or below. This interior movement M. 
Dutrochet found was transmitted equally well, even though 
a ring of bark has been removed; that it is transmissible 
even though the bark and pith be removed, so that nothing- 
remains to communicate between the two parts of the 
skin except the woody fibres and vessels ; that it is trans- 
missible even when the two parts communicate merely by a 
shred of bark ; and that it may be transmitted even when 
the communication exists by the pith only ; but that it is 
not transmissible when the communication exists only by 
the cortical parenchyma. «Froni these very interesting 
experiments, it results that the interior movement pro- 
duced by irritation is propagated by the ligneous fibres and 
the vessels. The propagation is more rapid in the petioles 
than in the body of the stem, the rapidity having been 
computed. Absence of light during a certain time com- 



199 

pletely destroys the irritability of the plant. The return 
of the sun's influence readily restores the plant to its irrita- 
ble state. "It appears, therefore, that it is by the action of 
light that the vital properties of vegetables are supported, 
as it is by the action of oxygen that those of animals are 
preserved ; consequently, etiolation is to the former what 
asphyxia is to the latter." Rural Cyc. 

Calycanthace^e. {The Carolina Allspice Tribe.) 
Flowers aromatic and fragrant. 

thlycanthus Floridus, Linn. Sweet shrub. Specimens 
from Aiken ; I have observed it growing wild in Fairfield 
district. Fl. May. 

One of the most aromatic and sweet scented of our in- 
digenous plants ; cultivated on this account in gardens. 
Dr. Douglass, of Chester district, S. C, sends me a commu- 
nication from his correspondent, Mr. McKeown, who says 
he has frequently used it with satisfaction, as an antispas- 
modic tonic, in the cure of chronic agues. A strong decoc- 
tion of the seed or bark of the root is given. The wood is 
strongly camphorated, especially the root, and Mr. Nuttall 
thinks will probably produce this drug as abundantly as 
the Laurus camphora. Seeds seldom mature. 

MYRTACEiE. [Myrtle Tribe.) 

Eugenia, Micheli. Allspice family. 

Several species of this genus are found in South Florida. 
See Chapman's Southern Flora. The timber of most Eu- 
genias is useful and good. Like the myrtles, their bark 
abounds in tannin, their soft parts contain a more volatile 
oil, and the fruit of some, though rendered somewhat disa- 
greeable by the aroma of the oil, are edible. Wilson's 
Rural Cyc. 

Saxifragace,e. {The Saxifrage Tribe.) 

De Cand. considers the whole order as more or less astrin-, 
gent. 



200 

Heuchera Americana, L. Alum-root. Grows in damp 
soils; Richland, Dr. G-ibbes ; collected in St. John's; 
Charleston district ; found also in Georgia ; ISTewbern. 

Coxe's Am. Disp. 112 ; Lind. Nat Syst. Bot. 163 ; U. S. 
Disp. 390 ; Barton's Collec. ; Mich. Flora Boreal. Ameri- 
cana, i, 171. "A powerful astringent." The powder was 
employed by the aborigines in wounds and cancerous 
ulcers. Bart. M. Bot. ii, 159 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iii, 490. It is also administered as a substitute for 
colocynth. It is used in decoction, tincture, or syrup, 
wherever an astringent is required — as in diarrhoea, piles, 
menorrhagia, etc., etc. 

BuRSERACEiE. (Torchivood Tribe.) 

Amyris Floridana, Xutt. Torchwood. South Florida. 
Chapman. 

Nearly all the species afford fine materials in both their 
resin and their wood for fragrant incense and delightful 
pastiles. Wilson's Rural Cyc. Our species should be 
examined. A South American species yields a gum which 
makes one of the best of known varnishes. Frankincense 
is said to be got from the Pinus tceda. The Bur sera gummi- 
fera, Jacq. of Florida, also yields a balsam. 

Anacardiace^e. ( The Cashew Tribe.) 

Trees abounding in a resinous, sometimes acrid, highly 
poisonous juice, are the ordinary representatives of this 
order. 

Rhus toxicodendron, T. & Gray. ) Poison oak. Diffused; 
" radicans of authors. J common in pine lands; 

vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Trous. et Pid. Mat. Med. i, 524 ; Bell's Pract. Diet, 453 ; 
Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 116 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 603 ; Ed. and 
Vav. Mat, Med, 345 ; U. S. Disp. 718 ; Ball, and Gar. Mat. 
Med. 241; Royle, Mat. Med. 341; Bergii, Mat, Med. i, 
248 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 78 ; Orfila, Toxi- 



201 

cologie Gen. i, 45; Ann. de Chim. xxxv, 186; An. Journal 
de Med. Ixxx, 136 ; Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 117 ; Ell. Bot. 
363; Alibert, Elems. de Therap. i, 452; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. iii, 20 ; Du Fresnoi, quoted in Ann. of Med. v, 182, 
and 483; Med. and Phys. Journal, i, 308; vii, 273; and 
x, 486 ; Duncan's Disp. 294 ; Bull. Plantes Yen. de 
France, 146. 

It produces in those who come into its vicinity an ery- 
sipelatous inflammation. It is stimulant and narcotic, 
employed in paralysis and herpes ; of the former disease, 
seventeen cases are reported by one physician to have been 
successfully treated with it. The juice which exudes on 
plucking the stem makes a good indelible ink. It is dis- 
solved by ether. Bigelow thinks it is composed of a resin 
and an essential oil. Purging with neutral salts, the use of 
opium, blood-letting, and cold applications of acetate of lead 
are employed in case of poisoning from these plants. The 
bruised leaves of the Collinsonia canadensis (which grows in 
the Confederate States) are employed for the eruptions 
caused by the emanations from the poisonous sumachs, 
and the Verbena urticifolia, also found in South Carolina, is 
likewise considered an antidote. Horseiield, in his Diss., 
states that he administered the infusion in consumptive 
and anasarcous patients. Du Fresnoi reports cases of. her- 
petic eruption cured by preparations of this plant; also 
four cases of palsy. Dr. Alderson, of Hull, has given it 
with o-ood effect in doses of one-half to one o-rain, three 
times a day, in paralysis. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. Supplem. 1846, 627. Dr. Baudelocque employs it 
with success in the chronic ophthalmia of scrofulous in- 
fants, a col^-rium being made of the alcoholic tincture. 
Four drachms in two ounces of water is used, afterward 
augmenting the dose. Rev. Med. ISTov. 1836 ; A. How- 
roarth's Hist. R. Toxicod. in Essai Med. du Docteur Al- 
derson, Lond. 1793; Fontana, Traite de la vipere, ii, 169; 
Alibert, M. Med. i, 450. Some have inoculated them- 
selves with it without injury. Biblioth. Med. xxvi, 395. 
"On cite un eas mortel par suite d'attouchement des par- 



202 

ties sexuelles apres avoir manie des rameaux de ce vegetal:" 
Me. loe. cit. See Annal. in Journal de Chim. In employ- 
ing it for ringworm Du Fresnoi increased the dose of the 
extract till it amounted to eight grains a day. "Novel 
effects concerning a dangerous American plant,"- by Gle- 
ditch (in French); see Journal de Physic, 1782 ; Du Fresnoi, 
in Actes de la Soc. de Med. de Bruxelles, i, 136 ; Wursur, 
sur leE. Toxicod. ; Actes de La Soc. Econ. de Florence, 
iii, 138 ; and observations by Wilhmet on the effects of this 
plant, in Journal de Med. de Courv. i, 209 ; Employ. R. 
Tox. in Thesis, at Montpellier ; Ann. de Clinique, vi, 343. 
Heinning's case of paralysis, cured by R. rad. in Bull, des 
Sc. Med. de Ferus, iv, 262. It is employed in maladies 
arising from general debility, and defective innervation. A 
French writer testifies to the efficacy of this plant in homoe- 
opathic doses, in all cutaneous diseases. Dr. Alderson 
prefers the infusion of the recent leaves ; Van Mons the 
extract of the dried leaves. By analysis, it contains a very 
combustible "hydrocarbonate," tannin, gallic acid, resin, 
gummy substance, fecula, etc. Griffith's Med. Bot. 185 ; 
and Stephenson and Churchill, iii, 167 ; Bull, des Sc. Med. 
vi, 98 ; Bull de la Facult. v, 439. An acrimonious vapor, 
combined with carburetted hydrogen, exhales from a grow- 
ing plant of the poison oak sumach during the night, can 
be collected in a jar, and is capable of inflaming and blis- 
tering the skin of persons of excitable constitution who 
plunge their arms into it. The yellow, milky juice turns 
dark, and forms one of the best indelible inks for marking 
linen, and is used by the Japanese as a varnish. Rural 
Cyc. See varnish sumach (i?. vernix). 

Rhus glabra, Linn. Smooth sumach. Grows in the 
upper districts ; found near Columbia, and Augusta, Ga., 
in wet soils. Fl. May. 

" If the bark of the root is boiled in equal parts of milk 
and water, forming with flour a cataplasm, it will cure 
burns without leaving a scar." The excrescences have 
been preferred, as an astringent, to tannin or gallic acid. 



208 

'Dr. Walter employed and substituted them for galls ; their 
sourness is supposed to be owing to malic acid, which is 
contained in the pubescence. According to Dr. Cozzens, 
also, of New York, they are astringent, and refrigerant, 
furnishing with water a cooling drink, useful in inflamma- 
tion and ulceration of the throat. The excrescences on the 
leaves of the JR. glabra which I have gathered (1862) on 
Tiger creek, Spartanburg district, are as large as persim- 
mons — resemble fruit in appearance — are powerfully astrin- 
gent, and contain moving bodies like seeds attached to the 
inner walls, surrounded by a white, cottony substance, 
probably embryo animals. These glandular excrescences 
are showy. I would recommend them as a perfect substi- 
tute for tannin. I have dried and powdered them. They 
are a pure astringent. Dr. Fahnestock states that an infu- 
sion of the inner bark of the root is employed as a gargle, 
and is considered almost as a specific in the sore throat 
attending mercurial salivation. An infusion of the leaves 
sweetened with honey is serviceable, applied in the same 
way, and for cleansing the mouth in putrid fevers. The 
bark is considered a febrifuge. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 166 ; 
II. S. Disp. 598 ; Am. Journal Med. Sci. 561 ; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 77, where its employment as a gar- 
gle is alluded to ; Rev. Medicale, i, 1830, 307 ; Griffith, 
Mecl. Bot. 106. The decoction of the root is used by the 
Indian doctors in the treatment of gonorrhoea and gleet, 
and as a wash in ulcers. In other words, it is an astrin- 
gent. The bark of this, the JR. copal, and the R. typhinum, 
and of the European species, acts as a mordant for red 
colors, and much use is made of it in the tanning of mo- 
rocco leather. A vinegar may be prepared from the berries 
of this species. 

I introduce the replies of several correspondents of the 
Charleston Courier (1862) to inquiries concerning the 
sumach. 

Dr. Abner Lewis Hammond writes : 

" The Rhus Glabra I consider identical with that so 
extensively grown for export and manufacturing, purposes 



204 

in Sicily. The difference, as seen in the size of the leaves, 
tree, etc., is attributable, no doubt, only to a difference in 
locality, soil, and cultivation, and to no other. I have seen 
it flourishing alike on the mountain slopes and in the val- 
leys of Virginia; on the rich table lands and bottoms of 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois ; on the flinty ridges 
and barren mineral lands of Missouri. Under cultivation 
it suckers freely. Looking at its value and importance as 
a manufacturing agent or material, and its easy production, 
I have long wondered at its total neglect, and feel no hesi- 
tancy in saying that with the same care given to its 
cultivation by our people as by the Sicilians, it could he as 
successfully and profitably raised in the one as the other 
country, and should, under existing circumstances, be neg- 
lected no longer. Hundreds and thousands of bags, at 
heavy expense, are annually imported into the United 
States for tanning and other purposes, yielding to the 
growers (after expense) a remunerating profit. The ber- 
ries, the bark of the tree and roots, have for years fur- 
nished the country people here and in the West a most 
substantial dyestuff" (a brilliant black), while its prepared 
leaves (ground) have been as steadily used (to the full ex- 
tent of the available quantity) in the preparation of 
morocco." 

A correspondent ("E") writes from Graham's Turnout, 
South Carolina : 

" Your article, and a subsequent communication lead 
me to believe there is more importance in the sumach than 
I ever attached to it. When a small boy I recollect to 
have gathered bushels of the berry on the mountains in 
this state for the purpose of having the wool dyed black 
for the woof of our home-made jeans. I have learned 
something from your correspondent, and will try its use in 
shoemakers' wax (as he stated.) There can be any quan- 
tity gathered in this section almost without any charge. 

" Should any one wish to try dyeing wool, they will find 
it one of the handsomest black dyes known to. me." 






205 

Dr. Vm. Jeuson, of Charleston, writes : 

"Sumach — Rhus Glabra — figured also as Rhus Virgini- 
cum, better known as smooth sumach, and variously called 
Pennsylvania sumach, upland sumach, is a native of most 
parts of the continent of North America. Grows in 
dry, uncultivated places, flowering early in July, and suc- 
ceeded by dense clusters of crimson berries, which, when 
mature (about early autumn), are covered with a whitish 
and very acid efflorescence (often used to make vinegar in 
country localities.) The bark and leaves are astringent, and 
said to be used in tanning leather and in dyeing. Excres- 
cences are produced under the leaves resembling galls in 
character. These have been used by Dr. Walter, of New 
York, who thought them in every respect preferable to im- 
ported galls. The only officinal part is the berries, which 
are used as a refrigerant and febrifuge, though Dr. Fahne- 
stock speaks highly of an infusion made from the inner 
rind or bark of the root, for a wash and gargle in the sore 
mouth attending inordinate mercurial salivation. The 
writer's own experience has been to use the berries in im- 
pure water, or when that was not to be obtained, to put 
them into the mouth to allay the thirst attendant upon 
riding through the hot, unsheltered, and frequently water- 
less prairies of the far West. He also knows that a syrup 
made with the berries is successfully used in the fall fluxes, 
while a drink made with them is a favorite remedy in 
many localities in febrile attacks. In the sickly year of 
1853 the writer used them (the berries) constantly, although 
frequently changing his atmosphere from the free, open 
prairie to the confined pestilential air of a city with yellow 
fever ravaging in it, and without experiencing the slightest 
indisposition." 

James Peckham, of Columbia, South Carolina, adds : 

"I have often wondered that no. one here has engaged 
in its cultivation, or rather in gathering and preparing it 
for market, as it grows all over the country." 

The following was communicated by Mr. C. H. Woodin, 
of Charleston : 



206 

" I notice in the Courier an inquiry in regard to the use 
of the sumach, which grows so abundantly in the lower 
portions of our state. Your correspondent informs us 
that it is very beneficial in making shoewax, consequently 
it was called shoemach. But the sumach is not only used 
for making wax, but it is extensively used in the New 
England and Northern states for tanning purposes." 

"The sumach leaf is invaluable in tanning fine hog 
skins and skirting, and it is shipped in great quantities 
from South America to all the principal tanneries in the 
North. 

" The process is this : It is well known to every tanner 
that the most important thing in making good leather is to 
have it properly colored, and that it is not crisped or 
parched on the grain in the "handlers." 

" The shoemac leaf is put into a vat which is intended 
for a "handler," and then the vat is filled with clean, fresh 
water, and when it has stood until the strength is entirely 
out of the leaf, the skin or stock is' taken from the " bait," 
rinsed in the "pool," and then placed in the "handler." 
The stock is then turned or handled as in other processes, 
until "the grain is properly colored. It is then taken 
through the regular process of tanning, and when it is 
scoured it is perfectly white. The stock should be tanned 
with white oak, or some other kind of mild bark. 

"The advantage of the sumach is this: That the stock 
comes out fair and good, while in other processes the grain 
has to be made white by acids, which injures the stock very 
much. Tanners intending to make fair leather would do 
well to make a note of this information." 

See "Sweet Gum" (Liquidambar) for my examination of 
this, the sumach, and other leaves, as substitutes for oak 
bark. 

Rhus vernix, L. Ell. Sk. | Poison sumach ; swamp su- 
" venenata, J). C. jmach; poison elder. Grows in 
the upper districts, and in Georgia; collected in St. John's; 
vicinity of Charleston. Fl. June. 



207 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 82; Lindley, Phil. , 
Trans, vi, Abridg. 507 ; Sherard, do. 508 ; Kalm's Travels, 
i, 77; Marshall's Abstract, 130; Cutler, Am. Acad. 427; 
Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 86; Bart. Coll. 24; Thacher's Disp. 
321 ; see Big. R. vernix, Nouv. Journal de Med. xv, 43 ; U. 
S. Disp. 718. This also gives out a poisonous exhalation ; 
some are even affected by the atmosphere around it. It is 
thought to be identical with one in Japan, which furnishes 
a tine varnish much used in that country. Dr. Bigelow 
ascertained that the juice, which flows in large quantities 
from our tree when wounded in the spring, affords a bril- 
liant, glossy, black varnish. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. Supplem. 1846, 628. See Thunberg's Voyage, vi, 15, 
for a notice of the oil extracted from the seeds. Lind. Nat. 
Syst. 168 ; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 56. It is styptic and astrin- 
gent, and the resin is used as an ointment in piles. Bige- 
low, in his examination of the juice, referred to above, 
believes that it consists of a resin and an essential oil. He 
first boiled it till the volatile oil had escaped ; the remain- 
der, being reduced almost to the state of a resin, was 
applied warm as a varnish. Dr. Pierson reports an inter- 
esting case of poisoning from this plant ; and it is said that 
some individuals have been injuriously affected by the 
fumes from the wood of this and the Rhus radicans, acciden- 
tally burnt on the fire. A swarm of bees was poisoned 
by alighting on one of these trees. New York Medical 
Repos. 

Rhus copallina, Linn. Walt. Wing-rib mountain sumach. 
Diffused. Vicinity of Charleston ; Florida and Mississippi, 
and northward ; collected in St. John's ; Newbern. Fl. 
July. 

Ell. Bot. 302 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 136. A wash is 
applied to ringworms. The root is used by the Chippeway 
Indians as an antivenereal. The excrescences on the leaves 
are powdered and made into an ointment as an application 
to hemorrhoids. Griffith, Med. Bot. It does not afford 
copal. The leaves were mixed with tobacco, and used by 



208 

the Indians for smoking. The sumach is said to form an 
ingredient in the manufacture of "Killickinick" tobacco. 
The berries are quite sour, and afford, with water, a cooling 
drink. 

Wilson asserts in the Rural Cvc. that the JR. copallina 
does contain copal. "The resin from this shrub exists in 
smooth, brittle, translucent, roundish, small masses; has 
little taste, and scarcely any odor; is fusible by heat, inflam- 
mable by ignition, insoluble in water, very sparingly solu- 
ble in alcohol, and fully soluble in sulphuric ether and 
some essential oils. It is the characteristic ingredient of 
the well known copal varnish, an article requiring operose 
and careful manufacture, but distinguished for the brilliancy, 
durability, hardness, and resistance of its exquisite polish." 
Consult " Liquidambar" for detail of experiments. By my 
experiments the leaves of the Rhus contain more tannin 
than either the sweet gum, myrtle, or any of the fifteen or 
twenty that I examined by reagents. I am also convinced 
that the excrescences abundant on the Rhus glabra (or 
smooth sumach) would furnish an excellent material for the 
supply of tannin. Upon drying, and examining them, I 
find the tannin in a highly concentrated state. They would 
be suitably used wherever an astringent is required in med- 
icine, and should be added with the leaves to the tan-vat. 
See article " Quercus tincto?ia" in this volume, for trees 
furnishing tannin and gallic acid. 

Rhus pumila, Mich. Ph. Upper districts; Newbern. Fl. 
August. 

U. S. Disp. 719 ; Mx. Flora Americana. According to 
Pursh, it is the most poisonous of the species. 

Rhus typhina, Walt. Flora Carol. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 82 ; see Analysis, 
in Journal de Chim. Med. iv, 511. Lassaigne says that 
this contains malic acid. The incised bark yields resin. It 
is employed in preparing morocco leather. See R. ver- 
nix, etc. 



209 

Rhus coriaria. This species of sumach is exotic, and is 
the principal plant cultivated in Sicily for export. I insert 
the following, in case it shall be found expedient to "ex- 
ploit" or plant our wild sumachs which are found so 
abundantly in rank meadows; particularly abundant, I have 
observed, in the Dismal Swamp, Va. I think it is suffi- 
ciently abundant there to supply almost any amount for the 
purposes of the tanner or dyer : 

"In the best sumach one hundred grains of the leaf should 
give thirty to thirty-five grains of pure tannin. The proper 
adaptation of the land can be ascertained by testing the 
leaves with sulphuric ether. ' Use as much sulphuric ether 
as will dissolve the sumach, or pass it through the sumach 
till it runs clear, then draw off the ether by heat, and the 
deposit will be pure tannin.' A rough test for tannin is 
prepared with a solution of sulphate of iron, or may depend 
upon its coagulation of albumen. 

"The sumach is thus cultivated near Palermo: The soil is 
prepared as for potatoes, with furrows from two to two and 
a half feet apart, in which in January or February are 
placed the young suckers two and a half feet apart. In 
August of the first year the leaves on the lower part of the 
branches are drawn off with the thumb and finger, leaving 
a tuft on the top. In October the whole head is taken off, 
or sometimes broken, and left hanging by the bark till dry. 
The second year, in June, the branches are stripped of 
ripe leaves; and in August, as soon as the wdiole plant is 
mature, it is cut with a sickle dowm to six inches. It 
is then spread out, and dried thoroughly on each side till 
entirely cured. The June gathering is omitted in many 
cases when the plants are not strong. After being dried 
the branches are put upon a floor and thrashed, when the 
leaves will separate from the wood, which is of no value 
except for fuel. The leaves are then ground between two 
millstones, one of which is on edge, and revolving around 
a centre. We visited a mill driven by steam-power, which 
threw out the powdered sumach in large quantities. The 
air was filled with fine particles of dust, which covered our 
14 



210 

clothing, and entered the lungs. It is not injurious, how- 
ever, for although it seemed suffocating, the workmen 
will sleep three or four hours successively in it, and are 
always remarkably healthy. They were particularly ex- 
empt from cholera. The leaves are readily reduced to 
powder while the stems are not. These last are then sep- 
arated by sifting, and the pure sumach is placed in bags of 
one hundred and sixty-three pounds for shipment. Two 
thousand pounds of ground sumach to an acre is considered 
a good crop." . 

This corroborates my own suggestion regarding the 
employment of leaves for the supply of tannin. See article 
Tannin, and Sweet Gum (Liquidambar), for my comparative 
experiments upon the leaves of gum, myrtle, etc., for tan- 
nin. Both these trees grow abundantly everywhere, and 
will easily supply a large amount of tannin, to be used as I 
suggest — in place of oak bark. 

Most of the plants containing tannin will furnish a black 
dye, with iron. "The basis of black dyes for all organic 
fibres is the tannogallate of iron ; but the modes of appli- 
cation vary with the nature of the fabric, whether silk, 
wool, or cotton. The finest blacks are obtained by a com- 
bination of colors ; thus, a rich black is imparted to wool 
by grounding it with a deep, indigo blue, then passing it 
through logwood, galls, or sumach, and finally through a 
bath of these, with copperas and verdigris, or immediately 
through the latter." *Wilson[s Rural Cyc. See, also, lire's 
Diet, of Arts, article " Calico Dyeing." Any of our plants 
containing either tannin or coloring principles can be used 
as dyes, with alum or iron. 

There is a paper by John M. Marston on the cultivation 
of the sumach in Sicily, in Patent Office Reports, 1851, p. 
60. I believe that the great abundance of sumach in the 
Dismal Swamp, Virginia, would supply for a long time all 
we would require — besides, it grows abundantly in our 
savannas, and among myrtles throughout the country. 
Mr. Marston thinks that the superiority of the Sicilian 
sumach lies in the mode of cultivating it — "all the leaves 



211 

are the production of the young sprouts that spring up from 
the stump every year." The middle Southern states he 
thinks adapted to its growth. " The export of sumach to 
the United States last year was 65,000 bags." 

I quote as follows from the letter: 

" Sumach is an article of commerce to the Sicilians of 
great importance, as it is also with the Americans. And, 
it is my opinion that this article, so valuable for manu- 
facturing purposes, for tanning, etc., can be produced in 
the United States in sufficient quantity to supply the world, 
if the mode of its culture be understood, and proper atten- 
tion be paid to it. 

" I have no idea that it is the same kind that grows in 
the United States, which there runs to the size of trees. 
In Sicily they plant the roots or small plants from two to 
three feet apart ; rows about four, so that the plough or 
harrow can save the hand labor of the hoe. They hoe it 
two or three times . before the rains finish in May, and 
gather it in July and August. The leaves are the only 
parts made use of. After being separated from the twigs 
by thrashing (or, in this country, both ways — by thrashing 
and treading off with oxen and horses), the leaves are then 
ground to the state of fineness in which you see it in the 
United States, being passed through sieves or bolting-cloths 
of sufficient fineness, and put into bags of one hundred and 
sixty pounds each. The proper season for planting the 
roots or plants is in November, December, and January. 
When the season is rainy, the plants take root better. The 
root or stump is cut off from four to six inches above 
ground. The scions or sprouts spring up four to six out of 
each root; and when at maturity, which in this island is 
in July or August, they are all cut off at the stumps, and 
laid in small handfuls to dry, say for a day or two. Do 
,not spread them out much, as the sun will turn the leaves 
yellow, and great care must be taken that no rain falls on 
them. Perhaps, in this country, it may answer to plant 
nearer together than would be advisable in America, on 
account of the greater heat of the sun here, and thus shade 



212 

the ground better. The leaves are ground in mills mostly 
by horse-power ; but water or steam-power would be much 
cheaper and better. The perpendicular running stones 
weigh nearly three thousand pounds ; they run double or 
single round an upright shaft. The nether or foundation 
stone is heavier, and one-third greater in diameter than the 
running stones. The grinding surface of these latter is 
slightly rough, being occasionally touched with the pick or 
cold-chisel. Hard granite stones answer ; here they use a 
volcanic stone, which is as hard as marble. There follows 
round the running stones a little piece of wood that keeps 
the leaves always under the stones. When ground fine 
enough, it is sifted or bolted in a large, tight room, with, 
a door to enter and fill the bags. In Sicily the article is 
more or less adulterated with spurious stuff, such as other 
kinds of leaves, and an article called bucea, which resem- 
bles the juniper bush of New England ; this has no value 
in itself. I believe the first year they do not cut off the 
sprouts. In the second and following years a curious freak 
of nature produces a single plant a foot or so distant from 
the , original root ; and this little plant it is which they 
usually make use of to transplant. Now, the plough or 
harrow would prevent these from growing, as they would 
be in the track, and this may be the reason why they hoe 
it. Still, I think the plough or harrow must be used in 
our country, and some way or other contrived to save these 
little plants if wanted." 

Vitace^. (Vine Tribe.) 

Vitis bipinnata, T. and G. (Ampelopsis, Mx.) Margins of 
swamps, Florida, and northward ; abundant, bearing black 
berries in bunches. 

Attracted by the sweetish taste and the purplish black 
hue of the berries of this plant, which is closely related to 
the grape, I succeeded (1862) in extracting a beautiful 
dark purple by the following process: The berries were 
mashed in a mortar, vinegar was added, with a small quan- 
tity of powdered alum. The mixture was then boiled, and 



213 

the yarn, or other material, previously wrung out of water, 
put in while hot. The color of articles dyed is said to be 
fixed more firmly by subsequently dipping them when 
thoroughly dried in boiling salt and water. 

Vitis, Grape. 

My friend, the late Major John Leconte, in a paper on 
the "American Grape Vines of the Atlantic States," has 
given the conclusions of an experienced botanist in regard 
to the wild species. His change of residence North and 
South gave him a good opportunity to study the various 
species. He is of the opinion that a grape adapted to the 
production of wine in the Confederate States would be ill 
adapted to the Northern states, which are colder, and less 
humid, and dry. " Thus, the Scuppernong grape can never 
perfectly ripen north of Virginia, and the fox grapes of the 
North will scarcely grow in the lower parts of Carolina and 
Georgia; the Isabella, or Catawba varieties of this last, 
which were originally brought from the upper regions of 
South Carolina, do not flourish in the low country, and will 
scarcely live in lower Georgia." To remedy the want of 
the sweet principle in a grape, nothing more is necessary 
than to boil down the must, before fermentation, until it is 
considerably reduced. 

Major Leconte considers it quite possible to make wine 
that will keep without alcohol ; also, that our American 
grapes do not require the pruning adopted in Europe. 
See Patent Office Reports, 228, 1857, for a critical account 
of the species of grape growing in the Atlantic states, 
and Chapman's Flora of the Southern United States, under 
genus "Vitis," for grapes exclusively Southern. "Bland's 
Grape," V. palmata, so highly praised by Major Leconte, 
as being equal to any variety of the European grape, which 
he says grows in the mountains of North Carolina, is not 
included by Chapman as a native. It is the V. Virginiana 
of Poiret. 

A -writer recommends the use of natural caves as wine 
cellars. Drs. Gall and Petiol's "Method of wine making, 



214 

according to the modern principles adopted in Germany 
and France," is published in Patent Office Reports, 1859, 
p. 95. The same volume also describes the construction of 
cellars and vats, etc. Gov. Hammond, of S. C, has had a 
large cellar built for wines, sugar cane juice, etc. These 
seem to me essential. 

A correspondent says that foreign grapes must be laid in 
straw during the winter. 

H. W. Ravenel, also of Aiken, S. C, who has been in- 
vestigating the native grape with his known ability as a 
botanist, in a paper 4 published in Patent Office Reports, 
1857, gives an enumeration of our four American species 
of grapes so far studied. Under these, viz : V. labrusca, L., 
fox grape, V. cestivalis, Mx., summer grape, V. cordifolia, 
Mx., winter or frost grape, Vulpina, L., bull grape, or Bui- 
lace, he classes the varieties which have proceeded from 
them. The V. rupcstris of Scheele is found in Texas. 

Mr. Ravenel makes a statement which is instructive: 
"All the species of American grapes are dioecia polygamous; 
that is, some of the vines bear staminate or barren flowers 
only, and are forever sterile ; others bear perfect flowers.* 
and are fruitful. All the species of the Eastern hemisphere 
are hermaphrodite ; that is, every vine bears perfect flowers, 
containing stamens and pistils in the same corolla, and are 
fruitful. In the absence of other evidence, this fact would 
be conclusive of the parentage of an unknown seedling, 
whether it be of exotic or indigenous origin." The varie- 
ties of foreign grapes are referred to a single species, V. 
vinifera, L. 

Professor C. T. Jackson, in a communication in Patent 
Office Reports, p. 42, 1859, remarks, in reference to the pre- 
servative power of sugar in making wine, as follows : 

"We must find out the proportion of saccharine or alco- 
hol-producing matter in the American grapes, for if they 
will not produce alcohol in sufficient proportions to keep 
the wine from souring, we should have to add saccharine 
matter in some form to make a sound wine." In many 
portions of the country, it is found necessary to add sugar 



215 

to wine. Jacksou says that those grapes "which contain 
less than 15 per cent, of saccharine matter will require 
sugar or alcoholic spirit to be added to them, in order -to 
make a wine that will keep." See, also, notice of Prof. 
Wm. Hume's paper, further on, and Patent Office Reports, 
1859, p. 59, for proportions of acids and sugar in American 
grapes, cultivation and preparing wine, gathering grapes, 
apparatus, and making of wine in detail, p. 55, et seq. 

See a paper with full description and mode of cultivation 
of wine, with manufacture of wine near Cincinnati, in 
Patent Office Reports, 1848, pp. 6-14. The value and 
amount of yield per acre is also given in this paper. I 
will extract a portion of it : 

Selecting and preparing the ground. — A hill-side with a 
southern aspect is preferred. If the declivity is gentle, it 
can be drained by sodded, concave avenues ; but if too 
steep for that, it must be benched or terraced, which is 
more expensive. In the autumn or winter, dig or trench 
the ground with the spade all over two feet deep, turning 
the surface under. The ground will be mellowed by the 
frosts of winter. 

Planting. — Lay off the ground in rows three by six feet ; 
put down a stick, twelve or- fifteen inches long, where each 
vine is to grow. The avenues should be ten feet wide, di- 
viding the vinej-ard into squares of one hundred and twenty 
feet. Plant at each stick two cuttings, separated six or 
eight inches at the bottom of the hole, but joined at the 
top. Throw a spadeful of rich, vegetable mould into each, 
hole, and let the top eye of the cutting be even with the 
surface of the ground, and if the matter is dry, cover with, 
half an inch of light earth. The cuttings should be pre- 
pared for planting by burying them in the earth imme- 
diately after pruned from the vines in the spring. By the 
latter end of March, or early in April, ^which is the right 
time for planting, the buds will be swelled so as to make^ 
them strike root with great certainty. Cut off close to the: 
joint at the lower bud, and about an inch in all above 
the upper. 



216 

Pruning. — The first year after planting cut the vine d©wn 
to a single eye (some leave two), the second leave two or 
three, and the third three or four. After the first year, a 
stake, six and a half or seven feet long, must be driven 
firmly down by each plant, to which the vines must be kept 
neatly tied with willow or straw as they grow. Late in 
February, or early in March, is the right time for spring 
pruning in this climate. Summer pruning consists in 
breaking off the lateral sprouts and shoots so as to leave 
two strong and thrifty canes or vines — one of which is to 
bear fruit the ensuing season, the other to be cut down in 
spring pruning to a spur to produce new shoots. These 
may be let run to the top of the stakes, and trained from 
one to the other, until the wood is matured, say in August 
or September, when the green ends may be broken off. 
One of these vines is selected next spring for bearing fruit, 
and' cut down from four to six joints, and bent over and 
fastened to the stake in the form of a bow. The other is 
cut away, as well as the fruit-bearing wood of the last year, 
leaving spurs to throw out new wood for the next, and thus 
keeping the vine down to within one and a half to two feet 
of the ground. Hip off the ends of the fruit-bearing 
branches two or three joints be} 7 ond the branches of 
grapes, but do not take oft' any leaves. If both the cut- 
tings grow, take one up, or cut it off under ground, as but 
one vine should be left to each stake. 

Culture. — The vineyard must be kept perfectly clean from 
weeds and grass, and hoed under two or three times during 
the season. Keep the grass in the avenues around down 
close. About every third year put in manure by a trench 
the width of a spade, and three or four inches deep, just 
above and near each row ; fill in with two or three inches 
of manure, and cover, it up with earth. 

Wine making. — Grather the grapes when very ripe ; pick 
off the unsound and unripe berries. The bunches are then 
washed in a w r ashing-tub, or passed through a small mill, 
breaking the skin, but not the seed, and thrown into the 
press, and the screw applied until the skins and seeds are 
pressed dry. 



217 

Fermentation. — This process is very simple. The juice is 
put into clean casks in a cool cellar, and the casks filled 
within about four or five inches of the bung, and the bung 
put on loosely. The gas escapes, but the wine does not 
run over. In two to four weeks, generally, the fermenta- 
tion ceases, and the wine clears; then fill up the casks, and 
tighten the bungs. In February or March rack off into 
clean casks. In the spring a moderate fermentation will 
again take place ; after that the wine fines itself, and is 
ready for bottling or barrelling. Use no brandy or sugar 
if the grapes are sound and well ripened. Keep bunged or 
corked tight, and in a cool cellar, and the wine will im- 
prove by age for many years. A paper on "North Carolina 
Grapes," p. 48, may be consulted in Patent Office Report 
on Agriculture, 1851. It gives an account of wine made 
from the wild fox grape, and others, and discusses some of 
the native varieties. Johnston's Chemistry of Common 
Life, vol. 2, Chaptal's Chemistry, in its relations with Agri- 
culture, chapter on "Fermentation," Ure's Dictionary of 
Arts, article Wine, "Fermentation," etc., may be consulted 
for information as to the processes of wine making. See 
DeBow's Review, and DeBow's "Industrial Resources of 
the South and "West," in three volumes, for articles on cul- 
tivation of grape, and wine making at the South ; also, 
Patent Office Reports, 1859, p. 72, for a very full and 
detailed account of cultivation of grape, manufacture of 
wine, construction of vats and cellars, by Dr. Weber, 
of Washington. I regret that I cannot condense this 
article. 

In Missouri and Ohio it is found that the Catawba grape, 
a native of the Atlantic sea-coast, is liable to rot, and to be 
affected by mildew. A writer in Patent Office Reports, 
.1854, p. 453, recommends several hardier varieties, viz: 
The Halifax (wine mild and spicy), Norton's Virginia seed- 
ling (wine fiery and aromatic), the Roekhouse Indian, which 
is said to produce a wine not inferior to the best Burgundy. 
The writer gives some directions about the culture, and 
adds: "In the place of putting the 'bung loosely' on your 



218 

casks during fermentation, put on the bung-hole first a 
grape leaf, and upon that a small bag filled with fine and 
not quite dry sand. In good cellars, and large casks your 
wine will, and must not clear in less than six or eight 
weeks. Rack off in March, then again in midsummer, and 
again just before the time of the next harvest. Before 
every racking, have your cask well sulphurated. Then 
your juice is real wine and may be bottled; it will keep as 
long as you please, and improve considerably for a series 
of years." I introduce the above, as it seems to contain 
some practical directions. 

The "rot" in grapes is caused by an excess of moisture 
about the roots, and moist and damp weather. Vineyards 
located upon "still, cold, clayey subsoils, which unavoidably 
retain the excess of moisture and produce injurious effects, 
can be obviated by thorough draining, or by selecting soil 
which is warmer, lighter, and richer in the ingredient most 
favorable to the vine." 

The "mildew" is often a most serious cause of disease in 
grapes, extending over entire sections of country, as almost 
to discourage the cultivation. It is considered to be a para- 
sitic fungus. See a paper on this subject in Patent Office 
Reports, 1854, p. 311, by J. F. Allen, of Mass. In the New 
England states the presence or absence of this fungus 
depends upon the condition of the weather, and the 
progress in maturity of the vine in August and July. 
There the fungus appears during foggy weather, resem- 
bling a white mould. In Reports for 1853, p. 311, an 
engraved illustration is given of this mildew fungus. 
"When a grape becomes affected by it, the fruit will either 
dry or crack open, unless checked or destroyed before it 
makes much progress. The so called disease is a living 
plant, most rapid in its growth, and wonderful in its powers 
of reproduction and multiplication. When a vine has once 
been infected by it, the seeds or sporules in countless mil- 
lions lie waiting a favorable atmospheric change to spring 
into life ; and when this does occur, so rapid is their 
growth that in one day the under side of the leaf will be 



219 

almost covered." The plan of dusting the leaves with sul- 
phur is impracticable. The writer says he has found a 
wash quite effectual in destroying this fungus, and it can 
be applied on a large scale with the garden engine ; on a 
smaller, by the syringe or the nose of a watering-pot. 

"To prepare this wash, take one peck of lime, not slaked, 
and one pound of sulphur; put them together in a barrel, 
and pour hot water over them sufficient to slake the lime; 
pour on this three gallons of soft water, and stir the mix- 
ture well together. In twenty-four hours it will have set- 
tled and become perfectly clear. This should be drawn off 
as clear as possible. Half a pint of this mixture added to 
three gallons of water will be sufficiently strong, and may 
be applied over the fruit when mildew first appears. It 
can be repeated every few days, if occasion requires.- The 
first application I have found would kill the most of it; a 
second and third are all that I have ever found neces- 
sary for the season. The fruit and foliage have ripened 
fully on the European varieties. The American or native 
varieties are less subject to the attacks of this fungus than 
the European. There is also a difference in these, the 
Catawba and Isabella being more attacked than some other 
kinds. That this mildew or fungus requires a peculiar con- 
dition of the atmosphere to allow of its vegetating is a 
hopeful fact for the people of the European grape-growing 
regions. A series of seasons unpropitious to its growth 
may destroy millions of sporules or seed vessels deposited 
upon their vineyards." 

I have seen grapes attacked with a disease, an apparent 
blackening or rot of the internal portion of the fruit, which 
had never been attacked until the arbor was covered over, 
and thus the requisite amount of light was diminished. In 
this case they become diseased from too much shade and 
moisture, and the remedy is plain. 

Wilson in his Rural Cyc. furnishes from several sources 
recipes in his article on "Wine" for making "Wine from 
the leaves, tender shoots, and tendrils of the vine; if judiciously 
prepared, it is so excellent that Mr. MacCulloch compared 



220 

it to 'white hermitage. ' ' See, also, MacCulloch's Treatise 
on Wine making. Excellent wine is also prepared from 
the unripe berries, he. tit, where the method is given. 
It is as follows: the claret vine leaves, as he observes, will 
produce a red color, and this tree could be cultivated for 
the express purpose. Having repeatedly prepared red and 
white leaf wine, we can with the greater confidence offer a 
few abbreviated extracts from Mr. MacCulloch's book, pre- 
viously observing that the specific gravity of the liquor 
must here also be taken as the criterion of strength; the 
proportions are calculated for ten gallons of wine. The 
leaves should not have attained their full growth, and must 
be plucked with their stems. On forty or fifty pounds of 
such leaves, seven or eight gallons of boiling water are 
poured, in which they are to infuse for twenty-four hours; 
the liquor being then strained off, the leaves are to be 
forcibly pressed. A gallon more water is to be added, and 
the leaves again are to be pressed. A screw w T ine-press 
with hair bags, is very useful in the process. Sugar, vary- 
ing from twenty-five pounds to thirty pounds, is then to be 
added to the mixed liquors; the quantity is to be made up 
to ten gallons and a half. Such are the essentials of Mr. 
MacCulloch's directions. We need only add, continues the 
editor, that if a fermenting, lively wine be contemplated, the 
manufacture must be conducted as in the process for Cham- 
pagne, and the smaller of the two proportions of the leaves, 
etc., is to be employed. The specific gravity of the must 
should be 1.110 to 1.115. The fermentation must be car- 
ried on for a short time in the open vessel, or till the gravity 
be reduced to 1.090 ; and the barrel will require to be filled, 
and be kept full, in order to carry off the froth and leaven 
that rise to the top of the liquor. But we apprehend that 
grape leaves are better qualified to produce a dry wine, and 
therefore the larger proportion of leaves, etc., should be 
employed, and sugar to the extent that will raise the 
gravity to 1.120. In this case the fermentation must be 
conducted in the manner already stated for the production 
of a dry wine from green grapes ; and when perfected, and 



221 

the wine becomes bright, it is to be fined and racked oft' 
during clear and cold weather, then returned to a clean 
and sweet cask, and bunged close. A second fining and 
racking may be required. Grape wine made from the 
green berries, we have found delicious in flavor, and quite 
fit for the table in two years or less. But the liquor 
obtained from the leaves contains a quantity of vegetable 
extract which conveys a flavor that time alone can sub- 
due ; hence, we recommend, the author adds, that it b^ 
always retained two years in the cask, and be bottled in 
the second winter. It ought, also, to remain during one 
entire year in the bottles. Wilson's Rural Cyc, art. 
"Wine." 

The following brief statement of the mode of making 
wine, by J. S. Reid, of Fayette county, Ind., appears so 
simple, that I quote it here. (See P. 0. Rep. 1855, p. 308): 

"The mode adopted by me of making wine is as fol- 
lows : From the 1st to the 15th of October, I continue 
pulling the grapes, always selecting the ripest ones first, and 
after mashing them in a tub made for the purpose, subject 
them to a small press made in the form of a cider-press. 
The barrels into which the juice is put are well washed 
with cold water, dried, and fumigated with sulphur before 
the must is put into them. I then place over the bung-hole 
a piece of tin or sheet-iron perforated with small holes. 
The must is then allowed to ferment slowly for about 
three we*eks, until the scum caused by the fermentation 
apparently ceases. The barrels are then filled, and bunged 
tight until spring, when I rack the wine off" into clear 
casks, washed out with cold water and juniper berries, and 
fumigated with sulphur as before, to destroy any bad 
flavor. It is then ready for market ; but during this time 
the casks require to be frequently examined, and filled up, 
keeping them always full to the bung." The reader can 
find in the Patent Office Reports of 1855, p. 304, a brief 
statement by D. Ponce, of Hancock county, Ga., of the 
method of making Champagne wine in France. 

Dr. Wm. Hume, Professor in the State Military Acad- 



222 

emy of South Carolina, read a paper before the South 
Carolina Medical Association, on the "Manufacture of 
Wines in the South," which has been published in De- 
Bow's Review, March and April, 1862. It is a well writ- 
ten article, giving the results of experiments, containing 
an exposition of a plan to obviate the disabilities of climate 
opposed to the manufacture of wine in South Carolina. 

In brief, Prof. Hume advises that the two qualities of 
sweetness and acidity in wines (which vary in different 
varieties and at different seasons) should be ascertained 
and considered b}^ the wine maker. The latest date com- 
patible with the full and perfect maturation of the grape 
should be selected for gathering, so that they should be as 
little acid and contain as much sugar as possible. 

Cellars should be constructed in order to prevent acidity 
during fermentation, and if necessary alcohol, brandy, or 
whiskey should be added, to preserve the preparation from 
turning sour, and also to procure different varieties of wine. 
I would refer the reader to the articles for an agreeable 
and forcible exposition of the author's views. He rejects 
the idea that it is useless or improper to modify the juice 
of the grape by alcohol under its various forms. Many 
wines are to a certain extent factitious, but not adulterated. 
The writer says: "I have clearly shown that the purely 
manufactured wines of Aiken are either too acid or too 
weak in spirit — that these defects proceed from immaturity 
of the grape, and from the high temperature of the must 
during fermentation. The high temperature induces two 
evils which are injurious to wine, viz: the loss of alcohol 
by its conversion into acetic acid, and its loss, by more 
rapid evaporation during the exposure of fermentation." 
Cool cellars' are certainly one obvious desideratum. The 
addition of alcohol to wine as a preservative agent has 
been referred to by writers: "The object and intention 
of adding alcohol to recent grape juice is to preserve it 
through the months of August, September, and October 
unchanged by fermentation. During the month of No- 
vember the cool weather is sufficiently established, and 



223 

continues in Aiken to conduct the vinous fermentation 
without the apprehension of the acetic ; hence wine, not 
vinegar, can then be made." (Hume). 

The reader can find a good account of fermentation and 
the rationale of manufacture of various liquors in Solly's 
Rural Chemistry, p. 164, et seq. Drs. Gall and Petiol 
also refer to the process of "ameliorating" the wine 
made from the wild grapes by the free addition of sugar 
dissolved in water, adding also tartaric acid if the acid is 
deficient. The husks or pomace which remains is again 
treated with sugar, water, or acid as long as any wine 
extract remains, and so an enormous amount of wine is 
made at small cost. In this process the grapes are mash- 
ed, not pressed. See details, P. 0. Rep., 1859, p. 97. 
Tables for calculating the acid and sugar are described. 
I regret not being able to give this method in full. 

In connection with Prof. Hume's project of adding 
alcohol to wine, I extract the following from an article on 
the "Grape and Wine culture in California," P. 0. Rep., 
1858, p. 342. "Angelica is a sweet wine, which is never 
allowed to ferment. It is made by adding brandy to white 
wine, which is the first and purest juice that runs from the 
press, in the ratio of one to three, as it comes from the 
press. It is thus kept from fermentation, arid always remains 
sweet. It is immediately put into close casks, and drawn 
off as soon as it is clear, which is generally within four or 
five weeks. The casks for Angelica wine have to be pre- 
pared with great care by sulphuring. "Aguadiente" 
(brandy) only can be used in making Angelica, as it has 
the true grape flavor, which most other brandies have not. 
This brandy is distilled from wine made from leaves or 
from the pomace (skins of the grapes) of the pressed 
grapes. It takes about five gallons of wine to make one 
of aguadiente." By this it will also be seen that the 
shape in which the alcohol is added is material. Let us 
compare the following with our difficulties here in South 
Carolina and Georgia. Italics are my own. Matthew 
Keller, of Los Angeles, Cal., says: "The manufacture of 



224 

wine, in a suitable climate, is simple, and may be done by 
any one of ordinary intelligence. Bat when the climate and 
soil are not adapted to the nature of the- grape, then, indeed, 
it becomes a complicated art. ' One of the most essential 
things to be observed in its manufacture is the proper 
regulation of temperature, particularly during the phe- 
nomenon of the first fermentation ; and to this the least 
attention is paid. If the must is too cool, the fermen- 
tation is slow, and apt to sour; while if there is too much 
heat, it will soon go into the acetous state. Must which 
abounds in saccharine matter, and is deficient in ferment, 
requires a higher degree o.f temperature than that which 
has these substances in opposite proportions. The strong- 
est must, even when it contains much ferment, can sup- 
port a higher temperature than the weak, because the 
great quantity of alcohol which is developed retards 
the action of the ferment, and prevents the tendency to 
pass to the acetous fermentation. The best general tem- 
perature is between 62° and 64° Fahrenheit. There is little 
difficulty in maintaining the temperature in a cellar, but it 
may be observed that the act of fermentation elevates the 
temperature. To arrive at that which is the most con- 
venient, it is necessary to pay attention to the temperature 
of the grapes at the time of mashing them: if picked 
early in the morning or at noon, it varies many degrees. 
To obviate this, they may be picked a day in advance, or 
they should be cooled in a large vat, and vice versa. These 
few facts comprehend ali that is necessary to make wine, 
but they are subject to many variations and much detail, 
like most other processes of manufacture." The necessity 
for the display of judgment, and the value of experience 
in modifying processes, is true of the manufacture of in- 
digo, of sugar from the different variety of canes, etc. ~$o 
rigid rules adapted to every climate can be depended upon. 
That vats should be essential, I myself, without experience, 
felt sure from seeing their necessity in keeping porter and 
ale in Charleston, or cider in the upper country. We do 
not manufacture any of them in Charleston, but in order 



225 

to bottle or keep them under favorable circumstances, a 
cool cellar is essential. 

The writer quoted above gives the method of making 
wine in Los Angeles, as follows: "The grapes are deprived 
of their stems by hand; they are then mashed between 
wooden or iron rollers; some tread them out in the an- 
cient style. A portion of the juice runs into a cooling-vat, 
without pressing; the crushed grapes are put into a screw- 
press and forced out rapidly, all the result being must for 
white wine. As the grapes are black, and the coloring mat- 
ter exists only in the skin, and requires in some degree the 
presence of alcohol to dissolve it, if the pressing be done 
quickly the wine will be white ; but if slowly, or if the 
grapes come broken from the vineyard, the must will show 
color; for as soon as the fruit is broken, and the juice 
comes in contact with the air, fermentation commences, 
and simultaneous with it, the presence of alcohol, in a 
greater or less degree, which extracts the coloring matter. 
The must is then transferred into the fermenting tuns, 
and the first active fermentation goes on, according to cir- 
cumstances, for from four to ten days. The mashed grapes 
are put into vats to ferment, from which results red wine. 
This is in part distilled into brandy. Some persons distil 
red wine with the "marc" into brandy immediately after 
fermentation, but if left to pass a secondary fermentation 
it would yield more alcohol. The wine is racked off in 
January and February, again in March and April, and for 
the third time in September. It should be taken oif the 
lees after the first fermentation subsides, when the wine has 
settled: for it cannot gain anything by being allowed to 
stand on the lees longer than is absolutely necessary. The 
proportions of saccharine matter and ferment in our grapes are 
well balanced, therefore there is no extraordinary art in 
making wine; as it will make itself with common care, 
and without the addition of any extraneous substance. 
The purest and finest wines in the world are made from 
the juice of the grape alone (?) More capital is needed to 
make proper cellars, procure necessary materials, and to 
15 



226 

enable us to hold our wines till they have age, when they 
would compare favorably with the best. See also P. O. 
Rep., 1859, p. 94, et seq.; also an extended account of 
grape culture and wine manufacture, with wood-cuts of 
presses, etc., in Report 1856, p. 408, by J. A. Warder, M. 
D., of Ohio. The diseases affecting the grape are also de- 
scribed. 

I obtain the following from the Southern Field and Fire- 
side : 

Although this subject has been widely discussed, and 
hundreds of methods recommended, still I see no satis- 
factory article written which has treated this question as to 
our Southern grapes and climate. Almost all the writers 
have confined themselves to the Northern and Western 
wines and their modes of production, leaving out the idea 
that Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina had more 
resources for wine producing than all the North and West 
combined, not speaking of the immensely superior quality 
of its products. I trust that the following hints may be of 
service to some beginners, and be auxiliary to many .masters 
in the art. 

There exist a large number of varieties of wine, differing 
among themselves by the color, perfume, taste, consistence, 
etc., and often many such varieties are produced bj^ the same 
grape. Often those varieties of wine depend upon many 
circumstances — such as difference in soil and subsoil, 
exposure, mode of cultivation, climatic influence, degree of 
maturity of the fruit when pressed, and above all, by the 
mode of making the wine. The first process is the gather- 
ing of the grapes, and this should be one of the most 
careful. The grapes should be thoroughly ripe, and the 
best signs of maturity are these : The stem of the clusters 
changes to brown, the berries become soft, and when the 
bloom is removed the skin is smooth and nearly trans- 
parent, the flavor is vinous sweet," and the seeds free from 
the pulp and dry. At this point the grapes should be 
gathered. If gathered sooner the wine will be of an infe- 
rior quality, and apt to form vinegar; if later, the wine 



227 

will be less in quantity and syrup-like. When the grapes 
have attained the right period of maturity, select a dry, 
clear day, and do not begin the gathering until the dew is 
well evaporated, and the grapes perfectly dry. Use sharp 
knives or scissors, and remove all green and decayed ber- 
ries from the branches, and put them in clean wooden 
pails : then, if the press is some distance from the vineyard, 
put them in wooden tubs, which must not be too large, so 
as not to be difficult to handle, and transport by wagon. 
Now it is necessary to give some remarks upon the process 
to be followed according to the mode of wine to be pro- 
duced, and to the variety of grape employed. Our native 
grapes ot the Labrusca or fox type are mostly cultivated 
in this section of the country, and the wine they produce 
is of the Hock or Rhine wine order. The great value of 
that wine consists in its delicate aroma, or bouquet, and to 
attain it must be an essential object in its making. To this 
class belong the Catawba, Isabella, Diana, Delaware, etc., 
etc., the former of which being most generally cultivated. 
I will describe the process in its best manufacture. 

When the grapes are gathered they must be mashed be- 
tween wooden rollers. The juice is received in a clean 
cask or vat, but the hulls, seeds, or stems are carefully 
avoided to come into contact with the juice. After the 
whole is mashed it is pressed. The juice which runs out at 
the time of mashing should be kept separate from the juice 
which comes from the pressing, as the former will make a 
wine much more delicate than the latter. The pressed 
juice will be of a marked color. The casks or vats should 
be of as large size as consistent with the quantity of the 
crops. They should be made of the best white oak, with 
strong iron hoops. The greatest cleanliness is necessary. 
Wash the casks well, and further fumigate them by burn- 
ing a w T ick of sulphur, and keeping the bung closed. 
Avoid sulphuring too much, as it will give a bad flavor to 
the wine if done to excess. Fill the cask full, then close it 
with a tight bung, in the centre of which is fitted a siphon, 
the low T er end of which rests in a vessel filled with water. 



228 

The juice of the Catawba, as well as that of all the grapes 
of that class, should never be fermented upon the hulls, 
as it then loses its delicate flavor, and only produces a harsh 
wine — neither a hock nor a claret. The above method 
is also applicable to the juice of any grapes of which a 
a white or pale wine is desired. Juice thus treated should 
be left in the cask until the following spring, after the 
blossoming of the vine, at which period it will undergo 
a slight fermentation. It can then be drawn off in clean 
casks of required size for market, or in bottles ; but it will 
be to its advantage to leave the wine in casks for two or 
three yesirs before bottling. 

The process of making red wine is different — the 
grapes being mashed, with hulls, seeds, etc., in a ferment- 
ing-vat (a cask having one. head taken out will .answer for a 
small vintage). A faucet is put at about eight or twelve 
inches from the bottom; usually a bunch of cuttings is 
placed in the interior to keep it free from the seeds, etc., in 
drawing off, leaving a space five or six inches between the 
must and the lid, which is well fastened, and has also a 
valve for the evaporation of the gas. This may be also 
arranged with a siphon, as in the manipulation of the 
white wine, the end of which siphon must rest in water. 
In a few hours after the must has been put in the vat the 
liquid will commence to ferment, the gas will be thrown off 
in large quantities, and bring upon the surface the stems, 
hulls, and seeds, which form what the French term chap- 
eau (hat). This mass is often very consistent. As soon 
as the chapemi shows signs of going to pieces is the time to 
draw off the wine from the vat. The residuum is then 
pressed, and generally makes a wine containing much tan- 
nin, and not as delicate as the wine first drawn. The latter 
wine is kept separate, or mixed with the other wine, as 
desired. As soon as the wine is drawn in clean casks put 
the bung in lightly for a few days, then bung it tight. A 
still easier method is to put a false bottom in the ferment- 
ing-vat, which is made from well seasoned wood, and holes 
bored all over. This false bottom is put upon the hulls to 



229 

prevent their rising. Its position must be regulated by the 
amount of pomace in the vat, and kept steady by sticks. 
The vat is covered as before with a tight head and siphon, 
and the period of the drawing off the wine is visible when 
the fermentation ceases. In general, the fermentation will 
last from eight to twelve days. This method is applicable 
to all the colored grapes of the aestivalis, or summer grape 
type — such as Lenoir, Clinton, Jacques, etc. The cellar 
should be dry, and of an even temperature of about fifty 
to sixty degrees. After the young red wine is put into the 
cellar it will undergo a light fermentation. The casks have 
to be filled occasional!}^, and kept full to the bung. As 
soon as dissolution of the sugar and the other constituents 
of the wine has taken place, the undissolved matter will 
settle at the bottom, and is called lees. When the wine 
becomes quiet and settled, it is time to draw it off in clean 
casks. In the above remarks I have endeavored to com- 
press the w T ine-making to a small compass, by which it will 
be seen that it is far less complicated than presumed. I 
give the different wines obtained from our native grapes. 

Varieties belonging to the Vitis labrusca, or fox grape : 

Catawba. A light colored hock, often equal to the cele- 
brated Rhine wines. 

Diana. Also a light colored wine, much more delicate 
than Catawba. 

Delaware. From small experiments yields a wine of the 
muscatel class, remarkably rich, and very often makes a 
beautiful, sparkling wine. 

Isabella. Makes a wune of a pale red color, if fermented 
upon the juice, and a darker wine of a claret order if fer- 
fermented upon the hulls. 

Hartford prolific, and Concord. A dark, harsh wine. 
These varieties are not well calculated for wine. 

Varieties belonging to Vitis aestivalis, or summer grape: 

Clinton. Makes a high-bodied Avine of the claret order. 
This variety is destined to be relied upon as our red wine 
grape at no distant period. 

Jacques. Gives a very dark wine of the Burgundy order. 



230 

Its juice can be manipulated as for white wines — there 
being a large amount of coloring matter in the juice. 

Lenoir with Clinton. Will give a delicate claret or port. 

Warren. Makes a wine of the Madeira class. 

Pauline. Somewhat similar to above. 

Taylor, or Ballet. A white variety of the Clinton, and 
doubtless will soon be our standing, or white Wine variety. 

The Scup-pernong. A variety of Viiis cordifolia. Yields a 
wine of the muscat order, but unfortunately sugar and 
alcohol are too generally added, and thereby a good wine 
is spoiled. 

Many other varieties Of our native grapes will soon be 
experimented upon as to the wine-making qualities ; but 
with the above list we can obtain almost all the classes and 
colors of wines that are imported in this country. 

In Spartanburg district, S. C, they make out of the gar- 
den grape a very pleasant wine, which is pure juice of the 
grape, by the following simple process : 

Squeeze the grapes through a bag ; to each gallon of 
juice put one pound of sugar (more may be added); set it 
away in jars or casks for two or three days, occasionally 
skimming off all the supernatant froth, scum, etc. Then 
strain into a cask, adding some honey and brandy. A gal- 
lon of brandy may be added to twelve gallons of juice. 
This wine is said to equal the best quality. Very good 
wine is also made by adding sugar and brandy to apple 
cider. 

" C. "W, B.," a correspondent of the Southern Field -and 
Fireside, writes as follows : 

Cultivation of Grapes. — Growing Scuppernong grapes in 
the South is easy, pleasant, and very valuable. My plan is 
this : In February take the vines that you have rooted the 
previous year, and set them in some place where you want 
them, say in rows ten feet each way, with some convenient 
place for them to spread their branches on, and soon erect 
a good arbor to each one, and if they are well treated they 
will soon cover the. whole field. The best land for this vine 
is light, sandy soil, and the best manure is grass, or weeds, 



231 

hoed up when green and put under the arbor; also, rotten 
wood, such as old boards, rails, sticks, etc., piled under the 
vines. It is also good to have a pen around the roots filled 
with all the scrap leather, old shoes, bones, brickbats, etc. 
When the vines begin to grow they must be pruned every 
spring, for the tendrils will wrap around the branches, and 
when the branches grow large, die, or break off, it will in- 
jure the vine very much ; but when they get old a large 
vineyard would require a great deal of labor, so this part 
generally receives but little attention when the vineyard is 
old. This grape is not only useful to preserve and pleasant 
to eat, but the most delicious wine can be made from them. 
When they are fully ripe gather them, and they can be 
ground in a gridder, or if that is not convenient, mash 
them in a trough ; then press them well, putting three- 
quarters of a pound or a pound of sugar to the gallon ; in 
this every one is to be governed by his own taste. When 
well sweetened, put it in casks and draw it off from one to 
another, until it is purified; then bung it very tightly to 
prevent evaporation, and set it in a barn or cellar six or 
twelve months ; it is then good enough for anybody to 
drink. 

Wine-Farming and Making. — Mr. R. Buchanan, of Ohio, 
who is one of the most eminent vine-growers of this coun- 
try, thinks that "wine-farming will, in a few years, become 
simplified, and almost as easily understood as corn-farm- 
ing. There is no mystery in it. Experience alone must 
teach the proper position and soil ; the right distances 
apart for the vines; the most judicious methods of spring 
and summer pruning ; and* as for cultivation, keep the 
ground clean with the plough or cultivator, like corn. Cer- 
tain rules are given in books for vineyard culture, as pur- 
sued in the Ohio valley. These are the European systems, 
adapted to our own country. It will be safe to follow these 
rules, until by experimenting we can find better. There is 
more room for progress in this branch of agriculture than 
in almost any other. 



232 

"Making the wine is as simple as making cider. The 
great bunches are cut from the vines, and all unsound or 
unripe berries picked off the bunch and thrown in^p a 
bucket, to make — with the addition of sugar — vinegar, or 
an inferior wine. The perfect grapes of each day's cutting 
are taken to the wine-house, and in the evening, after 
being mashed in a barrel with a beetle — stem and berries — 
or passed through wooden rollers in a small mill, are put on 
the press and the juice extracted. About one-third runs off 
without any pressure. The outer edges of the pomace are 
cut off for eight or ten inches, after the first pressing, sepa- 
rated with the hands, and thrown on top, when the power 
of the screw is applied, and another pressing made. This 
is repeated two or three times. The juice from the last 
pressing being very dark and astringent, is put with the in- 
ferior wine. The other is put in large casks filled about 
five-sixths full, to ferment and make the good wine. No 
sugar or brandy should be added to the best Catawba juice, 
or must, as it makes a better wine without, and is strong 
enough to keep well. One end of a siphon is placed in the 
bung-hole of the cask ; the other being crooked over, rests 
in a bucket of water. 

"The fermentation commences in a day or two, and the 
carbonic acid escapes through the water. In ten or four- 
teen days, the siphon may be removed, the casks filled up, 
and the bung driven in lightly; in a month, tightly. In 
midsummer the wine is drawn off into another cask, and 
the lees of the wine, with the pomace of the grapes, are 
used to make brandy. 

"The wine will be clear and pleasant to drink in a month 
or two after the first fermentation ceases. The second fer- 
mentation occurs in the spring, about the time of the blos- 
soming of the grapes ; this is but slight, and it will be 
merely necessary to loosen the bungs ; when it is over, the 
wine will be clear in two or three months, and safe to bot- 
tle, but that operation had better be deferred until Novem- 
ber. And this is the whole process of making still wine — 
the wine for general use ; and, being a natural product of 



233 

the pure juice of the grape, it is more wholesome than any 
mixed or artificial wine, however showy and high-priced it 
may be. 

"Let the grapes be well ripened; the press, casks, and 
all vessels perfectly clean, and then keep the air from the 
new wine, by having the casks constantly bung-full, and 
there is no danger of its spoiling. This is the whole 
secret. 

"It is presumed that no one will go into wine-farming 
largely at first ; but take the precaution to test, by the cul- 
tivation of a few acres, the capabilities of the soil, position, 
and climate, and the kind of grapes best suited to it." 

CorylacejE. [The Nut Tribe.) 

Properties well known. The seeds oily, and generally 
eatable ; the bark astringent, and often containing coloring 
matter. 

Ostrya Virginiea, Willd., Ell. 8k. | Ironwood; hornbeam. 
" carpinus, Mich. J Richland, Prof. Gibbes; 

Newbern. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 619; Shea Flora Carol. 355. 
Its leaves afford, a o-rateful food to cattle. The wood is 
tough and white, and burns like a candle. I have suggest- 
ed this (article in De Bow's Review) as a substitute for 
wood employed by engravers. It is employed by turners, 
and wrought into mill-cogs, wheels, etc. A permanent 
yellow color is imparted to yarn by the inner bark. 

The birch hornbeam (C. betulus), growing in England, is 
very much used as a hedge plant, and is said to " afford a 
more uniform temperature of shade than a brick wall." 
Our species "is the most elegant of all the hornbeams of 
Britain." Wilson. 

"The sap of the hornbeam [Carpinus sylvestris) is ob- 
tained in the months of April and May. At this period it 
is colorless, and clear as water ; its taste is slightly saccha- 
rine; its odor resembles that of whey; it reddens turnsole 
paper. The sap of this tree contains water in very large 



234 

quantity, sugars, extractive matter (probably azotized), and 
free acetic acid, acetate of lime, and acetate of potash in 
very small quantities. This sap, left to itself, presents in 
succession all the phenomena of the vinous and then of the 
acetous fermentation." Vauquelin's Annales de Chimie 
t. xxxi, p. 20, first series ; Boussingault's Rural Economy, 
p. 67, Law's edition, 1857. 

Corylus rostrata, Ait. Grows on the mountains. Fl. 
March. 

Griffith, Med. Bot., 585 ; Duhamel's Mem. Am. Journal 
Pharm. Dr. Heubener, of Bethlehem, has emplo} r ed the 
short, rigid hairs of the involucre as a substitute for those of 
mucuna, and has found them equally anthelmintic. 

I have collected this plant in fruit on Tiger river, near 
Reidville, S. C. The hairs are extremely fine, and pierce 
the skin with facility. I have little doubt with respect to 
their acting in a similar way with mucuna. 

Corylus America?ia,Walt. Hazel-nut. Rich soils; along 
the margin of woods and thickets. West Florida, and 
northward. Chapman. Edible. 

I have seen the hazel-nut growing wild near Surnmer- 
ville, S. C, in Laurens district, and in Powhatan county, 
Va. Our American hazel-nut is said to be preferred to the 
filbert. Wilson says that the oil which is obtained from 
hazel-nuts by pressure is little inferior to that of almonds ; 
and under the name of nut-oil is often preferred by painters, 
on account of its drying more readilj' than any other of the 
same quality. Chemists employ it as the basis of fragrant 
oils, artificially prepared, because it easily combines with 
and retains odors. This oil is found serviceable in obsti- 
nate coughs. If nuts be put into earthen pots and well 
closed, and afterward buried eighteen inches or two feet in 
the earth, they ma}' be kept sound through the winter. In 
many parts of England hazels (C. avellana) are planted in 
coppices and hedge-rows, to be cut down periodically for 
charcoal, poles, fishing-rods, etc. Being extremely tough 



235 

and flexible, the branches are used for making hurdles, 
crates, and springles to fasten down thatch. They are 
formed into spars, handles for implements of husbandry, 
and when split are bent into hoops for casks. Charcoal 
made from, hazel is much in request for forges; and when 
prepared in a particular manner, is used by painters and 
engravers to draw their outlines. The roots are used by 
cabinet-makers for veneering ; and in Italy the chips of ha- 
zel are put into turbid wine for the purpose of fining it. 
Rural Cyc. Our species will doubtless answer for all these 
purposes. Hemp-seed oil also is used by painters. In the 
countries where yeast is scarce, they twist the slender 
branches of hazel together, and steep them in ale yeast 
during its fermentation ; they are then hung up to dry, and 
at the next brewing are put into the wort instead of yeast. 
Farmer's Encyc. 

Fagus Sylvatica. ] White beech. Rich, shaded 

" V.Americana, L. J swamps. Richland, Professor 
.Gibbes; collected in St. John's; jSTewbern. Fl. March. 

Shec. Flora. Carol. 559; Griffith, Med. Bot. 585; Fl. 
Scotica, ii, 583 ; Linn. Veg. Mat. Med. 175. The bark is 
astringent, and has been used, according to Dr. Farnham, 
in intermittent fever; but it is not possessed of any decided 
powers. The fruit produces vertigo and headache in the 
human species. It is observed, in the Fl. Scotica, that 
" the fat of hogs, which feed on them, is soft, and will boil 
away." The seeds yield an oil little inferior to olive oil,' 
and fit, also, for burning. The pulp remaining after ex- 
pression may be converted into flour, similar in taste and 
color to wheat, but sweeter. A narcotic principle, called 
fagine, has been found in the husks. The young leaves are 
sometimes used by the common people as a potherb. The 
wood is valuable to. cabinet-makers and turners, for manu- 
facturing purposes — being capable of receiving a high pol- 
ish. Every kind of implement, plane stocks, tool handles, 
may be made of this wood, which resists great pressure. In 
England the beech is extensively used for umbrella han- 



236 

dies., See Dickens' Household Words. Liebig states that 
the ashes of the beech contain a larger proportion of phos- 
phate of lime than those of any other tree. See his Agricul- 
tural Chemistry. It is observed in South Carolina that the 
lands on which it grows are not usually suited for cotton ; 
and we may, perhaps, attribute it to their depriving the soil 
of this, so necessary a constituent in the maturation of that 
plant. In the lower country of South Carolina, the beech 
is one of the most magnificent of our forest trees. Chap- 
man only includes in his work F. feruginea, Ait. 

By distilling, says lire, beech tar (F. sylvatica) to dry- 
ness with other processes, paraphine is obtained. "It would 
form admirable candles," the author adds, while referring 
to the production of paraphine as an article of commerce 
from peat. 1 insert this here (1862) as deposits of peat are 
found within the Confederate States. The ashes of peat, 
also, are worth something as manure. They usually, Nor- 
ton states, contain five or six per cent, of potash and soda, 
and considerable quantities .of lime, magnesia, iron, etc. 
Soot, a substance somewhat allied, contains a large quantity 
of ammonia, and is useful as a manure, so much so that* 
when laid on heaps of grass the plants are destroyed. Mi- 
chaux says that our beech bears a strict analogy with the 
European beech. The beech should be felled in the sum- 
mer when the sap is in full circulation ; cut at this season 
it is very desirable. In the Fagus sylvestris, white beech, 
" the duramen or perfect wood, bears a remarkably small 
proportion to its alburnum. The bark of old trees is used 
by tanners as a substitute for oak bark." In England 
beech wood is employed for many purposes — the nuts or 
mast being given to hogs. See, also, Rural Cyc. The 
wood of the red beech is stronger, tougher, and more com- 
pact than that of the white. In the State of Maine, and in 
the British provinces, where oaks are rare, it is employed 
with the sugar maple and yellow birch for the lower part of 
the frames of vessels. The beech is incorruptible when con- 
stantly in the water. The ashes of both species of beech 
yield a very large proportion of potash. Michaux, who de- 



237 

scribes the process of extracting the oil, says that it equals 
one-sixth of the nuts used. The quality of the oil depends 
upon the care with which it is made, and upon the purity 
of the vessel in which it is prepared. It should be twice 
drawn off during the first three months, without disturbing 
the dregs, and the third time at the end of six months. It 
arrives at perfection only when it becomes limpid several 
months after its extraction. It improves by age, lasts un- 
impaired for ten years, and may be preserved longer than 
any other oil. The manner of making beechnut oil most 
commonly pursued in the districts of the Western states 
where the tree abounds, is somewhat different from that 
described in Michaux's Sylva. Instead of resorting to the 
rather tedious process of gathering the nuts, and pressing 
them through screw-presses, the farmers turn out their hogs 
immediately after the first frost, who secrete the oil under 
their skin. Unless they be fed some time before killing 
upon Indian corn, the bacon has little solid consistency, be- 
comes liquid upon the slightest application of heat, and 
keeps that state, resembling in that respect the lard of hogs 
fed upon acorn mast. The nuts are only plentiful every 
third or fourth year. I obtain the following from a journal 
(1862): 

• Beech Tree Leaves. — The leaves of the beech trees, collect- 
ed at autumn, in dry weather, form an admirable article 
for filling beds. The smell is grateful and wholesome ; 
they do not harbor vermin, are very elastic, and may be 
replenished annually without cost. 

Castanea pumila,W. Chinquapin. Diffused in upper and 
lower country; sometimes attaining a height of thirty feet; 
vicinity of Charleston; St. John's; jSTewbern. Fl. July. 

U". S. Disp. 189. The bark has been used in intermittent 
fever, but is probably possessed of very little value. The 
fruit is eatable. The wood is finer grained, more compact, 
heavier, and even more durable than that of the chestnut, 
and is admirably adapted for fence-posts — lasting in the 
ground more than forty years. Farmer's Encyc. See fol- 
lowins:. 



238 

Castanea vesca, L. Chestnut. Florida, and northward. In 
South Carolina only found in upper districts ; one of our 
noblest trees. 

The fruit of the tree and the chinquapin (C. pumila) are 
well known. Eaten either raw or boiled. The roots con- 
tain an astringent principle ; that of the chinquapin boiled 
in milk is much used in the diarrhoea of teething children. 
I would advise a tea made of this to be used extemporane- 
ously in diarrhoea by our soldiers in camp. The bark of 
both trees contains tannin, and may be used' in tanning 
leather. In Italy, chestnuts are baked as bread, and there 
and elsewhere are planted as food for hogs. 

Wilson, in his Rural Cyc, says that coppices of chestnut 
afford an excellent produce every ten or twelve years, for 
hop-poles, hoops, and all kinds of elastic props and handles. 
"The wood of young chestnuts serves better for gate-posts or 
for any other purposes which involve constant contact with 
the ground than any Other kind of wood, except }^ew or 
larch. It is lauded as a good succedaneum for the coarser 
kinds of mahogany in the making of furniture." It ranks 
nearly equal with oak. "Cask staves of chestnut possess 
the double recommendation of not being liable to shrink 
and of not imparting a foreign color to liquors which the 
casks may contain. Dr. kelson Burgess, of Sumter district, 
S. C, informs me that at the recommendation of Dr. Jones 
he has used the decoction of the root and bark of the chin- 
quapin frequently as a substitute for quinine in intermittent 
and remittent fever, and with decidedly satisfactory results. 
I mention this hoping that it will be examined by others. 
I can have no clue to the reasons of its utility, regarding it 
heretofore simply as an astringent. Hot water is poured 
over the root and bark, and a large quantity taken during 
the twenty-four hours. The wood of the chestnut, though 
brittle, is very durable in w T eather. I am informed that 
fence-rails made of it will last over, twenty years. The 
trees can easily be raised from the seed. 

Quercus tindoria. Bartram. Black oak; quercitron oak. 



239 

Upper districts; rare in lower; collected in Charleston dis- 
trict; St. John's. Fl. April. 

Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 194; Am. Med. Record, iii, 
363 ; Barton's Essay to Form. Mat. Med. ; Alibert, Nouv. 
Elems. de Therap. i, 93 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
v, 590; Edinb. Med. Journal, 72; IT, S. Disp. 581 ; Mich. K 
Am. Sylva, i, 91 ; Journal de Pharm. et de Chim. v, 251 ; 
Royle, Mat. Med. 559; Ball, and' Gar. Mat. Med. 396; Grif- 
fith's Med. Bot. 585 ; Am. Herbal, 153. The bark, a pow- 
erful and valuable astringent, is also possessed of purgative 
properties, in which respect it has an advantage not met 
with in the Q. falcata. They have both been efficacious in 
leucorrhoea, amenorrhoea, chronic hysteria, diarrhoea, rheu- 
matism, pulmonary consumption, tabes mesenterica, cynan- 
che tonsillaris, and asthma. Oak-balls produced by these 
are also powerful astringents, and are employed in many 
cases requiring such remedies — as in diarrhoea, dysentery, 
and hemorrhage ; also, in mild cases of intermittent fever. 
The dose of the powder is forty grains. The powder of 
this, or of the bark, mixed with hog's lard, is a very simple 
and effectual remedy in painful hemorrhoids, and a decoc- 
tion is serviceable as a fomentation for prolapsus uteri and 
ani, and for defiuctions from those parts. According to 
Dr. Cullan, it is applicable- in relaxations, or impaired con- 
ditions of the mucous membranes, on account of its tonic, 
constringing effect, and as a gargle in inflammation of the 
fauces, prolapsus uvulae, etc. Mr. Lizars has used it with 
"wonderful success" in the cure of reducible hernia. It is 
applied topically in mortification, and to ill-conditioned ul- 
cers. Marasmic and scrofulous children are bathed with 
great advantage in a bath made of the bark. Although 
this species acts slightly on the bowels, it contains more 
tannin and gallic acid than the Q. alba and Q. falcata; 
hence it is better suited to cases requiring an external 
astringent. Quercitron is obtained from this and the Q. 
falcata (which see) indiscriminately, and is sent to Europe 
in large quantities to be employed in dyeing wool and silk 
of a yellow color. 



£40 

The bark is a well known and important dyestivff, and is 
much employed in dyeing wool, silk, and paper-hangings. 
It is said by Dr. Bancroft, who introduced it into notice, to 
be equal in power to ten times its weight of woad. With a 
basis of alumina, a decoction of the bark gives a bright 
yellow dye ; with oxide of tin, it gives a variety of tints 
from pale lemon to deep orange; and with oxide of iron, it 
yields a drab color. The cellular integument of the bark 
is what contains the coloring matter. Wilson's Rural Cyc. 
" Oak-galls put into a solution of vitriol in water give it a 
purple color, which as it grows stronger becomes black." 
Infusions of oak-galls (tannin) are excellent tests of iron. 
Gallic acid is also yielded by the gall-nuts, and by oak 
bark. The principal barks which are known to yield it are 
those of the oak, willow, plum-tree, the poplar, the elm, 
the mountain ash, the birch, the elder, the sycamore, the 
beech, and the cheny tree. But it by no means, adds 
Wilson, follows the proportions of tannin. It is readily, 
but very slowly obtained from a cold, long-kept, and event- 
ually evaporated decoction of galls, or of the tanniniferous 
barks. Wilson's Rural Cyc. and medical authors. 

All oak bark for the tanner ought at latest to be 
removed from the tree before the third week of June, 
"when the sap has begun to rise, and before the leaf is 
completely developed;" and every ton of it, says Wilson, 
which is removed after the first of July, is not only impov- 
erished in tannin, but weighs two hundred weight less than 
if it had been removed before the end of May. Other 
trees may in England be peeled earlier. The reader inter- 
ested in procuring barks should read the article Rural 
Cyc, "Barking." The best methods of collecting and 
storing are described. The instruments used in collecting 
bark are a mallet to beat the bark, and a wedge, both 
made of ash, to insert beneath the loosened bark. The 
wedge is spatula-shaped. Slight wetting does not injure 
bark. It is dried in dry, open air, upon supports, so that 
water will not collect upon it. The bark should be fre- 
quently turned. When it is sufficiently dry to avoid 



241 

fermentation, it should be carried to a dry-house or shade, 
or stacked in the same manner as hay — in stacks not so 
large as to incur 'the risk of fermentation. In the Farmer's 
Encyc. the plan of removing bark is described. It is stated 
that tannic acid most abounds when the buds are opening, 
and least in winter, and in cold springs. Four or five 
pounds of good oak bark of average quality are required 
to form one pound of leather. The bark separates from 
the tree more easily during spring. See Am. Farmer's 
Cyclopaedia. 

The best season for felling timber is undoubtedly mid- 
winter, the next being midsummer, when the sap is chiefly 
confined to the young shoots, the circumference of the soft 
wood, and the bark. The worst time for felling timber is 
the spring, just before the development of the buds, when 
the tree is fullest of sap. Where much value is attached 
to the soft or outer wood, felling ought to take place when 
there is least sap in the tree. In general, all the soft woods, 
such as the elm, lime, poplar, willow, should be felled dur- 
ing winter; hard woods, like the oak, beech, ash, etc., 
when the trunks are of large size and valued chiefly for 
their heart-wood, may be felled at any time. When the 
bark, however, is to be taken into consideration, as in 
the oak, the tree should be felled in spring, as then the 
bark contains four times the quantity of astringent matter 
to that felled in winter. Brande's Dictionary of Science ; 
Farmer's Encyclopedia. 

Wilson's Rural Cyclopedia, article "Charcoal," furnishes 
a table of the proportions, color, and quality of charcoal 
furnished by various trees ; also methods of preparing it 
at the iron-works, with the mode of preparing lampblack. 
The willow, alder, and dogwood are employed for preparing 
charcoal for the manufacture of gunpowder. See Salix; 
"Pimis." 

See article "Leather," in Wilson's Rural Cyc, for mode 
of preparing the varieties of leather, tanning kidskins for 
French gloves, etc.; also "Rhus," in this paper. 

The editor of the Southern Field and Fireside, April, 
16 



242 

1862, states in answer to inquiries "that the bark of the 
black poplar is used in England for tanning, but not, we 
believe, in this country. It has probably about half the 
strength of black oak bark. Blackberry briars, roots, and 
stems washed clean (this it will be observed confirms my 
own observations) supply a good deal of the tanning prin- 
ciple ; and our common broomsedge, or straw, has been 
largely employed in the manufacture of leather in Euro- 
pean nations where timber barks are insufficient to meet the 
public wants. Sumach is exported largely from Sicily for 
tanning goat and sheepskins. Oak leaves, fennel, and 
may-weed abound in tannic acid, and we intend experi- 
menting with the bark of old field pine for making leather. 
That it contains tan we know ; but whether it will be 
profitable to peel and use it has yet to be determined. 
Larch is much used in Great Britain, and hemlock at the 
North." 

I see a Treatise on Tanning advertised by S. Hart, book- 
seller, Charleston, S. C, which I have not examined, but 
which may furnish more complete information than what is 
to be obtained from fugitive essays. 

From a useful communication in Southern Field and 
Fireside, Oct. 19, 1861, it is stated that oak bark has 
sold in the District of Columbia at ten dollars a cord for 
years; and that "several million dollars worth of sumach 
(Rhus) is annually imported from the south of Europe 
into the United States for tanning purposes." The Rhus 
grows abundantly in the Confederate States, as well as 
many other plants containing tannin. I have noticed, in 
traversing that part of the Dismal Swamp near Suffolk, 
Va., that the Rhus is the most characteristic growth. It 
could be procured in any amount. The writer of the arti- 
cle just referred to calls attention to the great amount of 
goatskins and morocco manufactured and exported from 
France and England, where tannin is scarce, to this 
country, where the materials for producing are abundant, 
at least in the Confederate States. I quote from the writer 
in Southern Field and Fireside as follows, and also refer 



243 

the reader to my own examination of the plants growing 
in St. John's, Berkley, S. C, October, 1861, for the relative 
amount of tannin in plants. See " Liqiddambar" in this 
volume : 

"But such is the demand for leather one may well use 
oak and chestnut bark hewed off at any time in the year. 
Sumach, fennel, and pine bark are much used in Europe. 
Whether any of our common pine barks contain tan 
enough to warrant their use has, we believe, never been 
tested. Larch bark is much used in Scotland, although 
only half the strength of oak. Monteath, of Stirling, ap- 
plied chemical tests to the infusion of different barks with 
the following results : Oak (coppice) contains most tannic 
acid; ash and hornbeam next; Spanish chestnut third; 
willow fourth ; birch, beech, and larch fifth ; spruce and 
silver firs sixth ; mountain ash and broom seventh ; and 
next Scottish pine, bramble or briars, laburnum, and the 
sawdust of oak timber." My examinations were made 
before I saw this paper. 

Dr. Daniel Lee in the papers published in the Southern 
Field and Fireside, from which I have drawn largely, 
earnestly advises us to be more economical with regard to 
our supply of barks for tanning. "It is poor economy," 
he says, "for the South to destroy nearly all of its valuable 
tan-bark in clearing oak land, cutting rail timber and fire- 
wood, and thereby deprive our children and grandchildren 
of the power to manufacture their own leather. The time 
has come when this error must be corrected, or serious 
injury will be the consequence. To send a million dollars 
worth of hides to the North, have them tanned, and the 
leather made into shoes, boots, saddles, and harness for 
Southern consumption, is to pay about eight or nine million 
dollars for the support of that Northern economy which 
never wastes the bark that grows on oak or hemlock trees, 
and that industry which turns this bark into gold." I 
know this criticism is partly just; still, the planter at the 
South cannot often turn to the storing away or sale of all 
the oak or other bark on his place when he is compelled to 



244 

clear new land, and can scarcely accomplish that properly ; 
whereas at the North the farmer is compelled to every 
expedient to add to his resources. 

I have endeavored, in the examination made in St. 
John's, Berkley, S. C, November, 1862, to show that the 
leaves of many of our native trees — such as the sweet gum, 
myrtle, etc., are rich in tannin, and being easily procured 
may be substituted for barks, which are difficult to prepare. 
Tanners in the State of ISTew York, Dr. Lee states, save tan- 
bark enough to manufacture three times as much leather 
as the four millions of people in that state consume. 
"Leather is largely exported from New York and Massa- 
chusetts (which is a land of shoemakers) to England,' the 
Southern states, and the great prairie West." He con- 
demns "the habit of felling oak trees when the bark will 
not peel." See "Quercus," " Rhus," " Myrica" and " Liquid- 
ambar," for notice of plants suitable for tanning leather ; 
also Wilson's Rural Cyc, art. "Currying," for method of 
preparing and dressing leather, and lire's Dictionary 
of Arts. 

'■'■Method of tanning. — For doing a small business hot water 
and hot ooze may be best run upon the bark to extract all 
its tannic acid in a short time ; but in a large way either a 
copper heater should pass through the leech holding bark, 
or it should be boiled by steam. A copper pan is some- 
times used, set on an arch, for heating ooze. A mill for 
working hides operates precisely like a fulling-mill in 
scouring and fulling cloth. When dry and weighty, Span- 
ish hides are tanned. Hide-mills have heavy hammers, 
which are elevated eight or ten inches by a revolving 
wheel, and fall with an oblique stroke on the hides, that 
causes them to turn like cloth in a fulling-mill. Any 
horizontal staff will work a hide-mill, and a horse-power 
will drive the shaft. Our friend, Prof. Rutherford, has con- 
structed a horse-power for fifty dollars on his farm (which 
joins that of the writer), that would drive a hide-mill as 
easily as it now thrashes wheat, and cuts hay and straw for 
horses. As this is a cheap and valuable power for farm 



245 

use, it has been our purpose to describe it, which we shall 
yet do. 

"Any mechanic, by seeing the model of a hide-mill, could 
easily make one. It needs no cast iron double crank like a 
flillinff-mill. The whole affair can be made of wood. Our 
tanning in the South is many years behind the progress of 
the age." The reader interested in this subject may consult 
with advantage lire's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures; 
also an excellent article on tanning and leather, in Nichol- 
son's Encyclopaedia. 

I am induced to insert, in connection with the subject of 
materials for tanning, a communication entire upon the 
subject from the pen of Dr. Daniel Lee, in the Southern 
Field and Fireside, Nov. 30, 1861. It contains practical 
instruction on the subject of manufacture of leather on a 
small scale by farmers and planters : 

"It will be better for several farmers, having from five to 
ten hides each, to unite in the purchase of a bark-mill for 
grinding tan-bark, and in constructing a few vats for their 
common use, than for one to be at the whole expense for 
so small a business as his own alone. The most primitive 
way of tanning is in troughs dug out of large trees like 
pine and poplar ; but molasses and bacon hogsheads will 
form the cheapest tan-vats for the farmer's use. Dig out 
the earth two-thirds the depth of the hogsheads ; pound 
moist clay over the bottom on which the hogsheads are to 
stand. Three or four will do for the tanning part of 
leather-making. Let them not come within six inches 
of each other, so that moist clay may be pounded closely 
around each hogshead to within three inches of the top. 
If bark cannot be ground, it should be* broken or cut fine 
with an axe, so as to fill two of the hogsheads. Heat clear 
spring or rain-water boiling hot in large pots or kettles, till 
the bark in both hogsheads is covered with it. Let the 
bark steep and soak a week or more, while the raw hides 
are prepared for the ooze and tanning. One hogshead will 
do for this, but two are better. They ought to stand some 
yards from the bark-vats, because lime spattering into the 



246 

ooze injures it. Surround these with clay like the hogs- 
heads used for tanning. 

"After the horns, tail," and dew-claws are removed from 
a green hide, it is split into two halves or sides,- from the 
tail to the nose on the pate. If the hide is dry, it must 
soak and soften first. After it is split it goes upon the 
heam, and the operative scrapes and tears off all the flesh, 
and part of the fascia or membrane which covers the flesh 
side of every skin. It is now ready for the lime. A half 
bushel of recently slaked lime, or some less of quick lime, 
will do for a hogshead nearly full of water. The lime and 
water should be well stirred with a clean hoe or "plunge " 
before putting sides or skins into the same. They should 
be often moved about in the lime-water by a lever some 
seven or eight feet long, and hauled out once a day with an 
iron or wooden hook such as tanners use. As soon as the 
hair will slip, sides should be worked over the beam and 
rinsed in the soak, or water hogshead, to remove the hair 
and all the lime. The hogshead used as a soak, washed 
clean, is now to serve as a hen-dung vat or bait. It fer- 
ments, and is ripe for use in one or two days, after soaking 
in a half hogshead or more of water. Much pains and 
care are used in working sides and skins out of the bait, as 
they go from this into the tan ooze. They will soon taint 
and spoil in warm weather. Worked and washed clean, 
the sides and skins are next handled two or three times a 
day in tan ooze until they are evenly colored, and get 
a handsome, fine grain. The handling is done in this 
wise : Place three or four pieces of plank four feet long 
down as a platform, so as to slope over the hogshead, and 
let ooze from the leather, when lifted out of it upon the 
plank, run back into the hogshead, and not waste upon 
the ground. Short pieces of scantling or sticks of clean 
wood lie on three sides of the plank, over which the edges 
of the two sides laid down extend, and thus form a sort of 
trough open only at the end that lies over the edge of the 
hogshead. All the sides are drawn up separate from the 
liquor with a hook, and spread by hand on the platform, 



247 

and are thrown back into the ooze again. If the latter is 
weak, it is half or more pumped out, and fresh, strong ooze 
is pumped in. The two hogsheads of bark, with boiling 
hot water, will keep up the strength as fast as ten or twelve 
sides can possibly absorb it, after starting with two hogs- 
heads of good ooze. You cannot heat old ooze in an iron 
vessel, as it would spoil it ; but you may, perhaps, beg or 
borrow a copper still, in which tan ooze may be heated 
without the least injury to the liquor or the still. The 
heated ooze is put on the bark, as it is much better than 
water, where it is allowed to become about as cool as the 
atmosphere. 

"As the tanning advances, skins and hides require less 
handling. We should hang them across sticks an inch or 
less in diameter, in and under the ooze. The ends of these 
sticks or rods should rest on a light frame in the hogshead, 
and four inches or more below the top. Allowing two 
inches for each stick and side, fifteen sides would occupy 
thirty inches in width in the hogshead. Batts and butts 
hang down near the bottom of the hogshead, where the 
ooze is strongest. A small hand-pump should be put fre- 
quently by the side of the leather and of the hogshead, to 
lift the ooze at the bottom to the top. Sides are handled a 
week or two before suspending them separately in ooze. 

" As pumping is easier, and less wasteful than dipping, 
we will state the way in which a cheap and good pump can 
be made : Its whole length should be some six feet, and 
the material, plank, not over an inch thick. The open 
space on the inside for the ascent of ooze or water should 
be about three inches square. Two strips of plank three 
inches wide, and two five inches, the latter lying on the 
former on both sides, will form an aperture in the centre of 
three inches square. The plank ought to be closely jointed, 
and either painted or covered with tar or melted pitch to 
make all the joints water-tight. Of course the nailing 
should be close and perfect. A box of half-inch plank 
comes up two inches inside from the bottom of the pump 
for the leather valve to rest upon. 



248 

" One side of the valve is very simple, but not easy 
to describe. Imagine a funnel made of thin, flanky, sole- 
leather, four inches in diameter across the top, and as 
many deep down to the neck, and that its centre is nailed 
or tied fast to a rod that is to serve as a piston in the pump. 
The weight of water or other liquid to be raised in pump- 
ing can set this pliable leather cup to adapt itself to the 
square shape of the aperture in the pump ; and to prevent 
this cup or funnel falling back in lifting ooze or water, 
three narrow strips of leather, sewed to the top of the 
funnel on three sides (one on each), are nailed with small 
nails to the piston-rod above, say six inches from the 
funnel. A small but strong wooden pin passes through the 
end of the rod which, held in the hand, enables one to lift 
easily all the liquid in the pump. The discharge from 
the pump is made in the usual way, a foot or more below 
the top of it. Any one who can use a plane can make a 
pump of this kind take ooze from the bottom of one vat, 
tub, or hogshead filled with bark or leather, and put it ex- 
peditiously into another, where all stand on a level, or nearly 
so. A thin case keeps the tan-bark or leather from filling 
the little space required by the pump, which is put into the 
vat or hogshead, and taken out as often as needed. Any 
blacksmith can make the beaming-knives used by tanners, 
but not those used by curriers in finishing leather. The 
former are curved, and often have small teeth to tear up 
the tough membrane under the skin. All tan-bark should 
be clean and dry, for dirt and earth blacken leather. Care- 
less persons often get clay and mud into tan-vats, than 
which nothing is more injurious. Few arts demand 
equal neatness in their operatives. With the most im- 
proved apparatus and good bark, the labor of tanning is 
small. An expert will work one hundred grown hides 
into the bark or ooze in a month, for which we generally 
paid twenty dollars ; and the labor of tanning two hundred 
sides was about the same after they came to the bark. 

"If a farmer can get his hides tanned and curried for half 
of the leather they will make, it is probably better than 



249 

to attempt to tan them himself. Let him improve his pas- 
tures by cultivating the best grasses, and raise more fat 
cattle for home consumption, and thus have three or four 
hides for the tanner where he has one now. This will call 
first-class tanneries into existence that will give a pound of 
good sole-leather for a pound of dry hide, or nearly that. 
Every farmer ought to spare all the tan-bark he can ; for 
we speak advisedly when we say that the Confederate 
States are even now short of oak bark if they are to manu- 
facture all the leather which they consume in saddles, bri- 
dles, harness, saddle-bags, buggy, and carriage trimmings, 
caps, hat-linings, book-bindings, shoes, and boots. It has 
been the misfortune of the cotton states to underrate all 
other industries but that of producing their great staple. 
Hence the scarcity of good mechanics and artisans. Hence 
we make no effort to diversify our agriculture, and thereby 
meet many public wants, while resting our land from the 
scourge of eternal ploughing. That system of husbandry 
which accumulates the elements of crops and fertility in 
every acre cultivated, is still a myth to most planters. 
Southern nationality will expose, and happily correct many 
errors. We shall learn to make as much cotton and corn 
on two acres as we now do on six, and at the same time we 
shall produce tenfold more of the necessaries and comforts 
of civilized life. Our dependence on foreign industry and 
skill for so much of what we consume encourages the 
world to believe that our subjugation is only a question of 
time. Since the mechanical trades are necessary to our 
happiness, we should encourage our sons to become scien- 
tific mechanics, as well as farmers, lawyers, doctors, and 
priests, and soldiers." 

On account of the importance of the subject I insert here 
the following directions for "Tanning on the Plantations" by 
T. Affleck, from the Am. Agriculturist, also republished in 
the Southern Cultivator, vol. i, p. 198, and the paper by 
J. S. Whitten, and one in vol. vi, p. 177 : 

" Tanning leather for the use of the plantation is an item 
of good management that should not be overlooked by any 



250 

planter. Nor would it be as much overlooked as it is if 
the simplicity of the process was generally known — that 
process, I mean, that will suffice for making leather for 
home use. The tanner by profession, in order to prepare an 
article that will command a good price in market, and 
have a merchantable appearance, puts the hides and skins 
through a greater number of manipulations, and that he 
may work to better advantage, has his arrangements on a 
more extensive scale. 

" The vats, tools, and implements really needed are few 
and simple. Four vats will generally be found all-sufficient ; 
one for a pool of fresh water, and for baiting ; one for liming; 
another for coloring ; and a fourth for tanning. The best 
size, in the clear, is seven feet long, four and a half feet 
wide, and five feet deep. They should be placed so as to 
be easily and conveniently filled with water from a spring, 
running stream, or cistern. Dig the holes nine feet by six 
and a half and six ; if the foundation is clay, the depth 
need not be over five feet. Form a stiff bed of clay mortar 
in the bottom on which to lay the floor, and on it erect the 
sides and ends of the vat, of plank of almost any kind, 
sufficiently thick to resist the pressure from without — two 
inches will be thick enough. When this is done, and the 
whole nailed fast, fill in the vacant space all round with 
well tempered clay mortar, ramming it effectually. It is on 
this, and not the planks, that dependence is placed for 
rendering the vat perfect. When well made a vat will be 
good for a long lifetime — the ooze preventing the decay of 
any but the top round of plank. Such a vat will hold fif- 
teen large beef hides (thirty sides), besides a number of 
small skins. 

" The material used for tanning is the bark of the red or 
black oak, stripped when the sap flows in the spring, 
stacked and dried, of which about four pounds are supposed 
to be necessary to produce one pound of leather. There is 
an article occasionally used called "catechu," which is an 
extract made from the wood of a mimosa tree, a native of 
India, half a pound of which answers the same purpose. 



251 

Galls, willow bark, the bark of the Spanish chestnut, and 
common elm, as also sumach, are all used by the tanner. 
It has been recently found that the root of the palmetto 
answers an equally good purpose with the best oak bark. 

"Bark has to be ground as wanted; or if the quantity 
needed is small, and it is not thought advisable to incur 
the expense of a bark-mill (from $10 to $18), it may be 
pounded in a large mortar, or beat up on a block. It will 
require one-third more of pounded than of ground bark to 
afford equally strong ooze, which is the infusion of bark. 

" The principal tools requisite are a flushing-knife, cur- 
rier's knife, a brush like a stiff horse-brush, and a fleshing- 
beam. The fleshing-beam is made by splitting in two a 
hard wood stick of about a foot in diameter ; inserting two 
stout legs, some thirty inches long, in one end on the split 
side, so that the other end rests on the ground, with the 
round side up, the elevated end being high enough to reach 
the workman's waist. A fleshing-knife may be made by 
bending an old drawing-knife to suit the round of the flesh- 
ing-beam. 

" The skins of bulls, oxen, cows, and horses are called 
hides ; those of calves, deer, sheep, etc., are known as skins. 

"Fresh and dried hides receive the same treatment, 
except in the washing process. Those that are salted and 
dry (and no hide should be dried with less than from two 
to four quarts of salt being rubbed on the flesh side — dried 
without salt, it is extremely difficult to soften them — ) 
require to be steeped, beaten, and rubbed several times 
alternately, to bring them to a condition sufficiently soft 
for tanning. 

" Green or fresh hides must be soaked in pure water 
from twelve to twenty-four hours, to extract all the blood, 
etc., and soften the extraneous, fleshy matter, which must 
then be removed — throwing one hide at a time on the 
fleshing-beam, grain or hair side down, and scraping or 
shaving it off with the fleshing-knife, which must be some- 
what dull or the skin is apt to be cut. They are then put 
in the liming-vat, which is supplied with strong lime-water 



252 

by filling the vat a little over half full of water, and adding 
thereto four bushels of unslaked (or of air-slaked) lime, or 
at the rate of two-thirds of a bushel of lime to the barrel of 
water. This will suffice for fifteen hides; each time that 
they are removed and a fresh lot of hides put in, add another 
bushel of lime, which will keep up the strength for a twelve- 
month. Before using stir the lime well up, and while it is 
thus mixed with the water put in the hides evenly, so that 
the lime will settle on every part of them. They are to 
remain here from ten to fifteen days, or for three or four 
days after the hair will rub off with the finger completely 
and with ease. While in the liming-vat they must be 
moved up and down every other morning, to expose them 
to the air, and to the equal action of the lime. Being now 
ready for unhairing, cut each hide in two- by slitting them 
along the centre of the back with a knife, forming them 
into sides. Throw ten or twelve of these sides on the flesh- 
ing-beam, and strip, the hair off with the knife; and as 
they are unhaired, throw each one into the vat of fresh 
water to bait or soak. When the ]ot of sides and skins in 
hand have been all unhaired and thoroughly washed, throw 
them again, and at once, on the fleshing-beam, with the 
grain or hair side up, and work them over (rub and press 
them) with the knife until all the gummy or mucilaginous 
matter is worked out. This should be repeated two or 
three times during ten or twelve days, being each time 
baited anew in fresh water. And this working over must 
only be done when the sides feel soft and smooth to the 
touch ; as they will at times, from some unexplained cause, 
feel rough, at which time they must not be worked over. 
While they are thus boiling they must not be neglected, or 
they will soon spoil. Tanners are iri the practice of adding 
one thousandth part of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) to the 
last bait, which has the effect of swelling the pores and 
distending the fibres, and thus rendering the skins more 
susceptible to the action of the ooze. Forty-eight hours 
generally suffices for this last baiting. 

"In the meantime, some good, strong ooze should be pre- 



253 

pared for the first tanning process, called coloring. Fill a 
vat a little more than half full of water, and add bark, in 
the proportion of one and one-half bushels of ground, or 
two bushels of pounded bark, to the barrel of water, which 
will bring «the vat up to about two-thirds full. "When the 
bark has soaked from four to five days, the sides are put in, 
and allowed to remain fifteen days; during which they 
must be once well and carefully fleshed and worked over, 
and must be drawn up and down every morning, for the 
first week at least, and the bark well plunged or stirred up, 
to have them color evenly. 

"After this, the vat being now two-thirds full of this 
same ooze, after drawing out the hides lay a good coating 
of fresh bark, of say an inch thick, on top- of the water, on 
which it will float ; lay "on this a side, spread out evenly, 
and if it has to be lapped over in any part lay on more 
bark until it is all well coated, taking care to place those 
hides at the bottom of the vat now that were at the top 
last time. On this side lay an inch-coating of bark, and 
on that another side, and so on, with alternate layers of 
bark y until the vat is full, or the sides all laid away. 

"In this, which is called the first bark, the sides must lie 
four weeks. They are then drawn out, and the spent bark 
taken out with a skimmer or drainer. The sides are then 
replaced as before, with alternate layers of fresh bark, in 
the same ooze, which has acquired some additional strength, 
notwithstanding the amount of tannin and extractive mat- 
ter contained in the bark that has become intimately 
combined with the animal fibre of the hide. In this second 
bark they remain six weeks undisturbed, when they receive 
a third bark in the same way, in which they are left another 
six or eight weeks. Three barks will suffice to tan deer, 
hog, calf, and other small skins ; four barks will make good 
sole-leather, but five are preferable. 

"The tanning process being completed, sole-leather is 
taken out of the vat, rinsed effectually, and dried in the 
shade, hanging the sides up by two of their corners to 
joists, where they may remain until wanted. Those sides 



254 

intended for upper and harness leather (which are those of 
cows, etc. — the largest and thickest bullock hides being 
used for sole-leather), as also deer, hog, and other small 
skins, being thoroughly rinsed, are spread out on a strong 
table, with the grain or hair side up, and scoured with a 
stiff brush, like a very stiff horse-brush, occasionally throw- 
ing on pure water, until all the Ooze is scoured out. Tan- 
ners use the edge of a stone, made smooth, to assist in 
rubbing out the ooze, and all the water that can possibly be 
rubbed out. They also use what they call a slicker, being a 
dull edge of copper of about six or seven inches long set 
in a piece of wood, to serve as a handle. 

"After they are all served thus, and rubbed as dry as pos- 
sible, the table is cleaned off, and the skins thrown back 
upon it grain side up, and are rubbed with tanner's oil (cod- 
fish oil) as long as the leather will receive it. Harness 
leather must be completely saturated. As they are oiled 
fold them up and lay them aside. When they are all 
gone over lay one on the table at a time, flesh side up, and 
with a rag rub on all the dubbing that the leather will 
absorb. Thin hides require but a small quantity ; harness 
leather must have a heavy coating. 

"Dubbing, which consists of equal parts of tar and tal- 
low, melted together, and well mixed, must be made the 
day previous to being used. Lard may be used in place of 
tallow, but will require a lesser proportion of it. Each 
side of leather is then hung up by two corners to joists, 
there to remain until perfectly dry, or until wanted. 

"If iron or steel touches a hide during the process of 
tanning when in the least wet, or even moist, it will dis- 
color it, forming an indelible black mark. 
. "To blacken harness or other leather, take the skin 
when completely dried, and if any greasy spots appear, 
showing that more oil or dubbing has been applied than 
the leather could absorb, wet the spots with a little strong 
ooze, and scrub them out with the brush. Then apply a 
coat of copperas (sulphate of iron) dissolved in ooze, until 
the leather has a good color all over. After this, when 



255 

dry, put on another good coat of oil. The leather may 
then be smoothed oft" with a rounding edge of polished 
steel, or glass, or stone." 

The following is from Southern Cultivator : 

"Having tanned my hides for a number of years, and 
believing it to my interest, I suppose it will be profitable to 
others who have many raw hides. 

"I have succeeded well, and think my leather firmer, 
and more valuable for negro shoes and the coarse harness 
on my farm than tan-yard leather. My plan is a much 
cheaper one than Mr. Affleck's. 

" I tan from ten to fifteen hides a year, of various sizes. 
I have two vats five by seven feet, four feet deep, sunk in 
the ground near a falling branch, so constructed at the bot- 
tom that I can draw a plug and wash and empty them. I 
begin in March ; soak my hides ten days in running water. 
Two or three times I take them out and give them a good 
rubbing or washing. They are then ready for the lime, as 
we call it. I then put them in one of my vats, and divide 
equally among them from three and one-half to five bush- 
els of good ashes, and two or three quarts of lime, and 
cover the whole in water. The lye had better be strong, 
and if you err, err on that side. Every few days I take 
them up, or rather stir them up, and mix them again, sp 
that all parts shall be equally acted on by the lye and the 
atmosphere, in the top and the bottom of the vat. If your 
lye is right, in ten or twelve days your hides will be 
thickened to two or three times their first thickness — feel 
more like a sheet of jelly than anything else — and the hair 
will slip easily. Then slip off" the hair, and with a drawing- 
knife or a curry in g-knife scrape off the loose flesh and cel- 
lular matter on the other side, and as much of the lye as 
you can, without bruising the hide ; and then put them 
back into fresh and clean water. Every other day take 
them up and give them a good rubbing or scouring, for 
ten days. They are then ready for the bark ; and by that 
time you can slip the bark off your oak trees, and have it 



256 

ready for the hides. I never grind my bark. I take 
it from the tree, and with a drawing-knife take off the 
rough on the outside, and just beat it enough to cause it to 
lie flat in the vat. In my other vat I do all my tanning, 
and commence with a layer of bark, then of leather,, and 
so on; and so lay it in the vat that. every part of each side 
of the leather shall lie against bark; and when I am done, 
I immerse this entirely in water. 

" The first year you had better boil an ooze in kettles or 
pots, and use that instead of water, and afterward always 
preserve your old ooze to use next year instead of water. 
I let this lie until the first of August, and put in a second 
bark precisely as the first, and let it lie until some time in 
October or November, when my leather is fully tanned, if 
these directions have been followed. When the leather 
is well tanned it presents a yellow, spongy appearance, 
through and through ; otherwise you will see a white or 
hard streak in the centre. When I take it up I scour the 
ooze well out of all. That I intend for sole-leather I 
straighten and dry; that for upper leather I wash well, 
then grease well with the cheapest oil I have, and after dry- 
ing eight or ten days I moisten it, curry off" the spongy, 
soft part from the flesh side, and when moist, beat it or 
break it over some rough surface until it is comparatiyely 
S,oft, and the grain side is all puckered up, or wrinkled into 
small wrinkles. Then, when my leather is thoroughly 
dried and shrunk, it is fit for use." 

Quereits fakata. Mx. Spanish oak. According to Elliot, 
common on the sea-coast; collected but sparingly in St. 
John's ; Richland ; grows also in Georgia ; vicinity of 
Charleston, Bachman ; Newberu. 

Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. ii, 493 ; TJ. S. Disp. 581 ; 
Bart. Essay on the M. Med. ; Alibert, Nouv. Elems. de 
Therap. 193 ; Pink Med. Mus. 11 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. v, 586 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 170. This is 
possessed of the astringent qualities characterizing the 
genus ; it has not, however, the purgative property found 



257 

in the Q. tinctoria. It is employed as an astringent wash for 
gangrene. A decoction is administered with great success 
in dysentery, pulmonary, and uterine hemorrhage, and 
some have said, in intermittent fever. See Q. tinctoria and 
alba. In domestic practice, where an easily obtained and 
efficient astringent is required, this, and the more common 
species, the Q. rubra, are of no little value. They are used 
to a large extent on the plantations in South Carolina. 

Quercus alba, L. White oak. Diffused ; St. John's ; 
vicinity of Charleston ; ISTewbern. Fl. May. 

II. S. Disp. 582 ; Iioyle, Mat. Med. 659 ; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 586. The bark is officinal, and is generally used in 
similar cases with the above, with the exceptions before 
mentioned. By some it is preferred to the others on 
account of its not acting on the bowels. The decoction 
is sometimes used as an injection in leucorrhcea and gon- 
orrhoea. The bark contains tannin, gallic acid, and bitter 
extractive, the former predominating. Bark officinal. 
Young bark preferable. The whiter bark, and the delicate 
and finely lobed leaves, with the general neat appearance 
of the tree, serve to distinguish this from the other varieties 
of the oak, than which it is more acceptable to the stomach. 
All, however, are valuable for external application. Good 
collected at all seasons. Astringent, somewhat tonic. 
Powder — dose, from one half-drachm to one drachm. Ex- 
tract — dose, half that of the powder. Decoction — bark 
bruised, one ounce; water, three half-pints; boil to one 
pint. Dose, one wineglassful. This is one of the most 
valuable of our forest trees, and it is largely emplo}<ed for 
manufacturing purposes, and in the domestic economy of 
the plantations in the Confederate States. The wood is 
hard and durable. It is employed, when stripped, in mak- 
ing plantation baskets, and chair bottoms. 

The following table is the result of the experiments of 
Barlow upon the "Absolute strength of different kinds of 
wood drawn in the direction of their fibres." Wilson's 
17 



258 



Rural Cy.c. on the streugth of materials may be consulted 
Article from Renwick's Elements of Mechanics: 

Boxwood 20,000 lbs. 

Ash 17,000 



Teak 15,000 

Norway Fir 12,000 

Beech 11,000 

Canada Fir 11,000 

Russia Fir 10,700 

Pitch Pine 10,400 

"Absolute cohesive strength of wood drawn in a direc 
tion at right angles to the fibres:" 



English Oak 10,000 lbs. 

Am. White Pine 9,900 

Pear Tree ... 9,800 

Mahogany 800 

Elm 5,800 

Cast-steel was 140,000 

And Gold 80,000 



Teak ...818 lbs. 

Am. White Pine 757 

Norway Fir 648 

Beech 615 

English Oak 598 

The following table gives the "respective strength of 
various substances :" 



Canada Oak 588 lbs. 

Pitch Pine 588 

Elm 509 

Ash ....359 



Metals. 
Wrought-iron, Swedish . .22,000 lbs 

" English. ..18,000 
Cast-iron 16,000 



Wood. 

Teak 4,900 lbs. 

Ash 4,050 

Canada Oak 3,500 

English Oak 3,350 

Pitch Pine 3,250 

Beech 3,100 

Norway Fir 2,950 

Am. White Pine 2,200 

Elm 1,013 

English oak resisted a greater amount of pressure, by 
Rennie's experiments, than many other kinds of wood; 
three times as much as elm, for example. See, also, article 
"Timber, " in Rural Cyc, for method of preserving, rela- 
tive strength, etc. In England the shipwright considers 
that three years are required thoroughly to season timber. 
Timber is best preserved by immersion in water for six 
months, and the exposure to shade for another six months. 
The white oak cleaves and splits readily, and is used in 
making plantation baskets. I have seen it used in place of 
cane .in making chair seats. The white oak lasts longer in 
weather than hickory. 



259 

White Oak Baling. — The Columbia Guardian notices a 
bale of cotton, in which white oak slats, basket fashion, 
take the place of gunny bagging, and hoops of the same 
wood take the place of rope. This device is the work of 
IT 2S\ Garter, of Laurens, who states that with machinery 
for cutting the slats, two hands can get out enough for one 
bale in twenty minutes. 

I will introduce under the genera "Quercus" and 
"Carya" what I have thought useful on the subject of 
ashes, pearlashes, potash, soap, etc. Information is re- 
quired on these invaluable substances. For processes, see 
Ure's Dictionary of Arts. For " soda," see "Salsola" in 
this paper. 

"A cement for cisterns, as hard as marble, and impenetrable 
by water forever," is made of wood ashes two parts, clay 
three parts, sand one part, mixed with oil — all ingredients 
easily obtained. 

" Concentrated Lye" is a very pare preparation of caustic 
soda, or soda ash purified. 

The following is the method of making hard soap with 
this substance, which is preferable to potash or any of its 
preparations; it is also very economical: "One half-box 
of concentrated lye, four pounds of grease, one pound of 
rosin, five gallons of water. Boil all together until the 
soap is made — a point easily determined ; then add a half 
pint of salt dissolved in a quart of water, boil a few 
minutes longer, and pour off into tubs to harden. This 
will yield about thirty pounds of excellent hard soap, at a 
cost of about two and a half cents per pound." 

The following general deduction, which is instructive, 
is made in Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia, art. "Ashes": 
" Trees in a general way, make a plentiful yield of potash, 
somewhat in the degree of their hardness, their heaviness, 
and the closeness of their texture ; and the chief of them 
may upon this principle be distributed into four classes — 
first, the oak, the ash, the yew, the beech, the chestnut, the 
pear, the crab, the blackthorn and the broom; second, the 
elm, maple, hornbeam, and white-thorn ; third, the pines and 



260 

firs; and fourth, the birch, alder, poplar, hazel, and willow. 
"When six loads of the ashes of the first class are sufficient 
for an acre of land, ten or twelve loads of the ashes of the 
fourth class may be required." It will thus be seen what 
room there is for selection in using trees for ashes or for 
the production of potash. For further information on pot- 
ash, ashes, soaps, consult "Garya," hickory, in this paper. 

Table of mean results of experiments of Messrs. Ker- 
wan, Vauquelin, and Pertues, upon ten thousand parts of 
each plant — amount of potash in each — (Chaptal) : 

Elm 39 of potash. Fern 62 of potash. 

Oak 15 " Cow Thistle 196 

Beech 12 " Wormwood 730 

Vine 55 " Vetches 275 

Poplar 7 " [Beans 200 

Thistles 53 " Fumitory 890 

In selecting plants to burn for potash, which can be done 
on any plantation, those which are thus seen to yield most 
should be chosen. "Grasses, leaves, the stalks of French 
beans, of peas, melons, gourds, cabbages, artichokes, po- 
tatoes, maize, and garget, are very rich in this alkali." 
Thistles, nettles, broom-heath, brambles, ferns, should all 
be collected. The fumitory and wormwood (exceedingly 
rich in potash) are both grown in the Confederate States. 
The plants are first dried and then burned, and the ashes 
leached, which should be repeated. Hot water is better 
than cold. The potash can easily be extracted from the 
lye by evaporation. "The process," says Ghaptal, "may 
be commenced in a copper boiler, into which a very fine 
stream of the lye should flow to replace that which evapo- 
rates; when the liquor has acquired the consistency of 
honey it should be put into iron boilers to complete the 
operation. As the substance thickens, care must be taken 
to remove that portion of it which adheres to the sides, 
and to stir the whole carefully with iron spatulas. "When 
the substance congeals and becomes solid upon being 
exposed to the air, it is poured into casks, and thrown into 



261 

commerce, under the name of salts. The whole process is 
simple, and may be- conducted upon our farms without any 
difficulty." Pearlash may be procured from the potash by 
calcination. See treatises on the arts. 

The following observations may be found useful to the 
soap manufacturer, even if he exists in the person of a 
planter or farmer, which I quote from Thornton's Family 
Herbal : In the large manufactories the lye for making 
soap should be made no stronger than to float a new laid 
egg when the workmen begin to form the mixture. The 
oil or tallow is first boiled with a weak lye until the whole 
is formed into a saponaceous compound. It is then kept 
boiling with a stronger lye until it acquires a considerable 
consistence, and seems to be separating from the fluid be- 
low. This separation is a very material part of the opera- 
tion, and to effect it completely a quantity of common salt 
is added; the materials are continually boiled for three or 
four hours, and then the fire is withdrawn. The soap will 
now be found united at the top of the liquor, or what is 
called the waste lye, which is of no further use, and is there- 
fore drawn off. The soap is now melted for the last time 
with a lye, or even with water. It is then allowed to cool, 
and afterward cast into wooden frames. The last melting 
is important, as giving compactness. A solution of sul- 
phate of iron will mottle soap by dispersing it before the 
soap hardens throughout the mass. 

A most economical mode of washing, which has been 
employed by farmers, which reduces the labor of days to that 
of a few hours, might be adopted in our armies. The wash- 
ing of an entire regiment, when in garrison or in cities, 
might be done systematically and collectively with far less 
exposure and loss of time. I obtain the method from some 
of the journals: 

On the night preceding the day intended to be set apart 
for washing, the clothes, white and colored, coarse and fine, 
are put in tubs of clear water, where they remain all night. 
A large size vessel, the larger the better, is half filled with 
water, which is raised to the boiling point. To one con- 



262 

taining sixty gallons put two teaspoon fills of sal soda, one 
quart of soft soap, and one quart of lime-water, made by- 
pouring three gallons of water on one quart of lime the 
night previous, so that it may have had time to settle, and 
in proportion if smaller vessels are used ; stir the water and 
ingredients well together, when the clothes are put in, and 
boiled rapidly for an hour; they are then taken out and 
rinsed well. The same lime-water may be kept until it is 
all consumed. The receipt for making the soap is as fol- 
lows: The ingredients for one hundred pounds do not cost 
more than one dollar aud fifty cents. Take six pounds of 
potash, four pounds of lard, one-fourth pound of rosin ; 
beat up the rosin, mix all together well, and set aside for 
five days ; then put the whole in a ten gallon cask of warm 
water, and stir twice a day for ten days ; at the expiration 
of which time, or sooner, you will have one hundred pounds 
of excellent soap. Strong lye-water or concentrated lye 
may perhaps take the place of the potash. A gill of alco- 
hol added to a gallon of soft soap, applied to clothes in the 
usual way, and soaked several hours before washing, fur- 
nishes an economical method. 

Quercus rubra. lied oak. Diffused ; grows in great 
abundance; St. John's; Charleston; ISFewbern. Fl. April. 

IT. S. Disp. ; Griffith, Mod. Bot. 587. Employed, like 
the others, as an astringent. It is easily obtained, and 
convenientl} T prescribed. I have myself found the bark 
of the tree of some service among the negroes, in sev- 
eral cases where a tonic astringent injection was required, 
using it in one of prolapsus uteri, where the organ be- 
came chafed and painful from exposure. The decoction 
of the bark, with sulphate of copper, is employed on the 
plantations to dye woollens of a green or black color, and 
for tanning leather. Hickory bark, with copperas, furnishes 
an olive color; maple gives a purple dye, the tea leaf (Hopea 
tinctoria) a yellow, and white oak a brown. Walnut leaves 
or roots, without copperas, repeatedly boiled, yield a black 
dye. Blacksmiths' dust may be used in place of copperas. 



268 

The wood is not so durable as that of the Q. alba, but it is 
much used for domestic purposes. 

Quercus montana, Wilkl. Rocky soils in the Alleghany 
mountains of South Carolina. Used as a substitute for the 
above. 

Quercus virens, Aiton. Live-oak. Grows abundantly on 
the sea-coast, for the space of forty miles from the ocean ; 
Newbern. Fl. June. 

IT. S. Disp. 581 ; Eberle, Mat. Med. i, 376. This tree is 
of quick growth, and attains a large size in South Caro- 
lina. Its great value for manufacturing purposes, ship- 
building, etc., is well known. It is often exported for 
these purposes, to great advantage. Its branches extend 
out to some distance, and it affords one of our most ven- 
erable, magnificent, and ornamental shade trees, suited for 
avenues. The acorns are edible. 

Density of Wood. — I introduce the following under 
Quercus virens. Count Chaptal, in his Chemistry applied 
to Agriculture, makes the following remarks : " Soil, ex- 
posure, climate, and season modify in a remarkable man- 
ner the fibre of vegetables of the same kind. Vegetables 
raised in a dry and arid soil have a much harder and more 
compact texture than those of the same kind raised in a 
moist and rich soil ; they have more perfume, contain a 
greater quan-tity of volatile oil, are decomposed with more 
difficulty, and during the combustion give out a much 
more intense heat. Every one knows that thickets having 
a southern exposure yield better fuel than those which lie 
toward the north; the wood is more solid, and after having 
been cut, it will resist for a longer time the action of air 
and water. This fact was observed by Pliny, in regard to 
the woods of the Appenines." 

The difference between the hardness of trees growing in 
swamps and highlands is, I believe, referred to by Bous- 
singault. The locality and the season of the year should 
have an influence upon the tree, upon its structure, and 



264 

secretions, and the} 7 should be considered, in reference to 
the growth of timber for ships, implements, etc. The best 
time for cutting wood is in the end of the winter, when the 
texture is hardened and condensed by the cold. Boussin- 
gault, in his work on Scientific Agriculture, describes a 
French method of preserving timber, superior to the Kyan- 
ized, by the absorption of the salts of iron. I would refer 
the curious reader to a paper, giving a most remarkable 
account of the enormous size and height of the trees, and 
the vegetable wonders of California, in Patent Office Re- 
ports, p. 4, 1851, by Win. A. Williams. Trees sixty-eight 
feet in circumference, and three hundred and eight} 7 feet in 
height, without a branch for two hundred and sixty feet ; 
vegetables relatively large. See Boussingault's work for 
similar statements ; also, paper in Patent Office Reports on 
Agriculture, p. 655, 1851, by Thomas Eubank, Commis- 
sioner, containing extracts from writings of M. M. Na.udin 
and Lecoq (report to the French Academy), on the taming 
of plants by cultivation; they "tamed every individual 
species of the fierce family of thistles," converting them 
into a savory vegetable. 

It is well known, says a writer in the Patent Office Re- 
ports, 1852, p. 257, that the most valuable timber is that 
which has attained its growth with most light and air. 
The wagon-maker takes care to combine toughness and du- 
rability by selecting his wood from trees of second growth, 
or from trees of first growth that from infancy have stood 
alone, or far apart. I have ascertained, in conversation 
with machinists and wood-cutters, that they separate many 
species of useful trees into two varieties, and make careful 
selection in cutting for the shop. 

Quercus prinos, L. Vicinity of Charleston ; Newbern. 
This may be used medicinally as a substitute for the 
Q. alba. 

Quercus suber. Cork tree. Exotic. 

The Patent Office has distributed for years past seeds 



265 

and plants of the cork tree. See Reports, 1854, p. 32, 
for mode of culture and gathering of cork; and article 
on "Properties and Uses of Cork Tree." Patent Office 
Reports, 1858, p. 335. 

Quercus. 

For method of raising acorn-hearing oaks, fin- feeding 
of hogs, varieties, etc., see Wilson's Rural Cyclop., art. 
"Acorn," "Oak." In some portions of England hogs are 
raised almost entirely upon acorns, and with but a limited, 
supply of grain just before killing. " The farmers of 
Gloucestershire bestow near!}' as much care upon the fruit 
of their oak trees as upon the produce of their orchards '■> 
they seldom sell their acorns, yet usually estimate their 
value at from Is. 6d. to 2s. per bushel," etc. Wilson. 
See also Boutcher's "thoroughly practical" Treatise on 
Forest Trees. See Boussingault's Agricultural Chemistry, 
and Wilson's Rural Cyc, for method of preserving timber. 

Betulace^e. (The Birch Tribe.) 
Bark astringent ; sometimes employed as a febrifuge. 

Betula lenta, L. Sweet birch ; cherry birch ; mountain 
mahogany. Mountain ridges of South Carolina. 

U. S. Disp. 1233. The bark and leaves possess a very 
aromatic flavor. An infusion of them is useful as an agree- 
able, gently stimulant, and diaphoretic drink. The oil, 
obtained by distillation from the bark, has been shown by 
Proctor to be similar to that of the Gaultheria procumbens. 
(See that plant.) It also affords a saccharine liquor. Am. 
Journal Pharm. xv, 213; Ell. Bot. ii, 617. The wood, 
possessing a fine grain, which is susceptible of a beautiful 
polish, is much used by cabinet-makers. It would be 
adapted to the fine work on railroad cars. Is the hand- 
somest of the species, and has the finest timber. "The 
timber, when fresh cut, has a rosy tint, and afterward 
deepens in color by exposure. It has a fine, close grain, 
and is susceptible of a very high polish. It is used for sofas, 



266 

arm-chairs, the frames of coach panels, and various other 
purposes. " "Wilson ; Miehaux's Travels, etc. 

"The Sap of the Birch tree reddens turnsole intensely. It 
is colorless, and has a sweet taste. The water which forms 
a greater part of it holds in solution sugar, extractive 
matter, acetate of lime, acetate of alumina, and acetate of 
potash. When properly concentrated by evaporation, it 
ferments on the addition of yeast, and then yields alcohol 
on distillation. The presence of the acetate of alumina 
may appear extraordinary in the sap for this reason, that 
alumina has not yet been discovered in the ashes of the 
birch tree." Boussingault's Rural Econ. p. 65, ed. 1857. 

Betula nigra, Linn. B. rubra, Mx. Red birch. Vicinity 
of Charleston ; collected on the Santee river, St. John's, 
Berkley; Newbern. Fl. March. 

Ind. Bot. Dr. Green states that a strong decoction of 
the bark cured cases of putrid sore throat. It is useful also 
in pleurisy. Lindley says that the black birch of North 
America is one of the hardest and most valuable we possess. 
This might suit the purposes of the engraver, and in the 
construction of any implements requiring wood of firm 
texture. We have also the yellow and the cherry birch. 
The shoots and the twigs of the B. lanulosa, or B. nigra, 
said by Wilson to grow in the Carolinas, are used for 
hoops, and " made into excellent street brooms." Its 
wood is compact, nearly white, and streaked longitudi- 
nally, and useful for various economical purposes. Con- 
sult "Alnics semdata." 

Abuts serrulata, Aitou. Alder. Grows along rivulets, 
Charleston district ; Richland, Prof. Gibbes ; Newbern. 
Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 1224. The bark is astringent. 1ST. Y. Jour- 
nal Med. v, 7, 8. It had for a long time been neglected ; 
but in the article referred to the decoction is spoken 
highly of as an alterative and astringent in scrofula, and 
cutaneous diseases, and it is said to have been very success- 



267 

fill in hsematuria ; in these affections producing beneficial 
results where all other means had failed. Shec, in his 
Flora Carol., spoke of the alder tags, as being of great 
service, on account of their alterative powers ; a decoction 
of the leaves has also been used to suppress hemorrhage, 
and they have been found effectual in relieving dyspepsia 
and bowel complaints. An astringent decoction may be 
made of the bark, leaves, or tags — acting also as a diuretic. 
A tincture may also be used. Poultices made of them are 
used as a local application to tumors, sprains, swellings, 
etc. The leaves are applied externally to wounds and 
ulcers. The inner bark of the root is emetic, and it has 
been given in intermittents. It is used by tanners and 
dyers; the shoots, cut in March, will impart a cinnamon 
color to cloths and flannels. The black alder is used to 
color flannels: "Take the bark, boil it well, then skim, or 
strain it well ; wet the cloth in a pretty strong lye, and dip 
it into the alder liquor ; let it remain till cool enough to 
wring, and it gives an indelible orange color." The wood 
does not absorb water easily, and is employed in making- 
posts, and any structure liable to be submerged. The 
English Alnus (A. glutinosa) is planted along the side of 
water-courses, rivulets, and sand-banks, to prevent the en- 
croachment of water by the hardening and binding influ- 
ence of the roots upon the soil, and also as a border to 
conceal unsightly or boggy lands. The wood is suited for 
pipes, pump-trees, and all kinds of subaqueous wood-work, 
"where it will harden like a very stone," says an old 
writer; now superseded, says Wilson, "for even these 
purposes by the Kyanized wood of more close grained 
trees." The wood of this is also used for various purposes 
of the turner, for the cogs of wheels, etc. "Charcoal made 
of its timber has long been highly valued for the manufac- 
ture of gunpowder." Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia, art. 
Alnus. I do not know how closely our A. serrulata and 
A. viridis resemble the English tree. The bark of alders is 
astringent, and is used by tanners and dyers ; see Wilson. 
It is, in other w T ords, rich in tannin. The birch (JBetula 



268 

nigra, L.), in fact all of our species, no doubt, contain a 
certain proportion of the gummy, oily substance peculiar 
to the B. alba of England. The flowers of the latter are 
highly odoriferous, and the oil is collected. The bark is 
also used by the tanner. Russia skins are said to be tanned 
with it, hence the peculiar odor. Our species of birch may 
no doubt be used for similar purposes. I have little doubt, 
in consideration of the possession of an astringent and oily, 
resinous principle, that a tincture of the catkins would 
.serve as an excellent astringent, stimulating diuretic, to be 
used in gleet, gonorrhoea, and in chronic diseases of the 
genito-urinary apparatus. 

Birch wine is also made in England from the sap of the 
birch. The papery sheets of birch bark were used as a 
writing material. 

URiTiCACEiE. [The Nettle Tribe.) 
Urtica urens, L. Dwarf nettle. Grows around Beaufort ; 
collected in Fairfield district; Ell. says at St. Mary's, 
Georgia; vicinity of Charleston, Bach. Fl. February. 

Murray's App. Med. iv, 592 ; Bull. Plarites Yen. de 
France, 170. It causes an excessive discharge of urine, 
and Serapion said that thirty grains of it would purge. In 
the Supplement to the Diet, de Mat. Med. by Mer. and de 
L., 1846, p. 719, we have an account of the remarkable 
haemostatic virtues of this and the U. dioica, also found in 
South Carolina. It had originally obtained some favor in 
this respect, and was used by Sydenham, but had for a long 
time fallen into disrepute. It has been reserved for M. 
Guinestet to restore the public confidence in it; and it is 
now spoken favorably of by Chomel, Lange, and Desbois. 
Guinestet advises it in hemorrhage, and reports five cases 
of uterine hemorrhage in which bleeding was instantly ar- 
rested ; two to four ounces of the juice were given, taken 
internally, and in the form of injection. It has also been 
successfully employed in heematemesis and epistaxis, and 
cases of two months duration were cured. The objections 
of others who were not so successful have been satisfactorily 



269 

answered, its pretended therapeutic action being denied hj 
Drs. Kaseiakewies and Fiard, who report a case of poison- 
ing from the internal use of two ounces of the concentrated 
decoction. The supporters have produced well sustained 
arguments destroying the force of these statements; and 
Merat himself speaks favorably of it in an official report 
made to the Academy, and published in the Bull, de 
Therap.; he furnishes a case of nasal hemorrhage, occurring 
in a ffirl who was sriving birth to a child, and who was at 
the same time flooding, both of which he succeeded in 
arresting with the juice of this plant, when everything else 
had failed. Many others have used it with very favorable 
results in this and in leucorrhoea. "Sperons," adds the 
author of the Diet, de M. Med., " que l'experience con- 
firmera ces heureux resultats. " See Amusat's, Cheval- 
lier's, and Merat's Rapport " stir l'emploi du sue d'ortie 
comme antihemorragique," made in 1846, in the Bull, de 
l'Acad. Royale de Med. ix, 1015. Dr. Menicucci, of Rome, 
introduces into the vagina a sponge soaked in the juice ; 
and it may be at the same time administered internally. 
See Abeilhe Medicale, Mai, 1846. M. Griiinestet attributes 
its hamiostatic virtues to a constituent which coagulates 
milk in the same way that poisons do. See a letter of 
Merat, relating a case of uterine hemorrhage existing for 
two months, which was cured by the juice of the U. dioica 
(in French). Idem, x, 364, 1845 ; Mer. and de L. vi, 875 ; 
Journal de Med. vi, 492. By analysis, it contains a car- 
bonate, ammonia, chlorophyl, mucus, black coloring matter, 
gallic acid, tannin, and nitrate of potash, less abundant 
than in the U. dioica (which see). 

Induced by these notices to test it myself, I succeeded in 
obtaining a quantity of the U. wrens from Fairfield district, 
S. C. Assisted by Dr. R. A. Kinloch, of Charleston, I pro- 
ceeded to expose and divide the right common carotid 
arteries of two sheep, upon the bleeding orifices of which 
was applied lint covered with a sponge soaked in the cold 
infusion and the decoction respectively. The results were 
as follows : the first died from improper manipulation ; in 



270 

the second, the bleeding ceased entirely — the animal was 
killed, however, a short time afterward. The juice of the 
plant seemed to have some effect in coagulating fresh blood 
poured out into the hand. Upon giving the cold infusion, 
made with two ounces of the plant to a pint of water, in 
doses of a wineglassful four times a day, to a patient affect- 
ed with chronic hematuria, who had used tannin, gallic 
acid, and the infusion of buchu ineffectually, she confessed 
having derived decided relief from it, but complained of its 
having brought out an eruption over the body. The ex- 
periments in both cases are obviously too meagre to enable 
me to pronounce positively as to the amount of power the 
plant possesses. Celsus employed the Urtica in paralysis. 
De Re Medica, 1. iii, 27 ; Bull, des Sci. Med. ix, 77. Flag- 
ellation with the branches, which, it is well known, contain 
stings which produce great irritation, followed by inflam- 
mation, has been recommended for bringing out cutaneous 
and febrile eruptions, as in scarlatina, in apoplexy, in in- 
sensibility of organs, in chronic rheumatism, and in fact 
wherever a powerful external stimulating revulsive is re- 
quired. For this purpose it has even been employed in the 
algid period of incurable cholera morbus. Dr. Marchand, 
Seance de 1'Acad. Roy. de Med. ii, July, 1832 ; J. Ste- 
voght, Diss, de Urtica, 1707 ; J. Francus, Tractatus Singu- 
laris de Urtica U rente, etc. Dilleng, 1726. Both this 
and the U. dioica are found in the Confederate States, and 
I would invite farther and particular examination into 
properties which are of so valuable a description. I ob- 
serve no notice of these experiments in the American 
works. The minute structure of the sting is said to be 
very curious. 

Urtica dioica, L. Common or red dead nettle. Grows 
along roads and fences; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. Aug. 

Dem. Elem. de Bot. iii, 338. It is applied extensively as 
a stimulating and- antiseptic astringent. and detersive, the 
herb and seed being used; the decoction is also alluded to 
in this work as being used in hemorrhage, bloody urine, 



271 

etc. Urtication with this also was employed in rheumatism, 
paralysis, etc. (See U. wrens.) The root is advised in jaun- 
dice and nephritic diseases. Fl. Scotica, 57. A rennet was 
made with a strong decoction. One quart of salt was added 
to three pints of the decoction, and boiled for use, a spoon- 
ful of which was sufficient to coagulate a large quantity of 
milk. Stearns, in the Am. Herbal, 136, refers to its use in 
jaundice, nephritic disorders, and in hemorrhage. "The 
juice snuffed up the nose stops bleeding, and a leaf put on 
the tongue, and pressed against the roof of the mouth, will 
answer the same purpose." Thornton's Fam. Herbal. Lin- 
naeus, in his Veg. Mat. Med. 511, alludes to its employment 
in hemorrhage ; it was considered lithontriptic and emmena- 
gogue, and adapted to those in whom the hemorrhagic 
diathesis prevailed; all of which opinions I quote, as 
coming from old authors. "Steel dipped in the juice be- 
comes more flexible." The seeds produce an oil, which, 
taken in moderate quantities, excites the system, especially 
"les plaisirs de rumour." Twenty or thirty grains of these 
induce vomiting, and a few of them, taken daily, are said 
to reduce excessive corpulency. Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. vi, 613. By Salladin's analysis, in Journal de Chim. 
Med. vi, 492, the plant contains nitrate of lime, hydrochlo- 
rate of soda, phosph. potash, acetate of lime, ligneous mat- 
ter, with silicate and oxalate of iron. Pallas, Voyage, i, 
700; G-melin, Flora Siberica, ii; Mathiole, Comra. 560. It 
is said that animals which feed on the plant become both 
fatter and stronger. Mem. de Hserlem, xxvi. The stalks 
have a fibre like hemp, and have been emploj'ed for making 
cordage; the root boiled in alum will dye a yellow colour. 
I have obtained a fine yellow colour bj T boiling the agri- 
mony (Agrimoniu eupatoriu) in water with alum. See Hooke's 
Microscop. Diss, xxii, 12, and Guettard, Mem. de l'Acack 
des Sci. de Paris, 1751, 350, for a description of the struct- 
ure of the sting, and the Petersburg Journal, 1778, 370, for 
a notice of the value of the stalks in making ropes and 
paper. The IT. S. Disp., 1303, barely notices the plant. Late 
experiments may have escaped the attention of its indefati- 
gable authors. 



272 

The nettle plants are known to be closely allied to those 
bearing textile fibres, and indeed thread can be made from all 
the nettles. The Bcelwieria nivea, formerly known as Urtica 
nivea, is the famous China grass which has been introduced 
into this country by the Patent Office on account of its value 
for manufacturing purposes. The China grass cloth is made 
from it. Dr. Royle says that it has sold in England at from 
£80 to £120 a ton. See Patent Office Rep. 244, 1855, and 
Dr. J. F. Royle and Dr. Roxburgh's treatises on the orient- 
al fibres. Experiments may be made in the Confederate 
States upon the yield of fibre from the Urtica wrens and 
dioica, which grow spontaneously. Boiling in alkaline so- 
lutions and lime-water is used in preparation of such 
plants. See article cited ; also Apocynum. 

The common nettle, remarks Mr. Lawson, who ranks it 
with flax, hemp, cotton, phormium, and other fibre-yielding 
economical plants, has been long known as affording a large 
proportion of fibre, which has not only been made into ropes 
and cordage, but also into sewing-thread and beautiful white 
linen-like cloth of superior quality. The fibre, he adds, is 
easily separated from other parts of the stalk, without their 
undergoing the processes of watering and bleaching, 
although by such the labor necessary for that purpose is 
considerably lessened. Like those of many other common 
plants, the superior merits of this generally accounted 
troublesome weed have hitherto been much overlooked — 
quoted by Wilson in Rural Cyc. It is stated that the 
roots possess astringent and diuretic properties, and have 
been found serviceable in poultices for tumors, and decoc- 
tions for other complaints. The leaves, chopped up with 
meal or with boiled potatoes, are used for feeding ducklings, 
young turkeys, and full grown poultry, especially in winter, 
and are said to promote the laying of eggs. Settles are 
sometimes boiled and eaten in the manner of greens. La- 
borers use the young tops of nettles as a pleasant, nourishing, 
and mildly aperient potherb, either in soups or in accompa- 
niment with salt beef or pork. Rural Cyc. 



273 

TJrtica pumila, L. Grows in wet soils, vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Richland, Prof. Gibbes. Fl. Sept. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 572. This is quite smooth; is said to 
be an excellent application to inflamed parts, and to relieve 
the eruption caused by the Rims. Griffith invites further 
investigation. 

Camions saliva. Hemp. Ex. Nat. Cultivated in the 
upper districts. 

The value of this plant for manufacturing purposes, for 
making ropes and cordage, is well known. It may become 
a most important question whether or not we can raise it in 
the Atlantic states with as much profit as in Kentucky, or 
to repay the labor bestowed upon it. I have not been able 
to ascertain whether the juice of the plant, as cultivated 
here^ possesses the intoxicating properties of the East India 
species (0. Indica), though it has been asserted that "water 
in which it is soaked becomes violently poisonous." See a 
paper in Patent Office Reports, 1848, p. 574, from Louisville 
Journal, containing a full description of varieties, mode of 
production, and preparation of hemp. Count Chaptal says, 
in his Chemistry applied to Agriculture, that M. Proust had 
determined, after numerous experiments, that the stalk of 
hemp furnished the best charcoal for the manufacture of 
gunpowder — better than the willow. From the seeds is ex- 
tracted an oil, generally employed by painters. The fine 
oil obtained from the seeds is peculiarly adapted for burn- 
ing in chambers, as it is perfectly limpid, and possesses no 
smell. The Russians and Poles, even of the higher class, 
bruise or roast the seeds, mix them with salt, and eat them 
on bread. It expels vermin from plantations of cabbages 
if planted on the borders of fields ; if planted with that 
vegetable, no caterpillar will infest it. "Willich's Dom. Enc. 
The seeds may be sown in April or May, from two to three 
bushels per acre, either broadcast, and hoeing out the plants 
to a distance of sixteen or seventeen inches, or by the drill, 
at a distance of thirty inches. In the autumn the plants 
are pulled, the male plants first, and the female plants six 
18 



274 

or seven weeks afterward, when they have ripened their 
seed. Thus there are two harvests of the hemp crop. The 
male plants are readily known by their faded flowers, and 
yellowish color. They are then tied in small bundles and 
carried to the pool, where they are to be steeped. Hemp, 
like flax, poisons the water in which it is steeped. The 
same process is followed when the female plants are pulled; 
only these, before they are steeped, have their seeds beaten 
out. 

The process of steeping commonly lasts four or five days, 
and is continued until the outside coat of the hemp readily 
separates. It is then carefully and evenly spread on some 
grass turf, where it remains for three or four weeks, being 
turned over about twice every week, by which the decom- 
position of the woody part of the stem is materially acceler- 
ated. It is next carried to the barn, where it is bruised by 
the break, a machine constructed for the purpose; it is then 
bound up into bundles, and carried to market. (Low's 
JPrac. Agr. p. 348.) There is a paper on a species of African 
hemp by Mr. A. Hunter (Trans. High. Soc. vol. iii, p. 87); 
others on the cultivation of hemp in America, by Mr.W. 
Tonge (Ann. of Agr. vol. xxiii, p. 1); in Italy (ibid. vol. xvi, 
p. 439, and vol. ii, p. 216), and in Catalonia. (Ibid. vol. viii, 
p>. 243.) 'It seems that 100 parts of Indian hemp-seed yield 
20 to 25 per cent, of oil. (Com. Agr. Asiat. Soc. 1838, p. 69.) 
See Flax. 

Among our native substitutes for hemp are the Apocynum 
■cannabinum, the Canada Golden Rod; Solidago canadensis, 
L. (S. procera, of Ell.); the Sunflower (Helianthus) affords 
single filaments, which are said to be as thick and as strong 
as small packthread; also our jEsclepias Syriaca, Uriica 
dioica and Yucca jilamentosa or bear-grass. See these plants. 
Elliott says that bear-grass possesses the strongest fibre of 
any vegetable whatsoever. Its roots are extensive, and 
bear transplanting. See Prep, of Hemp, Farmer's Encyc. 
See, also, files of the Kentucky Farmer. Paper is made of 
waste hemp, whitened. The seeds afford an oil, which, 
boiled in milk, is recommended against coughs, and is also 



275 

said to be useful in. incontinence of urine. In India an 
intoxicating liquor is made from the leaves, resembling 
opium in its effects. 

Humulus lupulus, L. Hop. Grows in the mountains of 
South Carolina, and generally cultivated in Confederate 
States. 

Dr. McBride; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 185; Chap. 
Therap. and Mat. Med. i, 348, and ii, 455 ; Eb. M. Med. ii, 
55 ; TX. S. Disp. 374 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 163 ; Freake, 
Med. Phys. Journal, xiii, 432; Thompson's Lond. Disp. 
200; Bigsby, Lond. Med. Repos. v, 97; Bryorly's Inaug. 
Diss. Phil. An. 1803 ; Ives in Silliman's Journal, ii, 302 ; 
Thornton's Fam. Herbal, 820. This plant is certainly pos- 
sessed of some narcotic power. According to Dr. Latham, 
an infusion of it is a good substitute for laudanum. It is 
employed in doses of one and a half drachms in allaying 
the distressing symptoms of phthisis. It augments the se- 
cretions, removes pain and irritability, and induces sleep. 
Dr. Maton, Fell. Roy. Soc. Coll. Phys., says that large 
doses produce headache. It is thought to be a specific in 
removing asthmatic pains, without increasing the secre- 
tions. Mer. and cle L. Diet, cle M. Med. iii, 544; Pliny, lib. 
xxi, c. 15 ; Flore Med. iv, 196. It is given with good effect 
as a stomachic, in inappetency and weakness of the diges- 
tive organs. Mat. Med. Indica. 120; Bull. des. Sci. Med. 
xvi, 145 ; Journal des Sci. Med. xli, 376 ; Edinb. Journal, 
iv, 23; Diss. Medici de Humuli medici viribus medicis, 
Edinb. 1803; Bromelius, "Lupulogia," Stockholm, 1687; 
Obs. of Freake on the Hop, Lond. Lupulin] obtained from 
*it, is said to diminish the force of the pulse. See Journal 
de Chim. Med. ii, 527; Journal de Pharm. viii, 228 and 
330. In the Supplem. to M. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
1846, a case is reported of a girl being poisoned by the 
hop. Rev. Scientifique, Mars, 1845; Journal de Pharm. 
Mars, 1842. Much use is made of the hop poultice in al- 
laying pain, applied over the part. Its domestic value in 
preparing the liquor known as yeast is obvious, as well as 



276 

for other purposes where fermentation is to be established 
in the manufacture of many alcoholic drinks and malt 
liquors. The medicinal properties of the hop are said to 
depend upon the lupulin, a peculiar resinous secretion con- 
tained in the glands, which is obtained by thrashing and 
sifting the strobiles. By analysis it consists of volatile oil, 
bitter principle, or lupulin, resin, etc. ; when administered 
internally, this has all the good effects of the hop; given in 
pill, in doses of six to ten grains, or in tincture in those of 
a half to one drachm; and it may also be added to poulti- 
ces, ointments, etc. Ives' Experiments; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
574. The tincture of lupulin is said to be preferable ; dose, 
one to two fluid drachms. 

Patent Office Rep. 280, 1857, contains a very full treatise 
on the hop, condensed from various sources — an analysis of 
the plant, the best mode of cultivation, gathering, etc. As 
the raising of the hop is of great importance, I would refer 
cultivators to this article. It is said to be one of the very 
most exhausting among cultivated plants, both in respect 
to the organic and mineral constituents which it extracts 
from the soil; so that valleys containing the debris of the 
surrounding country should be selected. See, also, Wil- 
son's Rural Cyc, art. "Hop," "Beer," "Ale." His account 
of cultivation, diseases, etc., of the hop is full and instruc- 
tive. The stem of the hop contains a fibre like hemp, 
which is used in making a strong white cloth in Sweden, 
though it requires long steeping to separate the fibre. The 
hop plant is rich in tannin, and has been used for tanning: 
the ash yields 25. of potash, 15. of lime, magnesia, salt, etc. 
The suckers of the hop are said to form an agreeable vege- 
table for the table when dressed like asparagus. Honey 
dew is frequent on hop plants from the perforations of the 
aphis. It is said to be very abundant on cotton plants. 

An article also on the cultivation of the hop can be found 
in Patent Office Reports, 1854, p. 354. 

I quote from the paper mentioned above as follows, as I 
consider information on this topic important: 

The hop is a perennial plant of easy cultivation, and 



277 

will grow in any part of the Western states. Its domestic 
uses are so obvious, that no farm or garden should be with- 
out one or more roots. It requires a rich, deep, mellow 
soil, with a dry, pervious, or rocky subsoil. The exposure 
in a northern climate should be toward the south, as on the 
slope of a hill, or in an}' well sheltered valley. It may be 
propagated by seeds, or by divisions of the roots ; but it is 
more usual to plant the young shoots which rise from the 
bottom of the stems of old plants. These are laid down in 
the earth till they strike, when they are cut off and planted 
in a nursery bed. Care must be takeu to have only one 
sort of hops in the same plat or field, in order that they 
may all ripen at the same time. The ground having been 
prepared for planting, it is divided by parallel lines six feet 
apart, and short sticks are inserted into the ground along 
the lines at seven feet distance from each other, and so as 
to alternate the rows, as is frequently done with fruit trees 
and other plants, in what is called the "Quincunx form." 
By this method every plant will be just seven feet from 
each of its neighbors, although the rows will be only six 
feet apart, and consequently about one-eighth of land will 
be actually saved, as indicated in the diagram below: 



At each stick a hole may be dug two feet square and two 
feet deep, and lightly filled with the earth dug out, mixed 
with a compost prepared with well rotted dung, lime, and 
muck. Fresh dung should never be applied to hops. 
Three plants are next placed in the middle of this hole six 
inches asunder, forming an equilateral triangle. A water- 
ing with liquid manure will greatly assist their taking root, 
and they will soon begin to show "vines." Sticks three 
or four feet long are then stuck in the middle of the three 
plants, and the vines are tied to them with twine or bass, 
till they lay hold and twine around them. During their 
growth the ground should be well hoed and forked up 
around the roots, and some of the fine mould thrown 



278 

around the stems. In favorable seasons a few hops may 
be picked from these young plants in autumn, but in gen- 
eral there is nothing the first year. Late in autumn the 
ground may be carefully dug with a spade, and the earth 
turned toward the plants, to remain during the winter. 
Early in spring the second year the hillocks around the 
plants should be opened, and the roots examined. The last 
year's shoots are then cut off within an inch of the main 
stem, and all the suckers quite close to it. The latter 
forms an agreeable vegetable for the table when dressed 
like asparagus. The earth is next pressed round the roots, 
and the parts covered so as to exclude the air. A pole 
about twelve feet long is then firmly stuck into the ground 
near the plants; to this the vines are led, and tied as they 
shoot, until they have taken hold of it. If by accident a 
vine leaves the pole it should be carefully brought back to 
it, and tied until it takes new hold. 

Mr. J. J. Bennett, of New York, says: "The manner in 
which I cultivate hops is as follows: After ploughing the 
ground intended for hops, I use about ten loads of leached 
ashes per acre for a top-dressing, after which it should be 
well harrowed. The rows should be eight feet apart, and 
the hills seven feet apart. In setting, a line is used with 
marks indicating the distance between the hills. After the 
line is drawn, small sticks are set to each mark. Roots are 
to be cut, two joints on each piece, three pieces to the hill ; 
cover about two inches. The ground ma} 7 be planted with 
corn the first year, as the hops will not run until the 
second. It should be sown the first of May in drills three 
and one-half feet apart ; sow with seed-drill. The first 
year corn may be raised; plant one foot from the teasel 
row. I weed them twice the first year ; the second year 
they are to be cultivated and hoed twice. The first of 
August I cut such as are ripe, which will be known by the 
shedding of the blossoms. I cut at four different times, 
the stems to be about four inches long. They are to be 
spread on shelves about eight inches deep, one tier above 
another. There should be a good circulation of air, that 



279 

they may cure well. I paid for cultivating five acres forty- 
two dollars; paid for harvesting eighty-five dollars." See 
a full description of hops, mode of cultivation, prepara- 
tions, adulterations, etc., in Johnson's Chemistry of Com- 
mon Life,' vol. ii, p. 36 ; also Ure's Dictionary of Arts and 
Manufactures, articles "Hop," "Ale,"" Beer," etc. Con- 
sult Pereira's Mat. Medica, Chaptal's Chemistry applied to 
Agriculture, Boussingault's Treatise on Agriculture in its 
relations with Chemistry, and Thaer's Agriculture, for 
mode of planting, preparation, etc. See, also, Phillips' 
History of Cultivated Vegetables. The uses of the hop 
pillow and the tincture of hops, as sedatives and mild nar- 
cotics, are well known ; but for the medicinal application 
consult the various works on the materia medica. 

The great importance of cultivating this plant on a large 
scale for manufacture of yeast should be impressed upon 
the people. See receipt books for mode of making spruce 
and hop beer with hops, and the essence of spruce. Mode 
of making hop beer is as follows: For a half-barrel of 
beer, take half a pound of hops, and half a gallon of mo- 
lasses. The latter must be poured by itself into the casks. 
Boil the hops, adding to them a teacupful of powdered 
ginger in about a pailful and a half of water; that is, 
a quantity sufficient to extract the virtue of the hops. 
When sufficiently brewed, put it up warm into the cask, 
shaking it well in order to mix it with the molasses. Then 
fill it up with w r ater quite up to the bung, which must be 
left open, to allow it to work. You must be careful to keep 
it constantly filled up with water whenever it works over. 
"When sufficiently worked it may be bottled, adding a 
spoonful of molasses to each bottle. Thornton'b Southern 
Gardener. 

Ale and beer can be made in the Confederate States, 
though not with the same advantage as in colder climates. 
Though without practical experience, I am forced to the 
conviction that the desideratum is cool cellars. In the rural 
districts what are called dry cellars are constructed in the 
clay, just above the water-bearing stratum, the top enclosed 



280 

or covered with a closed house. The temperature of these 
cellars is quite low, and they are used in keeping milk, 
butter, melons, cider, etc. I think their temperature 
would allow the manufacture and preservation of either 
wine, ale. or beer. Ale has been made near Charleston, at 
Mount Pleasant; but to prevent fermentation, cellars are 
required. The reader interested in the subject can find a 
description of the English method of making malt liquors 
in Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures, in Wilson's 
Rural Cyclopaedia (art. "Ale"), in Solly's Rural Chemistry, 
p. 178, see art. "Fermentation and Distillation"; also, 
Thornton's Family Herbal, "Mentha," p. 565., Child on 
Brewing, Combrune's Theory and Practice of Brewing. 
In England they use Gentiana, lutea, purpurea, and rubra as 
substitutes for hops. Consult this volume, art. "Persim-r 
mou "" (Diospyros), ■ "Sassafras" (Laurus), "Blackberry" 
and "Cherry" (Cerasus), "Apple" (Pyrus), for liquors. 

Moras alba, L. Mulberry. Nat. Diffused; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. March. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. 319 ; U. S. Disp. 463 ; Dem. Elem. de 
Bot. The root is bitter, and very astringent, and is useful 
in relaxed states of the bowels, diarrhoea, etc. Lind. ISTat. 
Syst. Bot. 186. It contains myroxylic acid with lime. Tur- 
ner, 640. See analysis in the Journal de Chim. Med. x, 
676. The bark is a purgative vermifuge, but is more im- 
portant on account of "the leaves being the favorite food of 
the silk- worm." That this plant is easily cultivated in the 
Confederate States may some day make it a source of great 
profit in the production of silk. The mania may again be 
revived, under auspices which may deprive the term of the 
slight suspicion of reproach which is attached to its objects. 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med., Supplem. 1846, 496 ; Grif- 
fith, Med. Bot. 579. 

As "this is the species upon which the silk-worm feeds," 
the following brief directions concerning the manufacture 
of silk, from the Rural Cyc, may be useful; and as the pro- 
duction of the raw silk is in the power of almost any one, 



281 

if the females of numerous families throughout the Con- 
federacy would devote their leisure to it, the aggregate 
amount of silk produced would contribute still further to 
render us independent as a people. 

After the worm has enveloped itself in the cocoon, 
seven or eight days are allowed to elapse before the balls 
are gathered. The next process is to destroy the life of 
the chrysalides, which is clone either by exposure to the 
sun, or by the heat of an oven, or of steam. The cocoons 
are next separated from the floss, or loose, downy substance 
which envelops the compact balls, and are then ready to 
be reeled. For this purpose they are thrown into a boiler 
of hot water for the purpose of dissolving the gum, and 
being gently pressed with a brush, to which the threads 
adhere, the reeler is thus enabled to disengage them. The 
ends of four or more of the threads thus cleared are passed 
through holes in an iron bar, after which two of these com- 
pound threads are twisted together, and made fast to the 
reel. The length of reeled silk obtained from a single 
cocoon varies from three hundred to six hundred yards; 
and it has been estimated that twelve pounds of cocoons, 
the produce of the labors of two thousand eight hundred 
worms, which have consumed one hundred and fifty-two 
pounds of mulberry leaves, give one pound of reeled silk, 
which may be converted into sixteen yards of gros de 
Naples. Those cocoons which have been perforated can- 
not be reeled, but must be spun on account of the breaks in 
the thread. The produce of these balls when worked is 
called fleuret. The raw silk, before it can be used in 
weaving, must be twisted or thrown, and may be converted 
into singles, tram, or organzine. The first is produced 
merely by twisting the raw silk to give more firmness to 
its texture. Tram is formed by twisting together, but not 
very closely, two or more threads of raw silk, and usually 
constitutes the weft or shoot of manufactured goods. Or- 
ganzine is principally used in the warp, and is formed by 
twisting first each individual thread, and then two or more 
of the threads thus twisted, with the throwing-mill. The 



282 

silk when thrown is called hard silk, and must be boiled in 
order to discharge the gum, which otherwise renders it 
harsh to the touch, and unfit to receive the dye. After 
boiling about four hours in soaped water, it is washed ^n 
clear water to discharge the soap, and is seen to have ac- 
quired that glossiness and softness of texture which forms 
its principal characteristic. The yarn is now ready for 
weaving. Rural Cyc. I saw in Italy the manufacture of 
silk going on in most of the large towns, and many in the 
country prepare raw silk for the manufacturer and weaver. 

The successful rearing of silk-worms, remarks Wilson, is 
a distinct art, and requires peculiar attention. They are 
subject to a variety of maladies. In many places it is 
usual to import the eggs from some district that has ac- 
quired reputation for their production. These are packed 
like grain, and are chosen in the same manner. The eggs 
are* in many places hatched by the heat of the human 
body. The silk is contained in the form of a fluid resem- 
bling varnish, in long, cylindrical sacks many times the 
length of the animal, and capable of being unfolded by 
immersion in water. This fluid is easily forced out, and 
advantage is sometimes taken of this circumstance to pro- 
cure threads much coarser than usual, which are extremely 
strong, and impervious to water. Rural Cyc. At the 
agricultural meetings in South Carolina and Georgia arti- 
cles of home-made silk are occasionally presented. 

From an essay on the culture and manufacture of silk. By 
H. P. Byram, Brandenburg, Meade county, Ky. — Expe- 
rience of past ages has fully proved that the climate of the 
United States is as well adapted to the nature and habits of 
the silk-worm, and the production of silk, as that of any 
other country. Several varieties of the mulberry are in- 
digenous in our soil, and those generally -used in the na- 
tive country of the silk-worm succeed equally well in our 
own soil and climate. Hence, from the nature and habits 
of American people, we must soon become the greatest 
silk-growing nation on the earth. The first step toward 
the production of silk is to secure a supply of suitable 
food for the silk-worm. 



283 

Having tried all the varieties introduced into onr coun- 
try, I find the Moras multicaulis and the Canton varieties, 
all things considered, most suitable for that purpose. 

Propagation of the mulberry. — Although the experience of 
some years past has rendered this subject familiar to many, 
yet those now most likely to engage in the legitimate busi- 
ness of silk-growing may be less acquainted with the 
propagation of the tree. I shall give some brief directions 
ou the subject : 

Almost any soil that is high and dry, and that will 
mature Indian corn, is suitable for the mulberry. That, 
however, which is inclined to be light or sandy is the best. 

The Moras multicaulis may be propagated by cuttings or 
layers (or a good variety may be raised from the seed). 
Cuttings may be of one or more buds, planted perpendicu- 
larly in a light, mellow bed of good soil. They should be 
planted when the spring has fully opened, or about the 
usual time of planting corn. They may be planted in the 
rows, about twelve inches apart, and the rows at a sufficient 
distance to admit of thorough cultivation with a plough 
or cultivator. The ground should be kept mellow until 
past midsummer. 

Select a suitable piece of ground for a permanent or- 
chard. It would be well if broken up in the fall, and 
again ploughed in the spring, and, if followed with the 
subsoil plough, it would be advantageous. After a thor- 
ough harrowing it should be laid off in rows, each way 
eight feet by four, with the plough. The trees at one year 
old from the nursery should be taken up, the tops cut off 
near the roots, and one planted in each of the squares or 
hills. 

Having tried various methods of planting, and different 
distances, I prefer those here given. This will admit the 
free use of the plough and cultivator both ways. 

In latitudes north of 38° or 40°, where land is dear, they 
may be planted much nearer. If a sufficient quantity of 
cuttings from old trees cannot at once be procured, the 
trees from the nursery should be taken up in the fall, and 



284 

buried in a cellar, or upon the north side of a bank or hill, 
in alternate layers of trees and earth, and the whole pro- 
tected by a shed from the rains of winter, as the plants 
seldom sufficiently mature the first season from the cut- 
tings to withstand the winters of a northern climate, 
particularly that portion above the ground. South of 38° 
of latitude these precautions may not be necessary. 

The Canton mulberry is a more hard}^ kind, resembling 
in some degree the varieties known as the common Italian, 
producing a large, full, thick leaf. This variety is propa- 
gated from seed and from layers, but does not readily 
strike root from cuttings. 

In 1838 I procured a quantity of this seed from Canton, 
which produced a variety of j:>lants. Those producing the 
greatest quantity of fruit yield an inferior leaf. 

They are now propagating this variety very extensively 
at the silk-growing establishment at Economy, Pennsyl- 
vania, which, in connection with the Morus midticaulis, 
constitute the principal food used at this establishment. 

The fruit should be gathered when fully ripe, and the 
seed washed out and dried. If south of the 39th parallel 
of latitude, they may be planted the same season. North 
of this, they should be planted in the following spring, in 
a bed of rich earth prepared as for beets or onions, and 
planted in drills about eighteen inches apart. The young 
plants should be thinned to the distance of from one to 
three inches from each other. They should be well cul- 
tivated, when thev will attain the height of three or four 
feet the first season. In the fall, in a northern climate, the 
young trees should be taken up and protected during the 
winter, as directed for the Morus midtieaulis. [This is not 
necessary in the Southern states.] — So. Cult. 

In the following spring the brandies may be taken off 
near the main stem, the top shortened, and the whole tree 
planted, completely covering the roots and main stem from 
one to two inches deep. In this way two or more trees 
may be produced from each plant. If a full supply can be 
procured, the roots of the young plants may at once be 



285 

removed to the orchard. They may be allowed to stand 
much nearer than the multicaulis, leaving only sufficient 
room for cultivation. 

When seed is required it would be well to plant out a 
portion from the seed-bed at once, as standards for this 
purpose, always selecting those bearing full, heart-shaped 
leaves. 

The leaves of the white Italian produce a good, heavy 
cocoon, and should always be used in the last age of the 
worms when other larger-leaved varieties cannot be ob- 
tained. 

Cultivation. — The mulberry orchard should be annually 
cultivated. The ground kept mellow and free from weeds 
until the middle of July. 

The fields should be divided into three equal parts, and 
after the second season from planting, one-third each year 
should be cut down near the ground. This will cause a 
more vigorous growth, and an abundant crop of foliage. 

Feeding apartments. — Various plans have been proposed 
and adopted for cocooneries, or feeding-sheds, for the silk- 
worms, none of which, I think, are without objection, 
except a perfect laboratory, so constructed as to be able to 
fully control the atmosphere and temperature within. 
This, however, would be too expensive, and require too 
much skill and judgment for general adoption. 

Open or shed-feeding has been employed with success of 
late years, and for general use may be the most successful 
for family establishments. This, however, confines the 
whole business, particularly in the Northern states, to one 
or two crops in the season. South of Ohio more can be 
successfully fed. 

These sheds may be cheaply made by setting some dura- 
ble posts in the ground, saj- from six to eight feet high, 
with a roof of shingles or boards. The roof should project 
two feet over the sides. There should be some temporary 
protection to the ends and sides of the shed; perhaps the 
best and cheapest can be made of strong cotton cloth 
(Osnaburg); three or four widths should be sewed together, 



286 

with small rods across the bottom, which will answer as 
weights, and also as rollers, which, by the aid of a pulley, 
may be rolled or let down at pleasure. 

The width of the sheds must be governed by the size of 
the hurdles or feeding-trays used. The width that I have 
adopted is from eighteen to twenty feet. The length ac- 
cording to the extent of the feeding contemplated. 

Where it is designed to carry on an extensive business, 
a building should be constructed expressly for the purpose. 
It should be on an elevated situation, convenient to the 
mulberry orchard. There should be a cellar under the 
building. Any material commonly used for building may 
be emplo} r ed. If of wood, weather-boarded and plastered. 
It would be well to fill up the space between the two with 
tan -bark or unburnt brick, or something of the kind, 
which will render the temperature more uniform. The 
width of the building should be twenty or twenty-eight 
feet — the former admitting of two, and the latter of three 
double ranges of hurdles or trays of suitable size ; the 
length suited to the extent of the business designed. It 
should be two stories high, and so constructed as to be 
thoroughly ventilated. There should be two double doors 
in each end, with doors, windows, and ventilators in the 
sides. The windows should extend to near the tops of the 
rooms. There should be sliding ventilators near the floor. 
The windows may be filled with oiled paper or cloth, which 
will admit the light and exclude the sun. It would also be 
important to have under each tier of hurdles, through the 
floor, two planks of ten inches width each, hung with 
hinges, that they may be raised at pleasure by a pulley. 
Also an upright ventilator on the roof, fitted with blinds, 
through which a constant draft may be kept up. 

In one end of the building, in each of the two doors, 
there should be a ventilating wheel made of thin boards 
(plank), much after the form of the wheels applied to the 
sterns of our steam-propellers. These wheels should be 
about two feet in diameter. They should be put in mo- 
tion for a few minutes every hour, or oftener in still 



287 

weather. Both may be made to turn by one crank, con- 
necting each by bands and whirls to the main shaft. 

An air-furnace, such as is now employed in heating 
churches and other buildings, should be constructed in the 
cellar, and so arranged as to draw from the feeding-rooms 
all the air necessary to supply the furnace. The air, when 
heated in the chamber, should be conveyed through the 
wholeiength of the rooms, in a square pipe with openings 
at short distances from each other, which should increase 
in size as they recede from the furnace. These openings 
may be so connected as to be all closed at once, or a valve 
applied at the air-chamber may be used to cut off the 
communication of heated air when the temperature is suf- 
ficiently high in the rooms, suffering the hot air to escape 
outside of the building. In the last ages of the worms 
the furnace will be found of great benefit, even when the 
heat is not required in the rooms, for the purpose of draw- 
ing off and consuming the impure air of the cocoonery. 

At Economy, they not only make use of air-furnaces, 
but in an adjoining building they have a large air-pump 
constantly in operation, connected with the cocoonery by 
a pipe with small openings through the length of the 
building. This pump is kept in motion by a steam-en- 
gine. 

With good eggs, when proper means have been employ- 
ed for their preservation, and the feeding-apartments thor- 
oughly ventilated, I do not know of a single instance 
where the worms have proved unhealthy. 

From the conviction that proper regard had not gener- 
ally been paid to the ventilation of cocooneries, in the 
summer of 1842 I commenced a series of experiments, by 
which I ascertained that the silk-worm during; its last a^e 
consumed nearly its own weight of leaves daily ; and that 
the amount of exhalations or imperceptible perspiration 
given off in proportion to the quantity of food consumed, 
was about equal to that ascertained to escape from a 
healthy man. 

I found, from the most carefully conducted experiments, 



288 

that the weight of one hundred thousand silk-worms, about 
five days before their time of winding, was four hundred 
and fifty-eight pounds, and that they would consume daily 
three hundred and seventy-two pounds of leaves,* and 
that their increased weight in twenty-four hours from the 
food consumed was forty-six pounds, and that the enor- 
mous amount of two hundred and six pounds was given 
off in the same time, in the form of exhalations or imper- 
ceptible perspiration alone. This, then, I think, fully 
explains the cause of disease complained of by many, and 
establishes the importance of ventilation in every possible 
form. 

In one corner of the building there should be a hatching- 
room, with which the furnace below should be connected, 
so as to receive a greater or less degree of heat, as may be 
required, without reference to the temperature of the feed- 
ing-rooms. 

Fixtures. — In fitting up the hurdles or feeding-shelves 
for a building of twenty feet wide, it will require a double 
range of posts, two and a half or three inches square, on 
each side of the centre of the room, running lengthwise, 
and the length of the shelves apart in the ranges, and 
each two corresponding posts, crosswise of the ranges, 
about the width of the two shelves apart. On each double 
range across the posts are nailed strips, one inch or more 
in width and about fifteen inches apart, on which the trays 
or hurdles rest, which may be drawn out or slid in as may 
be found necessary in feeding. The aisles or passages of a 
building of the above width will be four feet each, allow- 
ing two feet for the width of each single hurdle. 

The hurdles that I have used for many years are of twine 
net-work. A frame is first made five feet long and two 
feet wide, of boards seven-eighths of an inch thick, and 
one and a half inches wide. There should be two braces 
across the frame at equal distances of five^eighths by seven- 

* Had these worms been fed in the ordinary manner they would have consumed 
many more leaves in the same time. But to preserve the greatest possible accu- 
racy, through the whole experiment they were fed rather sparingly. 



289 

eighths of an inch square. On a line, about half an inch 
from the inner edge of the frame, are driven tacks nearly 
down to their heads, at such distances as will make the 
meshes of the net about three-quarters of an inch square. 
Good hemp or flax twine is passed around these tacks, 
forming a net by passing the filling double over and under 
the warp, or that part of the twine that runs lengthwise. 
This twine should be somewhat smaller than that running 
lengthwise. On a damp day the twine becomes tight ; I 
then give the netting two good coats of shellac varnish. 
This cements the whole together, and renders it firm and 
durable. 

The varnish is made by dissolving a quantit} 7 of gum 
shellac in alcohol in a tin covered vessel, and placed near 
the fire. It should be reduced, when used, to the consist- 
ence of paint. 

Another set of frames is made in the same way and of 
the same size, and covered with strong cotton or tow cloth ; 
this is secured with small tacks. Upon these the net 
frames rest, which serve to catch the litter that falls 
through from the worms. 

Hurdles made and supported in this manner admit of a 
more free circulation of air, and the litter is less liable to 
mould or ferment, and can be removed and cleaned at 
pleasure. 

With this kind of hurdle and screen I make use of 
winding-frames, constructed in the following manner: a 
light frame is made of boards one and a half inches wide, 
and the length of the hurdles, and two feet ..and four 
inches wide; this is rilled crosswise with thin laths about 
one inch apart in the clear. The manner of using these 
will be hereafter explained. They answer the twofold 
purpose of winding-frames and mounting-ladders. 

The care and expense required in fitting up a house on 
this plan may prevent its general adoption. 

The most common method that has been heretofore 
employed is permanent shelves; but the labor required 
19 



290 

to keep the worms properly cleaned renders this plan 
objectionable. 

At Economy, Penn., the rearing of the silk- worm is now 
carried on to a great extent, and more successfully than in 
any other part of the United States, or perhaps the world. 
Their houses are two stories high. The worms are fed on 
small trays about eighteen or twenty inches wide, and 
about three feet long. They are supported in the same 
manner as the hurdles above described, and are about six 
inches apart. When the worms are about ready to wind, 
they are transferred to the upper story, to permanent 
shelves about sixteen inches apart, where they form their 
cocoons in bunches of straw placed upright between the 
shelves. The worms are cleaned at least once after every 
moulting, and after the last, every day. For this purpose 
they have nets woven or knit of cotton twine, something 
larger than the size of the trays, with meshes of various 
sizes suited to the age of the worms. For the last age 
they are about three-quarters of an inch square. They 
are used without frames. When it is required to remove 
the worms from their litter, the nets are laid lightly over 
them, and then plentifully fed. When the worms have 
arisen upon the fresh leaves, they are removed by two per- 
sons taking hold of the four corners of the net and trans- 
ferring them to clean trays, held and carried off by a third 
person. One hundred thousand are changed in this man- 
ner in two hours. 

Description of the silk-worm. — It will be necessary for the 
inexperienced culturist to have some knowledge of the 
forms, changes, and appearances of the silk-worm before he 
enters upon the duties of his interesting charge. 

The silk-worm is a species of caterpillar, whose life is 
one continual succession of changes, which in due time 
becomes a moth or winged insect, like others of the genus. 

The time occupied in going through its different forms 
of existence varies in different countries — governed by 
climate, temperature, and the quality and quantity of the 



291 

food upon which it is fed, and the nature of the particular 
variety of the insect. 

The worm changes or casts its skin (of the common 
varieties) four times before it attains its full growth* 
These changes are called moultings, and the periods in- 
tervening between the several moultings are termed ages. 
When it is first hatched it is of a blackish color, which 
afterward becomes lighter, varying almost daily to differ- 
ent shades, and in different varieties through every age, 
to the close of the last, or near the time of spinning, when 
it assumes a grayish yellow, semi-transparent appearance. 

Having tried all the varieties that have been introduced 
into the United States, those I consider the best are known 
as the Chinese Imperial, producing a large, salmon-colored, 
pea-nut-shaped cocoon ; and a kind called the Pea-nut, pro- 
ducing a mixture of white and salmon-colored cocoons. 
This variety produces a larger and more firm cocoon than 
any of that name that I have seen. 

Time of hatching. — Bearing. — When the leaves of the mul- 
berry have put forth to the size of about an inch in diam- 
eter, it may be generally inferred that the proper time for 
hatching the worm has arrived. 

The papers or cloths containing the eggs should then be 
brought out and placed in the hatching-room, upon a table 
or trays made for the purpose. When artificial means are 
employed, the temperature should be gradually raised until 
the time of hatching, which will be in about ten days, to 
75° or 80° of Fahrenheit's thermometer. But few worms 
will make their appearance on the first day, but on the 
second and third the most will come out; should there be 
a few remaining on the fourth day, they may be thrown 
away, as they do not always produce strong and healthy 
worms. When the worms begin to make their appearance, 
young mulberry leaves cut into narrow strips should be 
laid over them, to which they will readily attach them- 
selves ; these should be carefully removed, and placed com- 
pactly upon a cloth screen or tray prepared for them, and 
other leaves placed upon the eggs for the worms that still 



292 

remain, which, should be passed off as before. A singular 
fact will be observed, that all the worms will hatch be- 
tween sunrise and before noon of each day. Care should 
be taken to keep the worms of each day's hatching by 
themselves, as it is of the greatest importance to have the 
moultings and changes of all the worms as simultaneous as 
possible. It is also important that the worms that have 
been transferred to the trays should not be fed until the 
hatching for the day is completed, so that all may be fed 
equally. Young and tender leaves should be selected to 
feed the worms with ; these should be cut with a sharp 
knife into pieces not exceeding a quarter of an inch 
square, and evenly sifted over them. They should be fed 
in this w&y six or eight times in twenty-four hours, as 
nearly as possible at regular and stated periods. 

It will be impossible to lay down any definite rules for 
the quantity of leaves necessary for a given number of 
worms- for each succeeding day through every age. After 
a little acquaintance with their nature and habits, the intel- 
ligence and judgment of the attendant will be the best 
guide ; they should, however, have as much as they will 
eat, but after a few days care should be taken not to give 
them more than they will generally consume, as this will 
increase the accumulation of litter, which will endanger 
the health of the worms. In the last age they eat vora- 
ciously, when they should be well supplied. A quantity of 
leaves should always be on hand in case of wet weather. 

When the average range of the thermometer is between 
70° and 80° the several moultings will take place near the 
fifth, ninth, fifteenth, and twenty-second days after hatch- 
ing. It may be known when the worms are about to cast 
their skins, as they cease to eat, and remain stationary, 
with their heads raised, and occasionally shaking them. 
This operation will be more distinctly observed as they 
increase in size through their succeeding ages. 

Assuming the above temperature as the standard, the 
quantity of leaves for the first three days of this (the 
first) age must be gradually increased at each feeding, after 



293 

which they will require less at each succeeding meal until 
the time of moulting arrives, when for about twenty-four 
hours they eat nothing. But as it is seldom the case that 
all cast their skins at one and the same time, some will still 
be disposed to eat, when a few leaves must be cut fine and 
sparingly scattered over them, so that those that remain 
torpid may be disturbed as little as possible. They must 
now be carefully fed in this way until it is discovered that 
some have moulted, when the feeding must cease altogether 
until the most of them have recovered. This rule must be 
particularly regarded through all the succeeding moultings, 
otherwise some of the worms will be far in advance of 
others ; and this want of uniformity will increase through- 
out each succeeding age, and to the period of winding, 
which will not only result in great inconvenience in gather- 
ing the cocoons, but will materially injure the worms, and 
consequently lessen the crop of silk. 

When the greatest portion of the worms have moulted, 
and appear active, leaves a little wilted are laid over them, 
by which they are passed to clean trays. If any still 
remain that have moulted, they must be transferred in the 
same manner, by laying more leaves upon them. The rem- 
nant of worms that have not changed their skins should 
be left upon the litter, and added to those of the next day's 
moulting. By closely regarding these rules throughout 
the several ages, the worms will generally all commence 
the formation of their cocoons about the same period. 

After having gone through and furnished all the worms 
with a quantity of leaves, jt is well to go over a second 
time, and add more where they seem to require it. 

Very young and tender leaves must be given to the 
worms in the first age, after which older ones can be given 
as they advance in age until after the last moulting, when 
the} r should be fed upon sound, full-grown leaves. 

After the second moulting the leaves, where large crops 
are fed, may be cut by running them twice through a com- 
mon rotary hay or straw-cutter, of Hovey's, or one of a 
similar make. 



294 

The worms will frequently heap together, and become 
too thick, as they increase in size. When they are fed the 
leaves must be spread, and the space enlarged, or they may 
be removed by leaves or twigs of the mulberry to places 
unoccupied. If they are permitted to be crowded, disease 
is apt to follow, and the whole crop is endangered. 

It will sometimes be observed, when the light falls more 
directly on one side of the hurdle than the other, that the 
worms will incline to leave that side and become crowded 
on the opposite, when the hurdle should be turned around. 

Up to the last moulting it is best to feed the worms 
entirely upon the leaves of the multicaulis, after which the 
Canton or white Italian should be used if a full supply can 
be obtained — the former being consumed with greater 
avidity, and the accumulation of litter is consequently less. 
The Canton and Italian produce the heaviest cocoon, while 
the multicaulis yields a finer and stronger fibre. In pursu- 
ing this course the advantages of both are in some degree 
secured. 

The worms should be removed from their litter immedi- 
ately after each moulting, and in their fourth age the hur- 
dles should be cleaned a second time, and after the last 
moulting they should be removed at least every second 
day. 

Where nets are not used in the last ages, the worms are 
changed by laying over them the small branches of the 
mulberry. 

Recently branch-feeding, as it is termed, has been intro- 
duced with some success, and with great economy of time ; 
in the last ages of the worms care should be taken to lay 
the branches as evenly as possible, especially where it is 
designed to use the twine hurdles, otherwise it will be diffi- 
cult for the worms to ascend through the netting. 

When the worms are about to spin they present some- 
thing of a yellowish appearance ; they refuse to eat, and 
wander about in pursuit of a hiding-place, and throw out 
fibres of silk upon the leaves. The hurdles should now be 
thoroughly cleaned for the last time, and something pre-- 



295 

pared for them to form their cocoons in. Various plans 
have been proposed for this purpose. The lath frames, 
before described, I prefer. They are used by resting the 
back edge of the frame upon the hurdle, where the two 
meet in the double range, and raising the front edge up to 
the underside of the hurdle above, which is held to its 
place by two small wire hooks attached to the edge of the 
hurdle. 

A covering of paper or cloth should be applied to the 
lath frames. In. using the hurdles and screens I remove 
the screen from under the hurdle, turning the underside 
up, and letting it down directly upon the winding-frame. 
This affords double the room for the worms to wind in. 
Lath frames of this description have advantages that no 
other fixtures for winding possess that I have ever seen 
tried. The frame resting upon the backside of each hur- 
dle renders this side more dark, which places the worms 
instinctively seek when they meet with the ends of the 
laths, and immediately ascend to convenient places for 
the formation of their cocoons. From these frames the 
cocoons are gathered with great facility, and free from litter 
and dirt, and when they are required they are put up with 
great expedition. 

Where branch-feeding has been adopted by some, no other 
accommodation has been provided for the winding of the 
worms than that afforded them by the branches from which 
they have fed. This is decidedly objectionable, as the worms 
are always disposed to rise until their course is obstructed 
above. When this is not the case they wander about for 
hours upon the tops of the branches, and only descend 
after their strength becomes exhausted, and the result is 
the production of a crop of loose, inferior cocoons. Next 
to lath frames, small bunches of straw afford the best 
accommodation for this purpose. Rye straw is preferred. - 
Take a small bunch, about the size of the little finger, and 
with some strong twine tie it firmly about half an inch 
from the butt of the straw ; cut the bunch off about half 
an inch longer than the distance between the hurdles, 



296 

They are thus placed upright with their but-ends down- 
ward, with their tops spreading out, interlacing each other, 
and pressing against the hurdles above. They should be 
thickly set in double rows about sixteen inches apart across 
the hurdles. These may be preserved for a number of 
years. 

After the most of the worms have arisen, the few re- 
maining may be removed to hurdles by themselves. In 
three or four days the cocoons may be gathered. While 
gathering, those designed for eggs should be selected. 
Those of firm and fine texture, with round, hard ends, are 
the best. The smaller cocoons most generally produce the 
male, and those larger and more full at the ends the female 
insect. Each healthy female moth will lay from four to six 
hundred eggs. But it is not always safe to calculate on 
one-half of the cocoons to produce female moths. There- 
fore, it is well to save an extra number to insure a supply 
of eggs. 

The cocoons intended for eggs should be stripped of 
their floss or loose tow, which consists of irregular fibres, 
by which the worm attaches its work to whatever place it 
is about to form its cocoon. These should be placed on 
hurdles, in a thin layer, and in about two weeks the moths 
will come out ; always in the forepart of the day, and 
generally before the sun is two hours high. If laid upon a 
net hurdle (which is best) they will immediately fall 
through the meshes and remain suspended on the under 
side, where they are not liable to become entangled in the 
cocoons. As soon as the male finds the female they 
become united. They should be taken carefully by the 
wings, in pairs, and placed upon sheets of paper, to remain 
until near night, when the female will be anxious to lay 
her eggs. Then take each gently by the wings, and sepa- 
rate them, placing the females at regular distances — about 
two inches from each other — upon sheets of paper or fine 
cotton or linen cloth ; these should hang over a line, or be 
tacked to the side of the house. In two or three nights 
the moths will complete their laying, when they should be 



297 

removed from the papers or cloths. Frequently the males 
appear first in the greatest numbers, some of which should 
be reserved each day in case there should afterward be an 
excess of females. They should be shut out from the light, 
otherwise they are liable to injure themselves by a constant 
fluttering of their wings. The female is largest, and sel- 
dom moves or flutters. 

Killing the chrysalides. — After the cocoons have been 
gathered, those that are intended for sale or for future 
reeling should be submitted to some process by which the 
moths will be killed, otherwise they will perforate and 
spoil the cocoons. This is done by various methods. The 
most simple and convenient is to spread them thinly on 
boards, and expose them to the direct rays of the sun. In 
a hot day many of them will be killed in a few hours ; but 
they must be stirred occasionally, or some will be liable to 
escape the heat, and afterward come out. At Economy, 
they place them in an air-tight box containing about ten 
bushels (the box should always be full, or if not, a partition 
is fitted down to the cocoon), sprinkling evenly through 
the whole, beginning at the bottom, about three ounces of 
camphor slightly moistened with alcohol, and finely pulver- 
ized. The box is then closed, and the seams of the top 
covered by pasting strips of paper over them. They 
remain in this way about three or four days. They are 
then spread out thinly in an upper loft to cure, where they 
should be occasionally stirred. It will require some weeks 
to thoroughly cure them. Before camphoring, the dead 
and bad cocoons must be taken out, otherwise they will 
spoil the good ones. 

When it is convenient, it is best to reel as many of the 
cocoons as possible immediately after they are gathered, as 
they reel much more freely before they are exposed to the 
sun or dried. 

Succession of crops. — Preservation of eggs. — Repeated at- 
tempts have been made to feed a succession of crops of 
worms throughout the entire season from the same stock 
of eggs. In most instances success has failed to attend 



298 

these efforts. When proper means are employed, and due 
care observed, the eggs may be preserved, and worms suc- 
cessfully raised until the feed is destroyed by the frost. In 
many years experience I have never failed in this respect. 

In the spring of 1840 I communicated to Miss Rapp, of 
Economy, my method of preserving eggs, which she imme- 
diately adopted, and has pursued it until the present time 
with perfect success, feeding from eighteen to twenty-five 
crops each year. The following is an extract of a letter 
from the postmaster at Economy, dated January 19, 1843 : 

"Between May and September we raised near two mill- 
ions of worms, in eighteen sets, of near equal numbers, 
about a week apart, producing three hundred and seventy- 
one bushels of cocoons. The last crop hatched the 9th of 
September, and spun the 10th of October. We found no 
difference in the health of the different sets. We are of 
the opinion that the late keeping of the eggs does not 
bring disease on the worms if they are kept right, and 
gradually brought forward as they ought to be." 

It may be remarked that the qualities of the mulberry 
leaf are such in the latter part of the season that as hea\w 
cocoons will not be produced, as in the first. A bushel of 
the first crop raised at Economy, in the season referred to, 
produced twenty-three and a quarter ounces of reeled silk, 
and the last crop, wound in October, but nineteen ounces. 
About one month of the best part of that season of feed- 
ing was lost by the severe frost that occurred on the 5th of 
May, which entirely killed the young leaves, and must 
have materially injured the crop of the season. 

My method of preserving eggs is to place them in the 
ice-house in February, or early in March, or sooner if 
the weather is warm. For this purpose a box or square 
trunk is made, extending from within one foot of the bot- 
tom of the ice to the top. This may be made in joints, so 
that as the ice settles the upper joints may be removed. 
The eggs should be placed in a tin box, and this enclosed 
in a wood one, and suspended in the trunk near the ice. 
The communication of warm air should be cut off by fill- 



299 

ing the opening with a bundle of straw or hay. The eggs 
should be aired for a few minutes as often as once in one 
or two weeks, always choosing a cool, dry morning; when 
selections for succeeding crops may be made these should 
be placed in another box, and gradually raised in the trunk 
for several days, avoiding a too sudden transition from the. 
ice to the temperature of the hatching-room. 

The ice-house at Economy is connected with the cellar, 
the bottom of the former being eighteen inches below that 
of the latter. A long wooden box, extending into the ice- 
house, level with the bottom of the cellar floor, contains all 
the smaller boxes of eggs. The door of the box opening 
in the cellar is kept well closed to prevent the admission 
of warm air. They employ another ice-house, sunk deep 
in the cellar, with shelves gradually rising from the ice up 
to the top of the ground, upon which the eggs of succeed- 
ing crops are placed, and raised one shelf higher every 
day until they are taken into the hatching-room. The past 
season they have hatched about jive ounces of eggs, or one 
hundred thousand worms every four days. 

Diseases of the silk-worm. — The silk-worm, like every other 
animal or insect, is liable to disease, and premature death. 
European writers have enumerated and described six par- 
ticular diseases to which it is subject. But in our more 
congenial climate nothing is wanting to insure a healthy 
stock of silk-worms, and a profitable return from their 
labors, but to give them sufficient room, a regular and full 
supply of suitable food, a strict regard to cleanliness, and a 
proper ventilation of their apartments. 

In excessively hot, damp, or sultry weather, in the last 
age, tha disease known as the yellows sometimes occurs. 
Where open feeding is adopted, some fine air-slaked lime 
may be sifted on the worms once or twice a day before feed- 
ing, and the diseased and dead worms picked out and 
thrown away. In a regular cocoonery, properly ventilated 
and supplied with an air-furnace, dry air should be made 
to circulate freely. But if the temperature is above 80° or 
85° the ventilating apparatus should be constantly employed 



300 

until a change of weather occurs, or the disease disappears. 

A feeding-house should be so arranged as to cut off all 
communication of rats and mice from the worms and the 
cocoons. 

Reeling. — We have now arrived at another branch of the 
silk business, which more properly comes under the head 
of manufacturing. Every farmer who engages in the silk 
culture, in order to avail himself of an additional profit 
should provide his family with a suitable reel, by the use 
of which, after a little experience, he will be enable to offer 
his silk in market in a form that will greatly enhance its 
value, and much reduce the trouble and expense of trans- 
portation. Reels can now be procured in almost any of 
the principal cities at a small cost, or they can be made by 
any ingenious farmer or carpenter. The reel now uni- 
formly used is that known as the Piedmontese. 

All attempts to improve this reel in its general principles, 
I believe, have failed. At Economy, however, they have 
made an addition which may be found useful. It consists 
of two pairs of whirls, made of wire, in the form of an 
aspel to a reel, about four inches long, and two and a half 
inches across from arm to arm, making the circumference 
about six inches. These whirls are set in an iron frame, 
and run each upon two points or centres. Each pair is 
equidistant, on a direct line, about eight inches apart, 
between the first guides and those on the traverse bar, 
instead of making the usual number of turns around each 
thread as they pass between the guides on the reel. With 
this arrangement each thread is taken from the basin and 
passed through the first guides, then carried over and 
around the two whirls, and where they pass each other on 
the top the turns are made necessary to give firmness to 
the thread, then passing directly through the guides in the 
traverse bar to the arms of the reel, making each thread in 
reeling independent of the other. This enables the reeler, 
when a remnant of cocoons are to be finished on leaving 
the work, to unite both threads into one, retaining the 
necessary size, whereas both would be too fine if continued 
on the reel in the ordinary manner. 



301 

Directions for reeling. — In family establishments a com- 
mon clay or iron furnace should be procured, to which 
should be fitted a sheet-iron top about twelve inches high, 
with a door on one side, and a small pipe on the opposite 
side to convey off the smoke. This top should retain the 
same bevel or flare as the furnace, so as to be about twenty 
inches in diameter at the top. The pan should be twenty 
inches square, and six inches deep, divided into four apart- 
ments, two of which should be one inch larger one way 
than the others. They should all communicate with each 
other at the bottom. In large filatures a small steam- 
engine to propel the reels, etc., and to heat the water for 
reeling would be necessary. 

Before the operation of reeling is commenced the co- 
coons must be stripped of their floss, and assorted into 
three separate parcels, according to quality or of different 
degrees of firmness. The double cocoons, or those formed 
by two or more worms spinning together, the fibres cross- 
ing each other, and rendering them difficult to reel, 
should be laid aside to be manufactured in a different 
manner. 

After the cocoons have been assorted as above directed, 
the operation of reeling may be commenced. The basin 
should be nearly filled with the softest water, and kept at a 
proper heat by burning charcoal, or some other convenient 
method of keeping up a regular heat. The precise tempera- 
ture cannot be ascertained until the reeling is commenced, 
owing to the different qualities of the cocoons. Those of 
the best quality will require a greater degree of 'heat than 
those of a more loose and open texture ; hence the import- 
ance of assisting them. Cocoons also require less heat, 
and reel much better when done before the chrysalides are 
killed and the cocoons become dried. 

The heat of the water may be raised to near the boiling 
point (it should never be allowed to boil), when two or three 
handfuls of cocoons may be thrown into one of the large 
apartments of the basin, which must be gently pressed 
under water for a few minutes with a little brush made of 



302 

broom-corn, with the ends shortened. The heat of the water 
will soon soften the gnm. of the silk, and thereby loosen the 
ends of the filaments ; the reeler should then gently stir 
the cocoons with the brush until the loose fibres adhere to 
it ; they are then separated from the brush, holding the 
filaments in the left hand, while the cocoons are carefully 
combed down between the fingers of the right hand as 
they are raised out of the water. This is continued until 
the floss or false ends are all drawn off", and the fine silk 
begins to appear ; the fibres are then broken oflf", and laid 
over the edge of the basin. The floss is then cleared from 
the brush, and laid aside as refuse silk, and the operation 
continued until most of the ends are thus collected. 

If the silk is designed for sewings, about twenty-five 
fibres should compose a thread ; if intended for other fab- 
rics, from eie;ht to fifteen should be reeled tos-ether. The 
finest silks should always be reeled from the best cocoons. 
The cocoons composing the threads are taken up in a small 
tin skimmer made for the purpose, and passed from the 
large apartment of the basin to those directly under 
the guides. As the ends become broken they are passed 
back into the spare apartment, where they are again col- 
lected to be returned to the reel. The requisite number 
of fibres thus collected for two threads are passed each 
through the lower guides. They are then wound around 
each other two or three times, and each carried through 
the two guides in the traverse bar, and then attached to 
the arms of the reel. The turning should now be com- 
menced with a slow and steady motion until the threads 
run freely. While the reel is turning, the person attending 
the cocoons must continually be adding fresh ends as they 
may be required, not waiting until the number she began 
with is reduced, because the internal fibres are much finer 
than those composing the external layers. In adding new 
ends the reeler must attach them, by gently pressing them 
with a little turn between the thumb and finger, to the 
threads as they are running. As the silk is reeled off the 
chrysalides should be taken out of the basin, otherwise 



303 

they obscure and thicken the water, and injure the color 
and lustre of the silk. When the water becomes dis- 
colored it should always be changed. 

If in reeling the silk leaves the cocoon in burrs or 
bunches, it is evident the water is too hot ; or when the 
ends cannot be easily collected with the brush, or when 
found not to run freely, the water is too cold. 

A pail of cold water should always be at hand, to be 
added to the basin as it may be required. When the 
cocoons yield their fibres freely, the reel may be turned 
with a quicker motion. The quicker the motion the 
smoother and better will be the silk. When from four to 
six ounces have been reeled, the aspel may be taken oft' that 
the silk may dry. The end should be fastened so as to be 
readily found. Squeeze the silk together, and loosen it 
upon the bars, then, on the opposite side tie it with a band 
of refuse silk or yarn, then slide it off the reel; double, 
and again tie it near each extremity. 

The quality of the silk depends much upon the art and 
skilful management of the reeler. All that is required to 
render one perfect in the art of reeling is a. little -practice, 
accompanied at the beginning with a degree of imtience, 
and the exercise of judgment in keeping up the proper tem- 
perature of water, and the threads of a uniform size. 

Manufacture of perforated cocoons. — The perforated and 
double cocoons can be manufactured into various fabrics, 
such as stockings, gloves, under-shirts, and the like. Be- 
fore the cocoons can be spun they must be put into a clean 
bag made of some open cloth, and placed in a pot or ket- 
tle, and covered with soft water, with soap (hard or soft) 
added sufficient to make a strong suds, and boiled for about 
three or four hours. If they are required to be very nice 
and white, the water may be changed and a small quantity 
more of soap added, and again boiled for a few minutes. 
After they are boiled they may be hung up and drained ; 
the}^ should then be rinsed while in the bag, in fair water, 
and hung out to dry, without disturbing them in the bag. 
When completely dry they may be spun on the common 



, 304 

flax-wheel by first taking the cocoon in the fingers and 
slightly loosening the fibres that become flattened down 
by boiling, and then spinning off from the pierced end. 
The silk will run entirely off, leaving the shell bare. The 
double cocoons may be spun in the same manner, but 
should be boiled separately. 

A species of edible mulberry is planted pretty generally 
for feeding hogs. I am informed that it continues to bear 
during several months, from April to July or August, and 
is considered highly advantageous. This is called the Ever- 
bearing mulberry. The following account I obtain from the 
Southern Field and Fireside : 

Ever-bearing Mulberries. — There are now three varieties of 
ever-bearing mulberries presented to us for selection or for 
general adoption. 

Downing's Ever-bearing is a seedling of the Multicaulis, 
which it resembles in wood and foliage. It is therefore 
necessarily somewhat tender, and not suited to a more 
northern climate. Mr. D. has given us an ample descrip- 
tion of its fruit in his Fruit Trees of America, and merits 
much credit for originating so excellent a fruit. 

Herbemont' s or Hicks' Ever-bearing is a much hardier varie- 
ty, and superior to the preceding in size and quality of its 
fruit, which is produced during a considerably larger period 
of time. It is a prodigious bearer; the berries are usually 
nearly two inches in length, sweet and delicious. At the 
South the fruit continues to ripen from the 25th of April 
until the 15th of August, and here at the JSTorth the crop 
extends to a late period in the autumn. This tree has dark 
red wood, and indented leaves, very distinct from Down- 
ing's. 

White Ever-bearing, sweet berries, partakes considerably 
of the character of the white Italian. It grows vigorously, 
and yields immense quantities of fruit. 

The first two varieties have been in fruit with us this 
season. Of Downing's, from a young tree, we gathered but 
a few berries, of which we preferred the more vinous and 
decided flavor to that of the Hicks. The latter does not 



305 

materially vary in quality from the common wild species, of 
which it is a variety, differing in its extended period of bear- 
ing. Our young tree, of about twice the age of Downing's, 
began to ripen the first of May, and has just stopped fruit- 
ing for the season. The fruit is worth growing on planta- 
tions for poultry and swine, as it is very prolific. A 
mulberry orchard of this kind would furnish the latter a 
full supply of food for about three months. It is to be 
found at all nurseries, and we venture to commend it to our 
agricultural friends as a valuable farm crop for the. cheap 
rearing of good hogs. 

The juice of the mulberry is used to give a dark tinge to 
confections. When properly fermented the fruit yields a 
pleasant vinous liquor, mulberry wine, and is mixed with 
apple juice to form mulberry cider. The bark of the root 
is a powerful cathartic. Farmer's Encyc. 

Morus rubra, L. Mulberry. Grows along rivers and 
swamps ; vicinity of Charleston ; Richland, Prof. Gibbes ;„ 
Florida. Fl. March. 

U. S. Disp. 463. The fruit is laxative and cooling, and a 
grateful drink and syrups are made from it, adapted to fe- 
brile cases. The bark of the mulberry can be converted 
into cordage, ropes, and brown paper. The inner bark of 
the root of the black mulberry, in doses of from half to a 
whole teaspoonful of the powder, is said to act as an. excel- 
lent purgative. A syrup of the ripe fruit is an excellent 
laxative for children. A tincture of the inner bark of the 
root is considered a valuable laxative bitter. 

Tartaric acid is obtained from the mulberry, the grape, 
currant, etc.* It is almost always found in vegetables com- 
bined with potassa, with which it forms a nearly insoluble 
salt; it is the union which occasions it to be so easily pre- 
cipitated from the liquors in which it is contained, espe- 
cially when they ferment. The coats of tartar which are 
found deposited upon the sides of casks are a combination 
of tartaric acid, potassa, and extracted matter (Chaptal). 
20 



306 

See Pereira, and treatises on chemistry for mode of forma- 
tion of Cream of tartar. 

Citric acid, also, is found in the skins of the red currant, 
of wild plums, cherries, strawberries, and raspberries. In 
these it is found united with malic acid. The orange and 
lemon, of course, furnish it in the largest proportion. 

The process adopted by Scheele for obtaining and crys- 
tallizing citric acid is to saturate the juice with lime, the 
insoluble salt, thus formed, being decomposed by sulphuric 
acid diluted with water. The liquor is then evaporated, 
and the acid obtained in a crystalline form. See Chaptal, 
Ure, works on chemistry and mat. medica, Pereira, U. S. 
Dispensatory, etc. 

The production of citric acids in the warmer portions of 
the Southern Confederacy is quite practicable, as the lemon 
grows abundantly. 

Citric acid supplies the place of lemon juice for domestic 
purposes, and in the arts, by its being freed from mucilage, 
.which renders the juice liable to undergo speedy change, 
and from a diminution of its bulk by concentration (Chap- 
tal). 

To give a flavor to food, citric acid is preferable to 
vinegar, on account of the aromatic principle it contains. 
Dissolved in water, it forms a very wholesome drink ; 
" about thirty grains of the acid, dissolved in a pint of 
water, and sweetened with sugar, composes an excellent 
lemonade." From its refreshing and antiputrescent proper- 
ties, it is invaluable during the hot months, and especially 
as an article for sea-stores of vessels in warm latitudes 
(Chaptal); and particularly for the prevention of scurvy. 
"Citric acid is also particularly useful in the arts;" like ox- 
alic acid, "it is employed in forming reserves in printed 
goods, and in removing spots of ink or rust." Chaptal. 
See, also, acetic acid, vinegar, etc. See Chaptal, Ure, and 
treatises on chemistry, and orange, " Citrus" in this vol- 
ume. 

Ell., in his Sketches of the Botany of S. C, says the 
wood is preferred, in the building of boats, to that of any 



307 

other tree, except the red cedar (Juniperus Virginiana). The 
other woods suitable for ship-building found with us are, the 
live oak for the timbers and knees, and the cypress, cedar, 
willow, and several species of pine for the timbers as well 
as the spars — being preferred on account of their strength, 
lightness, or peculiarity of growth. 

Wilson says of this tree th'at the wood is fine grained, 
compact, strong, and solid, and by many persons is esteemed 
fully equal to the locust. It is employed in naval architec- 
ture at Philadelphia and Baltimore, for the upper and lower 
parts of the frame, for knees and floor timbers, and for tree- 
nails; it is hardly inferior to the locust, but is scarce in the 
ship-yards. For posts it is considered nearly as lasting as 
the locust, but it grows more slowly, and requires a richer 
soil. From experiments made in France it was ascertained 
that the leaves were not as good for the silk-worm as those 
of the M. alba. A much less quantity was obtained than 
from worms fed on the white mulberry, and there was a 
greater mortality. Rural Cyc. See, also, my article in 
August number, 1861, of DeBow's Review. 

Broussonetia, papyri/era, the paper mulberry of our yards, 
belongs to this family (Chapman). Fustic is also got from 
the same family. As the paper mulberry is planted in this 
country, I will insert the account given by Wilson of its 
uses. The islanders of the Pacific make a kind of clothing 
from this tree, in the following manner: twigs of about 
an inch in diameter are cut and deprived of their bark, 
which is divided into strips, and left to macerate for some 
time in running water; after the epidermis has been scraped 
off, and while yet moist, the strips are laid out upon a plank 
in such a manner that they touch at their edges, and two or 
three layers of the same are placed upon them, taking care 
to preserve an equal thickness throughout. At the end of 
twenty-four hours the whole mass is adherent, when it is 
removed to a large flat and perfectly smooth table,' and is 
beaten with little wooden clubs till it has attained the re- 
quisite thickness. It is easily torn, and requires to be 



308 

washed and beaten many times before it acquires its full 
suppleness and whiteness. The paper which is used in Ja- 
pan, and many other countries in the East Indies, is made 
from this plant; for this purpose the annual shoots are cut 
oft' after the fall of the leaves, tied in bundles, and boiled 
in water mixed with ashes; after which the bark is stripped 
off by. longitudinal incisions, and deprived of the brown 
epidermis. The bark of the more tender shoots furnishes 
a very white paper for writing. Hair pencils must be used 
in writing on this paper. Silk-worms eat the leaves of this 
tree also. Rural Cyc. 

Ficus carica. Fig. Ex. Cult. Flourishes in South Caro- 
lina. 

Shec. Flora Carol. The fruit is well known; the juice 
has been substituted for sympathetic ink, as the characters 
written with it are not visible till exposed to the sun. The 
decoction />f the green branches and leaves imparts a deep 
gold color, of a brown shade, to cloth prepared with a so- 
lution of bismuth. We have heard it stated as a curious 
fact, that there is but one male fig in America, which grows 
in Louisiana! Some botanists describe the plant as con- 
taining both stamens and pistils within the fruit or pericarp. 

Figs are excellent pabulum for vinegar. Vinegar should 
be constantly replenished with over-ripened figs. 

The following easy process of making white vinegar from 
honey may not be amiss, even in a work of this kind, which 
professes to teach all economical modes of becoming inde- 
pendent of foreign supplies. It is obtained from Wilson's 
Rural Cyc. The materials can be easily obtained. Four 
very good kinds of household vinegar, perfectly suitable for 
pickling, and for other domestic purposes, may easily be 
made from respectively — honey, brown sugar, British wines, 
and sour ale. First, as to honey or white vinegar: dissolve 
three-quarters of a pound of honey in rain-water, and put 
it into a seven-gallon cask, with a quart of malt spirit; 
shake it well, then fill up the cask with rain-water; shake 
it well, and keep near the kitchen fire, where it must 



• 809 

stand without being moved or shaken. Let it remain five 
months in this place, and the vinegar will be made. Draw 
it oft* by piercing the lower part ot the cask, and let it run 
till the concretion which is formed at the top, and is termed 
"mother of vinegar," begins to appear. You ma}' then 
begin the process again without cleaning the cask. Prop- 
erly toasted bread, saturated with yeast, would take the 
place of the malt spirit referred to above. See article 
"Vinegar" in Rural Cyc. for other methods. 

The fruit is well known. Even this, when properly pre- 
pared for market in the warmer portion of the states of our 
Confederacy, constitutes an article both for export and for 
home consumption. Many persons believe implicitly in the 
power of the atmosphere about this tree to render meat ten- 
der. Our "Southern matrons" now put up this fruit in a 
most palatable shape for winter use, dried in the sun, after 
being boiled in a syrup. The celestial fig is the best for 
this purpose. Molasses can also be made from the fig and 
watermelon. Mr. C. H. Owen, of Charleston, sends a spec- 
imen to the Charleston Courier, made from the white fig. 
One peck yielded three pints. From a bushel he obtained 
seven quarts, according to the following directions: 

"Wash the figs, then put them in a porcelain vessel; 
cover with pure water, boil carefully one hour. When cool, 
strain through a muslin cloth; then boil again until it is 
boiled down to a proper consistency, which you can easily 
tell by dipping up a spoonful and cooling. The above is all 
the preparation necessary. In boiling for the last time, 
take the scum off." 

"F. J. S." a correspondent of the Charleston Mercury, 
writes as follows on " our resources :" 

"You spoke, in the article above alluded to, of different 
coloring substances. The juice of the skin of our blue jig 
is abundant, and of a deep, brilliant red color; a half-page 
written with it a few days since had the appearance of hav- 
ing been done with red ink. 

The pomegranate, which grows in great abundance in 
Southern Georgia, furnishes, in the rind of the fruit, a jet- 



310 

black fluid, which writes very smoothly, and retains its jetty 
hue. The metallic pen used may darken its color." 

I have seen blue cakes resembling indigo, intended for 
dyeing, and marked fig blue — probably extracted from the 
skins of the fig. The fig makes excellent pipe-stems. Since 
the war the stems of the fig and titi (Cliftonia) have formed 
favorite materials for pipe-stems, perforated with a heated 
wire. 

Ulmaceje. ( The Elm Tribe.) 

Ulmus fulva. Slippery elm. I have observed it in Fair- 
field district. It is sometimes found lower down. 

Am. Herbal, 139; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. and Therap. 
228; U. S. Disp. 727; Dr. McDowell's Med. Exam. 244; 
West. Jour. Med. and Phys. Sc; Michaux, Fl. Americana, 
i, 172; and K Am. Sylva, iii, 89; Griffith, Med. Bot. 563. 
A decoction of the bark was much used by the Indians in 
the cure of leprosy. It is an excellent demulcent employed 
as an emollient application, and internally is especially re- 
commended in suppression of urine, inflammation of the 
bladder, dysentery, and diarrhoea. A decoction made of 
this, combined with the root of the sassafras, and guaiac, is 
esteemed as a valuable drink to increase cutaneous transpi- 
ration, and to improve the tone of the digestive organs. 
Griffith considers it a good substitute for acacia, and he has 
witnessed its beneficial effects, externally applied, in obsti- 
nate cases of herpetic and syphilitic eruptions; he is in- 
clined to ascribe higher curative powers to it than are 
generally admitted. It forms a good vehicle for enemata, 
where a mucilaginous fluid is required. The bark, cut in 
the form of a bougie, has been used in dilating sinuses and 
contractions of the urethra. The substance exuding from 
the bark is called ulmin. It should be largely collected for 
the use of our soldiers — suitable wherever a highly mucil- 
aginous substance is required. See " Sesamum." This' is 
the best wood we have for blocks, and is excellent for rails, 
as it splits easily, and is of long duration. It is more dura- 
ble than the white elm. 



311 

TJlmus Americana, Mx. White elm. Vicinity of Charles- 
ton. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 799; Coxe, Am. 
Disp. 611; Phil. Med. Mus. 11. The U. fuloa probably 
referred to. 

The wood of the white elm, like that of the common 
European elm, is of a dark brown; and cut transversely, or 
obliquely to the longitudinal fibres, it exhibits the same nu- 
merous and fine undulations, but it splits more easily, and 
has less compactness. It is, however, used at the North for 
the naves of coach-wheels, because it is difficult to procure 
the black gum. In Maine it is used for the keels of vessels. 
Its bark is said to be easily detached during eight months 
of the year; soaked in water, and suppled by pounding, it is 
used in the Northern states for the bottoms of common 
chairs. Michaux. 

Ulmus alata, Mx. "Wahoo. Rich soils; Florida; South 
and North Carolina. 

The wood is fine grained, more compact, heavier, and 
stronger than that of the American white elm. It is em- 
ployed for coach-wheels, and is even preferred to the black 
gum, as being more hard and tough. Michaux. Farmer's 
Encyc. 

From the Montgomery Advertiser (1862) I obtain the 
following: 

" Wahoo rope.- — AVe have seen a specimen of rope made of 
wahoo bark, by Mr. T. J. Howard, of this county. Mr. 
Howard has used the wahoo rope with great success in 
bagging cotton on Col. Baldwin's place, and we can safely 
recommend his contrivance to the attention of planters. 
The common impression is that the bark is not in good 
condition except in the spring of the year. This is a mis- 
take. It can be used to great advantage at this season in 
bagging cotton. The manner of using the rope made of 
wahoo bark is altogether similar to that which has been in 
ordinary use." 



312 

Celtis occidentalism L. Sugar-berry. A noble tree, grow- 
ing along the margin of streams, and in damp lands; col- 
lected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach ; Newbern. 
Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 170; Fl. Med. i, 90; 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 563. It yields a gum resembling that of 
the cherry tree; the root and leaves are somewhat aromatic, 
and were used by the Indians in syphilis. The berries have 
a sweet and pleasant taste. 

The wood of this tree resembles closely, says Wilson, 
that of the C. australis. The timber of the latter is exceed- 
ingly durable, and was formerly employed by British coach- 
makers for making the frames of their vehicles; and by the 
Italian musical-instrument-makers for making flutes and 
pipes. Rural Cyc. 

MYRiCACEiE. {The Gale Tribe.) 

Aromatic and sometimes astringent. 

Myrica cerifera, L. Wax myrtle. Grows abundantly in 
the swamps of the lower country; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 278; Matson's Veg. Pract. 198; 
U. S. Disp. 200; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. 786; Big. Am. - 
Med. Bot. iii, 32; Am. Journal Med. Sci. ii, 313; Bergii, 
Mat. Med. ii, 541 ; Nicholson's Journal iv, 187; Kalm's Trav- 
els, i, 129; Dana in Silliman's Journal 1; Thachal's U. S. 
Disp. 288; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 531; De 
Cand. Essai, 772; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 180. The root is a 
powerful astringent, and a decoction is employed in diar- 
rhoea, dysentery, hemorrhage from the uterus, in dropsies 
which succeed fevers, and as a gargle in sore throat. It is 
also given to some extent by the vegetable practitioners. 
Griffith states (Med. Bot, 583) that the bark of the root is 
also stimulant and acrid, and in doses of a drachm, causes a 
sensation of heat in the stomach, followed by vomiting and 
sometimes diuresis. The powder is an active errhine, and 
the leaves have some celebrity in domestic practice, as being 
antispasmodic, antiscorbutic, and astringent. Dr. Dana 
found the powdered root powerfully sternutatory. Bigelow 



313 

says that the bark and leaves contain gallic acid, tannin, 
resin, and a small quantity of mucilage. The berries afford 
a large amount of wax, which rises to the surface when 
•the}^ are boiled, not remarkable for adhesiveness or unctu- 
osity. Dr. Bostock considers it a fixed, vegetable oil, render- 
ed concrete by oxygen ; and by the experiments of Dr. Dana, 
it constitutes one-third of the whole berry. It is employed 
for candles, emitting a fragrant odor, and it also forms the 
basis of a fine soap. It appears to possess some astringent 
and slightly narcotic properties, and has been administered 
by Dr. Fahnestock in an epidemic of typhoid dysentery. 
He gave it in doses of 1 to 2 drachms, and he is of opinion 
that its active principle resides in the green coloring mat- 
ter. Am. Journal Med. Sci. ii, 313. Rafinesque states that 
a tincture of the berries, with heracleum, is beneficial in 
flatulent colic. De Cancl., Essay upon the Louisiana Myrtle 
(in French); see Ann. de Chim. xliv, 141, and xlvi, 77; C. 
L. Cadet, Mem. on the Myrtle of Louisiana and Pennsyl- 
vania, Paris; Thiebault de Bernaud, Mem. sur le cirier, ou 
arbre a cire, Paris, 1810. See my own experiments upon 
the applicability of the leaves as a substitute for oak bark, 
under " Liquidambar," sweet-gum. 

" The northern nations formerly employed this plant in 
place of hops, and it is still in use for that purpose in some 
of the western isles ; unless it is boiled a long time it is 
reported to occasion the headache." ^Nicholson also says, 
in his Encyclopaedia, of the M. cerifera, that "it is used in 
tanning calf-skins ; gathered in autumn, it will dye wool 
yellow, for which purpose it is used both in Sweden and in 
Wales; the Welsh lay branches of it upon and under their 
beds to keep off fleas and moths." Boussingault, in his 
Rural Chemistry applied to Agriculture, 1859, says of the 
wax-bearing myrtle : " The fruit yields as much as twenty- 
five per cent, of wax, and a single shrub will yield from 
twenty-four to thirty pounds of berries. The crude wax is 
green and brittle, and to be made into candles requires the 
addition of a certain quantity of grease." Proust discov- 
ered that vegetable wax formed part of the green fecula of 



314 

many plants. In the common cabbage it occurs in large 
quantity. Oleine is said to predominate in the fluid vege- 
table oils. See, on this subject, Styllingia sebifera. The 
berries of the Pride of India (Melia) also yield an oil' 
when dried and boiled. Wax has also been collected by 
scraping the stalk of the sugar-cane. See "Sorghum, " in 
this volume. 

I have repeatedly seen the wax produced from the myrtle 
in large amounts. The berries are boiled, and the wax 
rises on the surface of the water. The boiling should be 
continued a long time, and the berries stirred and bruised. 
The wax may be remelted to purify it. Four pounds of 
this will make forty pounds of soap. The candles made of 
it are dark green in color. Candles and soap were made in 
considerable amounts by the ladies in the low country of 
South Carolina during the autumn of 1861 — fifteen to 
twenty dozen candles in one household. 

Wilson, in his Rural Cyc, quotes Hamilton, who says 
that the wax, after being skimmed off the water, should be 
strained through a coarse cloth to free it from foreign 
matter. When no more wax rises, the berries are removed 
with a skimmer and a fresh supply put into the same water, 
taking care to add boiling water to supply the place of 
that evaporated during the process. The wax should be 
dried, and melted again to free it from impurity. See 
Charles Louis Cader's Memoir, inserted in the Annales de 
Chimie, who said that the myrtle had been successfully 
cultivated near Berlin, and Hamilton recommends its cul- 
tivation in England for its wax-producing properties. 
Abundant in the Confederate States; only a condition of 
war and blockade has induced us to use it. 

"J. B." communicates the following to the Charleston 
Courier, from a writer under the signature of "Economy," 
from St. Paul's parish, S. C. It is also printed in F. S. 
Holmes' Southern Farmer, p. 236 : 

Large amount of Soap produced from Myrtle Wax. — I find 
the following recipe far making soap from myrtle wax 
(Myrica cerifera) in an old number of the Southern Agricul- 



315 

turist. As one of the complaints of soap-makers is the 
difficulty and expense of obtaining the grease, it will be 
well for us to avail ourselves of a production of nature, 
found abundantly in our lower country. The fruit is now 
matured, and may be had in abundance for the picking. I 
saw, this day, very good candles made of myrtle wax. I 
trust our planters, residing in the vicinity of the myrtle, 
will profit by these advantages before the season for picking 
lias passed : 

"To three bushels and a half of common wood ashes 
add half a bushel of unslaked lime. This being well 
mixed together, put into a cask capable of containing sixty 
gallons, and till up with water. In forty-eight hours the • 
lye will be strong enough to float an egg. Then draw off, 
and put from six to eight gallons of it into a copper 
kettle capable of containing twenty-five gallons. To this 
add only four pounds of myrtle wax. Keep constantly 
boiling for six hours. For the first three or four hours 
•pour in occasionally a supply of strong lye, the whole 
frequently well stirred with a ladle. After six hours 
boiling, throw two quarts of common large grain salt into 
the kettle; leave one hour more to simmer over a slow 
fire. The liquor must be placed in tubs to cool for twenty- 
four hours. Take out the soap, wipe it clean ; put it to 
dry. 

"The produce of this soap when it was weighed the 
next day was found to be forty-nine pounds of good, solid 
soap, from the materials and by the process above men- 
tioned. At the end of six weeks the soap had only lost a 
few pounds from the evaporation of its watery particles. 

"In many parts of our state the myrtle tree is abundant, 
and from three pecks to a bushel may be gathered from a 
hand per day. "Would it not be worth the while of the 
planters to attend to this matter? I am sure it would save 
them many a dollar." 

A correspondent, " T," of the Charleston Courier writes 
as follows: 

Soap and Candles. — We have been so long dependent on 



316 

our Yankee enemies for supplies of the above named 
articles of universal use that we have forgotten that we 
can make them ourselves. To our shame we admit that 
even on our plantations in the low country and seaboard, 
abounding in materials for making the best candles in the 
world, millions of pounds have been annually permitted to 
mature and decay unused. The low bush myrtle, indigenous 
to our coast from Virginia ad libitum south, the berries of 
1 which are now mature, will afford a supply of wax; that, 
with the addition of one-third tallow, will furnish candles 
sufficient to light every house in the Confederacy for the 
next year, and put a stopper on the exorbitant extortion 
now practised on the people for that article. So, also, on 
every plantation, nay, in almost every kitchen, the monthly 
waste of ashes and grease, with the addition of a little 
lime and salt, and the labor of one person for one day, will 
make soap enough to cleanse every man, woman, and child, 
and their clothing. Now, why should we any longer pay 
thirty cents a pound for soap, and sixty cents for candles? .. 

Since my examination and recommendation of the myrtle 
leaves as a tanuiniferous agent, I see that it has been used 
b} T Mr. J. Commins, of Charleston, in tanning leather. I 
find that the berry is also highly astringent. 

I had observed, also, an unusual amount of astringency 
in the berries of the myrtle. The water in which they are 
boiled, with copperas, is used as a dye. I have seen an 
excellent dark brown with very little copperas. If walnut 
leaves, bark, or the rind of the fruit is added the color is 
very black. I am informed in St. John's, Berkley, S. C, 
that a blue dye is obtained without a mordant, by using 
the same water repeatedly in boiling the berries for the 
extraction of the wax ! This seems an unexpected result. 

Myrica Carolinensis. Grows in dry soils; Richland, Prof. 
Gibbes ; collected in St. John's; Newbern. 

Griffith's Med. Bot. 583. Supposed to possess similar 
properties with the above. It can scarcely be distinguished 
from the others. 



317 



JuglandacEjE. (The Walnut Tribe.) 

Juglans tittered; L. Butternut; oil-nut. Grows in the 
mountains of South Carolina. Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 710; Archives Gen. 3e serie, x, 399, and xi, 
40; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 131. "The inner bark of 
the root affords one of the most mild and efficient laxatives 
we possess." The extract was a favorite remedy in Gener- 
al Marion's camp during the Revolutionary war. It is 
very efficacious in habitual constipation, in doses of ten to 
thirty grains; the first acting as a laxative, the maximum 
purging. Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 115; Mx. N". Am. Sylva, 
160; where it is spoken of as a mild cathartic, operating 
without pain or irritation, and resembling rhubarb in its 
property of evacuating without debilitating the alimentary 
canal. Dr. Rush employed it during the war. Wood says 
it is highly esteemed in dysentery ; Lind. Nat. Syst. 181. 
The rind of the fruit and the skin of the kernel are ex- 
tremely astringent, anthelmintic, and cathartic; the oil 
extracted from the fruit is of a very drying nature. Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 687 (J. cathartica.) He re- 
marks that the inner bark of the root is acrid and caustic, 
and purges, but occasions neither heat nor irritation ; adapt- 
ed to bilious constitutions and to dysentery; often combined 
with calomel. It is given to animals in a disease called 
"yellow water"; Bull, des Sci. Med. Fer. xii, 338. To 
extract the cathartic principle, the bark is boiled in water 
for several hours; remove the extraneous matter, and boil 
down the decoction to the consistence of honey or mo- 
lasses—pills may be made of this. A syrup may also be 
made. The bark is strongest in the early summer. The 
powdered leaves are rubefacient, and act as a substitute 
for cantharides. Coxe, Am. Disp. 365. The bark of the 
branches affords a large quantity of soluble matter, chiefly 
of the extractive kind, water seeming to be a solvent. 
Wetherill found in it fixed oil, resin, saccharine matter, 
lime, potash, a peculiar principle, and tannin. Dr. B. S. 
Barton, in his Collections, 23, 32, thinks it is possessed of 



318 

some anodyne property. Dr. Gray ascertained that four 
trees, eight to ten inches in diameter, produced in one 
day nine quarts of sap, from which was made one pound 
and a quarter of sugar, equal, if not superior to that pro- 
duced from the maple. This plant is alwa} 7 s given in the 
form of extract or decoction. Griffith's Med. Bot. 589 ; 
Thacher's Disp. 245; Rush's Med. Obs. i, 112; Pe. Mat. 
Med. and Therap. ii, 767 ; Lind. Med. Fl. 387. The wood 
of the butternut is used for the sleepers and posts of frame 
houses and barns, for posts, and rail fences, troughs for 
cattle, etc. For corn-shovels and wooden dishes it is pre- 
ferred to the red flowering maples, because it is lighter and 
less liable to split ; consequently, hollow-ware and other 
articles made of it sell at higher prices. In Vermont the 
wood is used for the panels of coaches and chaises, being 
well adapted for this purpose, not only for its lightness, 
but because it is not liable to split. It receives paint in a 
superior manner, its pores being very open, more so than 
poplar and basswood. Mx. Am. Sylva; Farmer's Encyc. 

Juglans nigra, L. Black walnut. Diffused in lower and 
upper country of South Carolina; iSTewbern. Fl. June. 

Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 687; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. vi, 89. The bark is styptic and acrid; the rind of 
the unripe fruit is said to remove ringworms and tetter; 
and the decoction is given with success as a vermifuge. 
"A kind of bread is obtained from the fruit." In a commu- 
nication received from J. Douglass, M. D., of Chester dis- 
trict, South Carolina, his correspondent, Mr. McKeown, 
informs me that a bit of lint, dipped in the oil of the wal- 
nut kernel, and applied to an aching tooth, is an effectual 
palliative; he has employed it for thirty years with great 
satisfaction. 

The following appeared in one of the journals during the 
year 1861 : 

Walnut leaves in the treatment of diseases. — Dr. Negries, 
physician at Angiers, France, haa published a statement of 
his success in the treatment of scrofulous disease in differ- 



319 

ent forms by preparations of walnut leaves. He has tried 
walnut leaves for ten years, and of fifty-six patients, afflicted 
in different forms, thirty-one were completely cured, and 
there were only four who appeared to have obtained no 
advantage. The infusion of the walnut tree leaves is made 
by cutting them and infusing a good pinch between the 
thumb and forefinger in half a pint of boiling water, and 
then sweetening it with sugar. To a grown person, M. 
ISTegries prescribed from two to three teacups full of this 
daily. This medicine is a slightly aromatic bitter ; its effi- 
ciency is nearly uniform in scrofulous disorders, and it is 
stated never to have caused any unpleasant effects. It 
augments the activity of circulation and digestion, and to 
the functions imparts much energy. It is supposed to act 
upon the lymphatic system, as under its influence the 
muscles become Arm, and the skin acquires a ruddier hue. 

Dry leaves may be used throughout the winter, but a 
syrup made of green leaves is more aromatic. A salve 
made of a strong extract of the leaves mixed alone with 
clean lard and a few drops of the oil of bergamot is most 
excellent for sores. A strong decoction of the leaves is 
excellent for washing them. The salutary effects of this 
medicine do not appear on a sudden — no visible effect may 
be noticed for twenty days, but perseverance in it will effect 
a cure. As walnut tree leaves are abundant in America, 
and as the extract of them is not dangerous or unpleasant 
to use, and scrofula not uncommon, a trial of this simple 
medicine should be made. In directing attention to it 
good results may be expected. 

A gray dye may be prepared with young, unripe walnuts. 
The walnuts should be beaten in a mortar, boiled with 
water — the yarn is previously, prepared with lye-water. 
See "Rhus" 

I obtain the following from a journal (1862) : 

To dye wool yam a durable black without copperas. — Place 
in. a kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yarn, 
then a layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till 
the kettle is full ; pour on water till all is covered, and boil 



320 

all day. The next morning pour off the liquor into another 
vessel, and put fresh leaves with the yarn in layers as 
before, and pour the same liquor over it and boil again all 
day. Then hang the yarn in the air a few days, after 
which wash it and it will be a fine black. 

The walnut leaves should be gathered in the autumn just 
as they begin to fall from the trees. 

Both the black and white walnut possess a durable wood, 
and are secure from the annoyance of worms. The stem 
of the black walnut is easily perforated, and like the titi 
(Gliftonia) is much used for pipe-stems among the soldiers 
in camp. The fig is also used for the same purpose. 

At a convention of gunsmiths, held at Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 
29, 1861, some facts were elicited which are interesting in 
this connection. 

Mr. Hodgkins, a gunsmith, stated "that the greatest dif- 
ficulty was to get wood for the stocks ; that wood of one or 
two j'ears was not sufficiently seasoned. It ought to be 
cut twenty years. The bark should be taken off the tree 
at once. Some thought it best to cut the timber in the 
summer, others in the fall or winter." Gen. Wayne read 
the following from the Ordnance Manual : 

" The most suitable season for felling timber is that in 
which vegetation is at rest, which is the case in midwinter 
or midsummer. Recent experiments incline to give the 
preference to the latter season — say the month of July ; 
but the usual practice is to fell trees for timber between the 
first of December and the middle of March." 

"Gen. Wayne, on being inquired of, gave it as his opin- 
ion that there was no artificial process of seasoning wood 
that would answer for making gunstocks. 

" Mr. Esper said that maple timber could be seasoned 
rapidly by being boiled in oil. It prevented its cracking. 
It soon seasoned thoroughly, and would not spring. 

" Mr. Lamb stated that walnut was the best for stocking 
guns, but harder to season. It required a great number ot 
years — say twent} 7 years, or nearly so. Maple was next, and 
persimmon the next. These could be seasoned by artificial 
process." 



321 

The reader will find some information on the felling of 
timber in Wilson's Rural Cyc. I have seen beautiful 
walnut obtained from the roots of old trees which had died. 

The fruit is edible, and pleasant to the taste. The wood 
is very compact and durable, with a black, fine grain, sus- 
ceptible of a high polish, and forming a valuable substitute 
for mahogany, from which, when seasoned and varnished, 
it can scarcely be distinguished. It is much used in South 
Carolina in the manufacture of tables, stair-railings, and 
the inner work of houses. The writer has seen as beautiful 
book-cases, tables, stair-railings, and cabinet-work made 
from the wood prepared on our Southern plantations, when 
well seasoned, as any imported from elsewhere. The roots 
have a peculiarly rich black color, and are useful in making 
gunstocks. 

The trunk of a walnut tree, tapped on the 11th February, 
yielded a sap containing some cane sugar. The saps of the 
sycamore, of the Acer negundo, and of the lilac tree, con- 
tained the same species of sugar; but that of the birch 
tree held in solution some grape sugar. In the sycamore 
and birch tree M. Biot observed an extremely interesting 
fact. He ascertained, on felling these trees, that the greater 
portion of the descending sap was accumulated toward the 
middle of the trunk. That of the birch tree was acid and 
saccharine ; the sap of that portion of the trunk which was 
buried in the ground contained no sugar, but a substance 
possessing the principal characters of gum. {Annates du 
Museum d'Hisloire Naturelle, t. ii.) It was probably an 
eil'ect of the season, for Knight states that he never could 
discover the least trace of saccharine matter during winter 
in the alburnum either of the stem or of the roots of the 
sycamore. Boussingault's Rural Econ. in its relation to 
Chemistry, etc., Law's edition, 1857. 

Walnut leaves soaked in water for some hours, then 
boiled and applied to the skins of horses and other animals, 
will prevent their being bitten or worried by flies. 

In Patent Office Reports, 1855, is a paper on the Persian 
walnut, or Maderia nut (Juglans regia), which appears to be 
21 



322 

well adapted to the climate of the Middle or Southern 
states. It produces an immense amount of oil and cake. 
It is preferred to linseed oil, and gives an excellent light. 
The husk of the walnut is used in dyeing woollen stuffs. 

Carya amara, porcina, alba, etc. Ell. Sk. Hickory. The 
barks are astringent. 

A dye for woollens used on the plantation is made from 
that of most of the species. The fruit of many of the 
hickory trees is pleasant to the taste, particularly the C. 
alba, shell-bark hickory, which is an article of trade. It 
should be spared in clearing land. 

To color yellow. — "Take three-fourths of hickory bark, 
with the outside shaved off, and one-fourth of black oak 
bark done in the same manner; boil them well together in 
a bell metal kettle until the color is deep ; then add alum 
sufficient to make it foam when stirred up, then put the 
yarn in and let it simmer a little while ; take it out and air 
it two or three times, having a pole over the kettle to hang 
it on, so that it may drain in the kettle; when dry rinse it 
in cold water." Thornton's Southern Gardener, p. 182. 
The writer has seen negro clothes and other stuffs dyed on 
the plantations with either hickory or oak barks, either 
alum or commercial copperas being used. The crab-apple 
dyes a canary color. The hickory bark, with copperas, dyes 
yarns an olive color — with alum, a green — the yarns must 
be put in hot. The wood of the hickory yields a very fine 
lye when reduced to ashes, and I will include much that is 
said of soap under this genus. The wood is also valuable 
for many purposes in the mechanical arts on account of its 
weight, pliability, toughness, and durability. In Pennsyl- 
vania an oil is extracted from the nuts of the C. amara, 
butternut hickory, which is used for the lamp, and for other 
inferior purposes. I would suggest that the nuts of any 
species would serve, if broken and boiled, for the manufac- 
ture of soap. I insert the following from Michaux : 

" Properties and uses of hickory wood. — The wood of all the 
species of hickory bears a striking resemblance, both as to 



328 

fibre and the uniform reddish color of the heart. It pos- 
sesses great weight, strength, and unusual pliability and 
toughness. When exposed to heat and moistur.e it is sub- 
ject to rapid decay, and is peculiarly liable to injury from 
worms. 

" Throughout the Middle states it is selected for the axle- 
trees of carriages, for the handles of axes and other carpen- 
ters' tools, and for large screws, particularly those of book- 
binders' presses. The cogs of mill-wheels are made of 
hickory heart, thoroughly seasoned; but it is proper only 
for such wheels as are not exposed to moisture ;^,nd for this 
reason some other wood is by many millwrights preferred. 
The rods which form the backs of Windsor chairs, coach- 
whip handles, musket-stocks, rake-teeth, flails for thrashing 
grain, the bows of yokes, or the elliptical pieces which pass 
under the necks of cattle: all these are objects customarily 
made of hickory. At Baltimore it is used for the hoops of 
sieves, and is more esteemed than the white oak, which is 
equally elastic, but more apt to peeloff in small shreds into 
the substance sifted. In the country near Augusta, in 
Georgia, I have remarked that the common chairs are of 
hickory wood. In New Jersey it is employed for shoeing 
sledges — that is, for covering the runners or parts which 
slide upon the snow; but to be proper for this use it must 
have been cut long enough to have become perfectly dry. 

"Of the numerous trees of North America east of the 
Alleghany mountains, none except the hickory is perfectly 
adapted to the making of hoops for casks and boxes. For 
this purpose vast quantities of it are consumed at home, and 
exported to the West India islands. The hoops are made 
of young hickories from six to twelve feet high, without 
choice as to the species. The largest hoop-poles sold at 
Philadelphia and New York in February, 1808, at three dol- 
lars a hundred. Each pole is split in two parts, and the hoop 
is crossed and confined by notches, instead of being bound 
at the end with twigs, like those made of chestnut. From 
the solidity of the wood, this method appears sufficiently 
secure. 



324 

"When it is considered how large a part of the produc- 
tions of the United States is packed for exportation in 
barrels, an. estimate maybe formed of the necessary con- 
sumption of hoops. In consequence of it, young trees 
proper for this object have become scarce in all parts of the 
country which have been long settled. The evil is greater, 
as they do not sprout a second time from the same root, and 
as their growth is slow. The cooper cannot lay up a store 
of them for future use, for unless employed within a year, 
and often within six months after being cut, they are at- 
tacked by tjvo species of insect, one of which eats within 
the wood, and commits the greatest ravages. 

"The defects which unfit the hickory for use in the build- 
ing of houses equally exclude it from the construction of 
vessels. At 'New York and Philadelphia the shell-bark and 
pignut hickories have been taken for keels, and are found 
to last as long as those of other wood, owing to their being 
always in the water. Of the two species, the pignut would 
be preferable, as being less liable to split, but it is rarely 
found of as large dimensions as the other. 

"In sloops and schooners the rings by which the sails are 
hoisted and confined to the mast are always of hickory. I 
have also been assured that for attaching the cordage it 
makes excellent pegs, which are stronger than those of oak; 
but they should be set loosely in the holes, as otherwise, for 
want of speedily seasoning, they soon decay. For hand- 
spikes the hickory is particularly esteemed on account of 
its strength ; it is accordingly employed in most American 
vessels, and is exported for the same purpose to England, 
where it sells from 50 to 100 per cent, higher than ash, 
which is brought also from the north of the United States. 
The hickories are cut without distinction for this use, but 
the pignut, I believe, is the best. 

"All the hickories are very heavy, and in a given volume 
contain a great quantity of combustible matter. They pro- 
duce an ardent heat, and leave a heavy, compact, and long- 
lived coal. In this respect no wood of the same latitude in 
Europe or America can be compared to them; such, at 



325 

least, is the opinion of all Europeans who have resided in 
the United States. 

"It has been seen by what precedes that though hickory 
wood has essential defects, they are compensated by good 
properties which render it valuable in the arts." 

In concluding this article, Michaux recommends particu- 
larly for propagation in European forests the shell-bark 
hickory and the pignut hickory, whose wood unites in the 
highest degree the valuable properties of the group. He 
thinks, also, that the pecan-nut merits attention from pro- 
moters of useful culture, not so much for its wood as for its 
fruit, which is excellent, and more delicate than that of the 
European walnut. It might probably be doubled in size, 
if the practice was successfully adopted of grafting this 
species upon the black walnut, or upon the common Euro- 
pean walnut. 

Oak and hickory bands for cotton bales. — A tie dispensing 
with the use of iron or rope bands in baling cotton has been 
patented. The editor of the Southern Field and Fireside 
says on this subject: "Precisely such 'ties' have been used 
to fasten strong hoops on tubs in distilleries and breweries 
a longer time than any living man can remember. Thirty 
years ago we made a score of large tubs for tanning leather, 
and tied the staves together (made of two-inch plank) as 
above described, save the teeth on the iron rings or bands. 
The fastening is very simple, and perfectly reliable. A 
small iron ring, formed like the capital letter D, is the thing. 
It should hold both ends of a hoop two inches wide, each 
end being a half-inch in thickness; and also a wedge 
three-fourths of an inch thick. Such a hoop, made of oak, 
ash, or hickory, will have more than four times the strength 
of the rope usually employed in baling cotton. Green or 
sound wood is hard to break when pulled lengthwise. On 
our Southern plantations oak, hickory, ash, and grape-vines 
are much used in place of rope in baling hay, fodder, etc." 

The following practical remarks on the manufacture of 
potash and soap I introduce here in connection with the 
hickory, from an editorial by Dr. Lee, in the Southern Field 



326 

and Fireside, January 18, 1862. (For "Soda" see "Sal- 
sola," in this book, and " Quereus") The ashes we may 
obtain by burning corn-cobs yield more potash than any 
other available substance; and the alkali from this source 
is rapidly converted into saleratus or good soap. Corn-cobs 
are mentioned because we often see them wasted in quanti- 
ties where hogs are fed, and where much corn is shelled. 
Soap-makers at the North buy all kinds of wood-ashes, and 
find no difficulty in making soap from them ; but many 
Southern negroes, who make a little soap, do not under- 
stand the art under consideration. They require ashes from 
hickory, walnut, poplar, or some other wood rich in potash 
to succeed in producing good soap. The quantity of lime 
named in the directions given in the article we copied is 
two or three times larger than it need be. A peck of re- 
cently slaked lime is abundant for a barrel of ashes. Lime 
that has been long slaked and exposed to the air will not 
answer. The object of the lime is to decompose all the 
carbonate of potash dissolved out of the ashes, so that the 
pure alkali will combine, with grease or oil, to form soap. 
When the amount of potash in wood is small, as in pines 
and decayed wood, the whole of the alkali unites with car- 
bonic acid, or some other, if free, when the wood is burnt. 
When ashes are kept some time, if partly caustic when first 
burnt from wood they part with their causticity by imbib- 
ing carbonic acid from the atmosphere, as freshly burnt 
lime will do. Hence, recently burnt ashes will often make 
soap without lime, but will not do if kept several months. 
As caustic lime has a stronger affinity for carbonic acid than 
potash or soda has, soap-makers find no trouble whatever 
in making soap from old ashes, or any ashes that have not 
been wet and washed. Having stated the reason why lime 
is used, we will give the simplest and best practice in the 
art of combining potash with an animal or vegetable oil or 
fat, which chemical compound is soap — soft if potash is used, 
and hard if soda is used. Refuse barrels and hogsheads are 
often used to drip and leach ashes in, and should stand on 
boards or plank, so as not to waste the lye. This done, a 



327 

few inches of clean broom-straw should be placed over all 
the bottom of the barrel and pressed down. For a hogs- 
head of ashes, a good bushel of recently slaked lime 
should be spread evenly over all the straw; but a peck of 
lime will do for a barrel of ashes. More lime will do no 
harm, and some ashes may require a little more. ISTow fill 
up the barrel of ashes, pound them down moderately, and 
pour on boiling water, or that which is hot, until the lye 
runs out at the bottom. If the ashes were good, this lye 
will make soap with very little boiling; but if the potash is 
too diluted, some of the water must be evaporated before 
the chemical union between the alkali and grease will take 
place. If too little grease is put in the pot or kettle, more 
must be added; and if there is too much for all to combine 
with the potash, the excess must be removed after, the soap 
is cold. Where salt is cheap, it is largely used in the manu- 
facture of bar soap. Turpentine and rosin are also used in 
this branch of business. The explanations in reference to 
soda and turpentine soap will be given elsewhere. Salt is 
now too expensive to be used in soap-making. 

In an article on soap and potash from the Atlanta Com- 
monwealth, in the Southern Field and Fireside for October, 
1861, great stress is laid upon the ease with which we can 
manufacture potash in large quantity within the limits of 
the Southern Confederacy, and the consequent production 
of soap: "But whether we make our soap or establish 
manufactures, we need lye or potash in large quantities. 
To have this we must burn the light kind of wood, for 
some wood is better than other sorts, and we must save all 
the ashes and take good care of them. The ashes should 
not only be saved for this purpose, but to be used as ma- 
nure. It is a shame that we have been so long and so 
willingly dependent on the North for so large a catalogue 
of the commonest articles, and even for the article of soap." 
The following on the same subject is from the Richmond 
Dispatch, which I condense: "The great scarcity of soap 
at the present time arises from the want of potash and 
soda ash. Either will make soap. The latter is found in 



328 

its natural state (natron) in Egypt and South America, but 
the principal supply has been obtained from Great Britain, 
procured by the burning of sea-weeds. The former (pot- 
ash) is supplied mostly from Canada and the State of New 
York. There is in the Confederate States any quantity of 
material to make potash, and I would call the attention of 
farmers to its production. It requires but a simple process 
in its manufacture — a few large iron pans and a half-dozen 
whiskey barrels, with heads out, and an iron ladle, being all 
the apparatus required. 

" Most weeds furnish potash, in a greater or less degree, 
to every one hundred pounds. The following plants will 
furnish of potash : 



Oak wood 2^ lbs 

Wheat straw A\ " 

Barley straw 5 " 



Potato stem 55 lbs. 

Corn-stalks 17 " 

Oak bark and elm leaves .... 24 " 



"These articles can be obtained by the farmers at little 
cost. Select a shaded position, gather in a large heap, set 
fire to it, keeping the tire up until several bushels of 
ashes are obtained ; fill each barrel about one-quarter full 
of slaked lime; fill it then with water, stirring the ashes 
well; let it stand over night, or for about twelve hours, 
stirring frequently ; strain off the lye as clear as possible; 
pour in the kettles, and evaporate over a wood fire. The 
kettle should be kept constantly full for two days (a little 
experience will soon teach the quantity of lye it will require 
to make them half full with potash). The evaporation 
should be continued until the mass obtains the consistency 
of brown sugar; then increase the fire, by which it will be 
fused; continue it until quiescent, and looks like melted 
iron ; with a ladle transfer it to iron pans or baking-ovens, 
and allow it to cool; it ma}- be then broken in pieces, and 
packed in tight boxes or barrels. The experiment will 
pay well any enterprising farmer. The article cannot now 
be obtained at any cost, and can be sold at a high rate. 
We hope this may induce some to try it. The expense of 
fixtures is small. Pine wood furnishes but little potash." 

Ure, in his Dictionary of Science and Manufactures, art. 



329 



Potash, p. 457, says : In America, where timber is in many- 
places an incumbrance upon the soil, it is felled, piled up 
in pyramids and burned, solely with a view to the manu- 
facture of potashes. The ashes are put into wooden cis- 
terns having a plug at the bottom of one of the sides under 
a false bottom; a moderate quantity of water is then pour- 
ed on the mass, and some quick-lime is stirred in; after 
standing for a few hours, so as to take up the soluble mat- 
ter, the clear liquor is drawn off, evaporated to dryness in 
iron pots, and finally fused at a red heat into compact 
masses, which are gray on the outside, and pink-colored 
within. All kinds of vegetables do not yield, he adds, the 
same proportions of potassa. The more succulent the 
plant, the more does it afford; for it is only in the juices 
that the vegetable salts reside, which are converted by 
incineration into alkaline matter. Herbaceous weeds are 
more productive of potash than the graminiferous species, 
or shrubs, and these than trees; and for a like reason twigs 
and leaves are more productive than timber. But plants 
in all cases are richest in alkaline salts when they have 
arrived at maturity. The soil in which they grow also 
influences the quantity of saline matter. The following 
table exhibits the average product in potassa of several 
plants, according to the researches of Vauquelin, Pertuis, 
Ivirwan and DeSaussure : 



/)/ 1000 />«m 

Potassa. 

Pine or fir 0.45 

Poplar 0.75 

Trefoil 0.75 

Beechwood 1.45 

Oak 1.53 

Boxwood 2.26 

Willow 2.85 

Elm and maple 3.90 



In 1000 parts 

Potassa. 

Thistles 5.00 

Flag stems 5.00 

Small rushes 5.08 

Vine roots 5.50 

Barley straw 5.80 

Dry beech bark 6.00 

Fern 6.26 

Large rush 7.22 



Wheat straw 3.90 Stalk of maize 17.15 

Bark of oak twigs 4.20 -. Bean stalks 20.00 



In 1000 parts 

Potassa. 

Bastard chamomile — 
Anthem-is ontula, L .19.06 

Sunflower stalks 20.00 

Common nettle 25.03 

Vetch plant 27.50 

Thistles in full growth35.37 
Dry straw of wheat 

before earing 47.00 

Wormwood 73.00 

Fumitory 79.00 



Stalks of tobacco, potatoes, chestnut-husks, broom-heath, 
furze, tansy, sorrel, vine leaves, beet leaves, orach, and many 
other plants abound in potash salts. In Burgundy the well 
known cendres gravelies are made by incinerating the lees 
of wine pressed into cakes and dried in the sun ; the ashes 



330 

contain fully sixteen per cent, of potassa. To manufacture 
carbonate of 'potassa, chlorate, etc., from ashes, see also Ure's 
Dictionary. The corn-shuck and cob contain potash, and 
an economical soap is made from corn-shucks. See "Zea," 
in this volume. 

Count Chaptal, "Chemistry applied to Agriculture," p. 
290, refers to the method of using economy in washing 
and bleaching cloths, linen, etc., by a soapy liquor, a solu- 
tion of oil and soda, in place of ordinary soap. He also 
introduces and describes a plan for washing and cleansing 
household linen and cotton yarn by steam from alkaline 
solutions. The expense is three-sevenths of the expense 
of the common method. 

I introduce the following from Chaptal's Chemistry 
applied to Agriculture, as it shows the very different com- 
position of different plants — the potato, for example: 

" It appears that the three earths which form the basis 
of the most fertile soil enter into the composition of plants. 
Bergmann has proved this by an analysis of several kinds 
of grain, and Ruckert, by the results of his experiments 
upon a variety of vegetable productions, in a way to put it 
beyond doubt. About one hundred parts of ashes well 
leached, and consequently disengaged of all their salts, 
yielded 

Silica. Lime. Alumina. 

Ashes of wheat 48 37 15 

" oats, 68 26 6 

" barley 69 16 15 

" rye 63 21 16 

" potatoes 4 66 30 

" red clover 37 33 30" 

"Soft soaps," says Ure, "are usually made in this coun- 
try with whale, seal, olive, and linseed oils, and a certain 
quantity of tallow ; on the Continent, with the oils of 
hemp-seed, sesame (beni, which is planted in South Caro- 
lina)^ rapeseed, linseed, poppy-seed, and colza, or with 
mixtures of several of these oils. When tallow is added, 
as in Great Britain, the object is to produce white and 
somewhat solid grains of stearic soap in the transparent 
mass, called figging, because the soap then resembles the 



331 

granular texture of a 'fig.'" "The potash lyes should 
be made perfectly caustic, and of at least two different 
strengths," etc. See Ure, p. 668, for method. Any of 
the seeds of our oily plants, the cultivation of which I have 
so often recommended, can be pressed in a flannel bag in 
an ordinary cotton-press. If the pressure is exercised in a 
warm room heated by a stove, the escape of the oil will be 
much facilitated. A lye made of wood ashes will stop the 
rust in wheat, if the seeds are soaked in it before being • 
planted for two or three hours. It is a useful substitute at 
this time for the brine which is usually made of sulphate 
of copper or salt. 

As the Concentrated Lye may be made from ashes, I am 
induced to insert the following, on this all-important sub- 
ject. Resin is abundant in the Confederate States, and 
vegetable wax and oils can be obtained. See " Myrica" 
and bene" (" Sesam^im"). See method of preparing concen- 
trated lye, "Quercus alba" in this volume. 

Yellow, or rosin soap. — Dissolve one pound of concentrat- 
ed ]ye in one half-gallon of water, and set it aside ; heat in 
a kettle one gallon of water and three and a half pounds 
of fat or tallow, and commence to make the soap just as 
above for hard soap, with small quantities of lye, and a 
very small fire, until the soap is ready for salt, but add no 
salt. Put in now one and three-fourth pound of powdered 
rosin, and let it boil down by constantly stirring until the 
soap sticks on the kettle, and gets very thick. It is now 
finished, and may be put into a mould. 

Hard fancy soap. — Dissolve one pound of the concentrat- 
ed lye in two and a half pounds of hot water, and let it 
cool ; then melt by a low heat five pounds of clear fat or 
tallow, pour in the lye in a very small stream, and stir it 
rapidly; keep stirring until all has assumed the appearance 
of thick honey, and falls off the stirrer in large drops. It 
is then finished. Cover it up, and set the batch in a warm 
place; or better, cover it with a woollen blanket to keep in 
the heat, and let it stand for twenty-four hours, when it 
will have set into a fine, hard soap, which may be per- 



332 

fumed and variegated with colors by stirring the desired 
colors or perfumes into the mixture just before covering. 
If lard or olive oil is used, no heating of the same is 
required. 

Soft snap. — To one pound of the concentrated lye add 
three gallons of soft water, and four and one-half to live 
pounds of fat or tallow ; boil until the mass gets transpar- 
ent and all the fat has disappeared. Now add fifteen 
gallons of water, boil a few minutes, and the soap will be 
ready for use. As soon as cold, it will be a perfect jelly. 
If still too thick, add more water, which can be done to 
make the soap to any consistency desired. Twenty-five 
gallons of good soft soap can be made in this way out of 
one pound of the concentrated lye. 

Pump water is softened and made fit for washing as fol- 
lows : dissolve one cake of the concentrated lye in one 
gallon of watei\ and keep it for use in a well-corked demi- 
john or jug. To a tub full of pump or hard spring water 
add from one-eighth of a gill to a pint of the clear solu- 
tion ; the quantity of course varies according to the size 
of the tub, and the nature of the water, some taking more 
and some less. A tablespoonful will generally be found 
enough to make three to five gallons of water fit for wash- 
ing. In all the above operations, it should be remembered 
to replenish the water which may evaporate while dissolv- 
ing the concentrated lye, or while boiling. 

Consult " Salsola kali" for soda and soda soaps from 
ashes; also "oak" (Quereus alba), for additional information. 

To make twenty pounds of cheap soap from four pounds. — 
The Southern Field and Fireside directs : four pounds of 
turpentine soap, one half-pound of soda; add two gallons 
water, boil ten minutes, add a spoonful of salt, and boil 
ten minutes more. 

Economy in the use of salt. — I insert the following for its 
utility in the present exigency : " Green wood contains 
some forty per cent, of its weight of moisture, which forms 
a watery vapor when burning; and even dry wood has 
over forty per cent, of the elements of water, oxygen, and 



333 

hydrogen that forms vapor when such wood is burnt. Coal 
consists mainly of the carbon in wood, which in burning 
forms a very drying heat. Most of our readers are famil- 
iar with the usual process of barbecuing large pieces of 
meat over coals. If such meat were too. high above the 
coal tire to roast, it would soon dry. When dry, a very 
little salt and smoking will keep it indefinitely. Like 
cured bacon, it should be packed in tight casks, and kept 
in a dry room. 

"After one kills his hogs, if he is short of salt, let him 
get the water out of the meat by drying it over burning 
coals as soon as possible, first rubbing it in a little salt. 
Shade trees around a meat-house are injurious by creating 
dampness. Dry meat with a coal fire after it is smoked. 
You may dislike to have meat so dry as is suggested, but 
your own observation will tell you that the dryest hams 
generally keep the best. Certainly, sweet, dry bacon is far 
better than moist, tainted bacon, and our aim is simply to 
show how meat may be cured and long kept with a trifle 
of salt, when war has rendered the latter scarce and expen- 
sive." As this is an important question in every point of 
view at present, I will also cite on the manufacture of salt an 
elaborate article in the P. O. Reports, 1855, p. 143, by W. 
C. Dennis, of Key West, Florida ; also P. O. Reports, 
1857, p. 133. The mode of crystallizing, etc., is explained 
in a plain, practical manner, with wood-cuts of machinery. 
Evaporation through thorns, wood-shavings, etc., is de- 
scribed. 

i 
Carya olivceformis. Pecan. Mississippi nut. Cultivated 

in Atlantic states. 

I have observed it growing wild in Ward's swamp, St. 
John's, Berkley, S. C, in company with the C. myrisUcm- 
formis or nutmeg hickory of Mx. ISTo doubt the fruit was 
disseminated from neighboring plantations, where it is 
cultivated. The fruit of the plants of this order are favorite 
articles for table use in the Confederate States. The pe- 
can-nut is rich and nutritious, and the tree might be planted 



334 

as a source of profit, as it is a rapid bearer, attaining a 
large size. * 

Michaux advises that the shoots should, for the purposes 
of fruiting, be grafted on stalks of the common walnut 
tree. The tree abounds in upper Louisiana and Illinois. 
A swamp of 800 acres is said to exist on the right bank of 
the Ohio, opposite the Cumberland river. The wood is 
coarse grained, heavy, and compact. Michaux. 

Saururace^e. 

Saururus Cernuus, L. Grows in inundated soils ; Rich- 
land ; vicinity of Charleston; Newbern ; and collected in 
St. John's, where the root is used, in the form of a poultice, 
in discussing tumors, and as an application in abscess of 
the breasts occurring after labor. It is thought by many 
to possess great value in this respect. In a note to Ell. 
Bot., 505, it is also said that the. fresh root is applied with 
advantage as an emollient and discutient to inflamed sur- 
faces. 

Salicace^e. (The Willow Tribe.) 
Bark generally astringent, tonic, and stomachic. 

Salix nigra, L. Willow. Grows along streams; Rich- 
land, Gibbes ; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. 
John's ; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. 403 ; U. S. Disp. 622. See work of 
younger Michaux, Ball, and Gar. Mat. Med. 337 ; Mer. and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi. 185; Griffith, Med. Bot. 583; 
Schoepf, Mat. Med. 43 ; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii. 671. The 
willow is supposed to furnish us with one of .the best sub- 
stitutes for Peruvian bark; the S. alba, which may be 
included among the many varieties found in the Confeder- 
ate States, and which are not yet accurately distinguished, 
seems to be held in high estimation. But this species also, 
is considered valuable ; the bark possessing some power as 
a purgative, anti-intermittent, and vermifuge. It also 
furnishes the principle called salicin, which, from the 



335 

results of late experiments, is found to be much less 
valuable than quinia, but is a good bitter tonic. See Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pharm. for the mode of preparation. Bark of 
the root and branches is officinal. It is tonic and some- 
what astringent. Decoction made with one ounce of bark 
to one pint of boiling water; dose 2 fluidounces. It 
should be boiled ten minutes, and strained while hot. 
Dose of salicin from 2 to 8 grains and increased. It might 
well attract attention as a substitute for quinine. The 
large stems of this tree are light and durable, and are used 
for the timbers of boats. 

There are several other species in the Confederate States. 
The willow — osier willow (see article in Farmer and 
Planter, Sept., 1861), is cultivated extensively in Germany, 
France, and Belgium for making baskets, hats, screens, 
etc., etc. After most careful experiment it has been found 
that the best species to introduce into the Confederate 
States for the purpose, are the Salix forbeyana, Salix purpu- 
rea, purple willow, and Salix triandra, long-leaved willow. 
Forbes' loillow is very productive and hardy, one of the 
most valuable species for common work, where unpeeled 
rods are used. It does not whiten well. 

Purple wilioio. — Experiments have shows that this species 
is the most valuable and profitable for osiers in this country. 
With good ordinary culture its shoots will average ten feet 
in length ; will thrive best in deep, moist soil, where it will 
easily yield from four to live tons per acre of the most 
excellent rods, well qualified for the finest work. The 
purple willow, aside from being the most valuable for man- 
ufacturing all the finest kinds of willow-ware, is the best 
species for hedges, and is most extensively used for that 
purpose in Germany and Holland. The leaves and the 
bark being so very bitter will not be touched by cattle, while 
the shoots may be formed into any shape, and the hedge 
thereby made impregnable. Fine hedges or screens of 
twenty-five feet in height may be grown from willow cut- 
tings of this species in five years, thus affording almost 
immediate shelter, so indispensable at all seasons of the 



336 

year. We have seen, the writer adds, screens in Russia, of 
the willow, forty feet high, surrounding parks from three 
to four hundred acres in extent, affording the most perfect 
shelter against the sweeping winds and storms. Its soft, 
green, and glossy foliage will make it an object of great 
beauty and attraction. 

The last mentioned, the Salix triandra, long-leaved willow, 
will grow with almost equal vigor in any soil of depth ; 
ripens its shoots very early, and whitens beautifully; is 
tough and pliable, and a general favorite with our German 
basket-makers for split-work. This willow is most exten- 
sively cultivated in Germany by the thousands of acres. 
Its cultivation is highly esteemed by the people, and much 
encouraged by the government. 

Salix caprea, though not valued as an osier, is deserving 
of attention, as it will grow in wet situations where other 
trees will hardly exist. It furnishes food for bees at a time 
when it is most needed. In early spring, before other 
flowers appear, this tree is a mass of dazzling bloom, most 
eagerly sought after by bees. This willow is also valuable 
for hoops. 

The cuttings, in our climate, should be prepared in fall or 
early winter, and if planted at that time the ends will form 
the callosity preparatory to sending out roots. In setting 
the cuttings in the ground prepared for them, care should 
be taken to have them set deep enough ; a small portion 
only should remain above ground ; the strongest roots 
always start from the lower end of the cutting or set ; by 
doing so the most vigorous growth will be obtained. 

In establishing a willow plantation, cuttings of vigorous 
upland growth, that have had an abundance of room, 
should only be purchased and used, and, if obtainable, 
select wood of one year's growth, with a portion of two 
years wood from the lower extremity. Deep soils, free 
from standing water, but yet so soft that ploughing is 
impracticable, will grow enormous growths of 6'. triandra, 
requiring no further cultivation but keeping the weeds 
down for the first year or two, after which time the willows 



337 

will be of sufficient strength to take care of themselves, and 4 
provide for their own shade and well-being. We have in, 
the Confederate States large districts of deep alluvium, 
often inclining to swamps, which are so much drained as to- 
do away with their swampy character, and with no other 
preparation than removing the trees, may make excellent 
willow plantations. Sir J. W. Hooker observes: "The 
many important uses rendered to men by the different 
species of willow serve to rank them among the first in the 
list of our economical plants." The editor of the Southern 
Farmer and Planter then quotes a statement by W. P. 
Rupert, of Geneva, N". Y., showing a net profit of $533 per 
acre from planting the osier willow. 

See, also, Chaptal's Chemistry applied to Agriculture for 
method of planting willow along borders of land -liable to 
inundation, to lessen the force of the water, to strengthen 
the soil, and reclaim the land. A border of willow and 
poplar is planted over the banks or along the sides of the 
watercourses, and the plants are cropped at the tops so as 
to increase the thickness of their growth. 

In a paper in Patent Office Reports on Agriculture, p. 46, 
1851, by W. G. Haynes, of Putnam county, 1ST. Y., it is 
stated that four or five million dollars worth of willow 
were imported annually into the United States from France 
and Germany. The prices ranged from $1 to $1 30 per ton 
weight. The writer coufines his attention to the "three 
kinds best adapted for basket-making, farming, tanning, 
and fencing." He says: "The Salix viminalis is that speci- 
men of all others best adapted for basket-makers. An acre 
of this properly planted, and cultivated upon suitable soil, 
will yield at least two tons weight per year." See paper 
for yield. The people of England, till 1808, relied entirely 
for their supply upon Continental Europe. The Salix alba, 
or Bedford willow, is much planted by the Duke of Bed- 
ford. "The bark is held in high estimation for tanning, 
the wood for shoemakers' lasts, boot-trees, cutting-boards, 
gun and pistol stocks, and house timber; the wood being 
fine grained, and susceptible of as fine a polish as rose- 
22 



338 

wood or mahogany. An acre of this kind of wood, ten 
years old, has sold in England for ,£155." The " Salix alba 
is extensively used by retired tradesmen who build in the 
country for the purpose of securing shade in a short time, 
and by the nobility around their fish-ponds and mill-dams, 
and along their watercourses and avenues. This is the 
principal wood used in the manufacture of gunpowder in 
England." See, also, article "Hempi" It requires twelve 
thousand cuttings to plant one acre. Much land worth for 
little else might be planted in willow. 

The next species is the & caprea, Huntingdon willow, 
"which is a good basket willow, and is used extensively in 
England by the farmers for hoop-poles and fencing. Their 
manner of planting when for fencing is by placing the 
ends of the cuttings in the ground, and then working 
them into a kind of trellis-work, and passing a willow 
withe around the tops or ends, so as to keep in shape for 
the first two years. They cut the tops off yearly, and sell 
them to the basket-makers, thus having a fence and crop 
from the same ground." Another description of fence is 
also made from the Salix caprea, " known in England by 
the name of hurdle fences, which may be removed at the 
pleasure or discretion of the proprietor." See article 
"Charcoal," in Wilson's Rural Cyc. The dogwood and 
alder are also used for making gunpowder. See, # also, 
Ure's Dictionary of Arts. In most of the large manufac- 
tories the charcoal is distilled from iron vessels, by which 
means it is obtained in a state of considerable purity, and 
the other products are saved. See " Pinus." 

A variety of the S. viminalis, called the velvet osier, is 
the very best for basket-making. In England, Wilson 
says, an acre of osier will yield greater profit than one of 
wheat. The Salix purpurea, as was stated, is also valuable. 
"The cutting of a basket twig should be made slopingly 
within three buds of the point whence the shoot issued ; 
and the cutting of a hoop willow may be made so low as 
to leave only the swell at the bottom of the shoot. Basket 
twigs are commonly sorted into three sizes, and tied into 



339 

bundles of each two feet in circumference : and when they 
are to be peeled, they are set on their thick end, a few 
inches deep in standing water, and left there till com- 
monly the latter part of the following May. The apparatus 
for peeling is simply two round rods of iron, nearly half an 
inch thick, sixteen inches long, and tapering a little up- 
ward, welded together a little at one end, which is sharp- 
ened, so that it may be easily thrust down into the ground. 
When thus placed in a piece of firm ground, the peeler sits 
down opposite to it, and takes the willow in the right hand 
by the small end, and puts a foot or more of the great end 
into the instrument, the prongs of which he presses to- 
gether with the left hand, and with the right draws the 
willow toward him, by which operation the bark will at 
once be separated from the wood; the small end is then 
treated in the same manner, and the peeling is completed. 
After being peeled they will keep in a good condition for a 
long time, till a proper market be found. Rural Cyc. 

Charcoal made of willow or oak is a useful antiseptic 
agent, possessing the power of absorbing gases, and useful 
in dyspepsia and ill-conditioned states of the gastrointes- 
tinal mucous membranes. It is also used as a mechanical 
laxative, in doses of ten to fifteen grains. It is supposed 
to act as a prophylactic in yellow fever. In preparing it, 
the common charcoal from green wood is reduced to pow- 
der. This is reheated and burned to ignition in a. tightly 
covered vessel. It is then kept for use in closely stopped 
bottles, as it will absorb moisture and gases from the 
atmosphere. It is used also as a general purifyer. Brack- 
ish water strained through a layer of sand and powdered 
charcoal is made sweet and pure. 

For making gunpowder charcoal, the lighter woods, such 
as the willow, dogwood, and alder answer best; and in their 
carbonization care should be taken to let the vapors freely 
escape, especially toward the end of the operation, for 
when they are reabsorbed, they greatly impair the com- 
bustibility of the charcoal. The charcoal of some wood 
contains silica, and is therefore useful for polishing metals. 



340 

Dr. Mushet published the following table of the quantity 
of charcoal yielded by different woods : 

Chestnut 23.2 of charcoal — glossy black, compact, firm. 

Oak 22.6 black, close, very firm. 

Walnut 20.6 dull black, close, firm. 

Holly 19.9 dull black, loose, and bulky. 

Beech 19.9 dull black, spongy, firm. 

Sycamore 19.7 fine black, bulky, moderately firm. 

Elm 19.5 fine black, moderately firm. 

Norway pine 19.2 shining black, bulky, very soft. 

Sallow or willow. .18.4 velvet black, bulky, loose, soft. 

Ash 17.9 shining black, spongy, firm. 

Birch 1 7.4 velvet black, bulky, firm. [_Am. Farmer's Enc. 

On the subject of Nitre, and the materials for gunpow- 
der, I will introduce the following from Chaptal's Chemis- 
try applied to Agriculture, p. 153, and may reproduce 
portions or all of Prof. Leconte's paper on nitre beds. 
Different kinds of wood, he says, yield coal of very differ- 
ent quality; the best coal is heavy and sonorous, and is 
produced from wood of very compact fibre. The heat it 
affords is quick and strong, and its combustion, though 
vigorous, lasts a long time. The charcoal of the green 
oak of the South burns at least twice as long as that of 
the white oak of the North, and the effects produced by 
the heat it affords are great in the same proportion. 

The light, porous, white woods afford a brittle, spongy 
coal, of less weight, and which may be easily reduced 
to powder; this coal consumes quickly in our fireplaces, 
but is useful for some purposes, particularly in the manu- 
facture of gunpowder, for which use it is prepared by the 
following process : a ditch of five or six feet square and 
of about four in depth is dug in a dry soil; the ditch 
is heated by means of a fire made of split wood; the shoots 
and leaves are stripped from the young branches of elders, 
poplars, hazels, and willows, of which the coal is to be 
made, and as soon as the ditch is sufficiently heated the 
branches are thrown gradually in ; when carbonization is 
at its height the pit is covered over with wet woollen cloths. 
This charcoal is more light and inflammable than that of 



341 

the denser woods, and is susceptible of being more easily- 
arid completely pulverized. M. Proust, who has made 
numerous experiments to ascertain the kinds of plants 
which furnish the best coal for powder, found that pro- 
cured from the stalk of hemp to be preferable to any other. 

The most perfect process of carbonization is by means of 
a close apparatus: for this purpose a stone or brick building 
is constructed, of eighteen to twenty-five feet square; this 
is matted over, and the inside of it lined with a brick wall ; 
through the extent of it cast-iron cylinders are laid in such 
a manner that one of the two ends shall have an external 
communication, while the other carries the smoke into 
one of the chimneys. As soon as the building is filled 
with the wood for carbonization the cylinders may be 
heated. The vapor which is distilled from the wood is 
received into sheet-iron pipes, placed in the top, which 
convey it into tubs where it is condensed. Count Chaptal 
esteems this to be the best and most economical apparatus 
for making charcoal ; besides, it allows the preservation of 
the pyroligneous acid, which brings a good price, and may 
also be purified and converted into vinegar. 

In England charcoal is prepared in two different w T ays. 
In one, billets of wood are formed into a heap, which is 
covered with turf, and a few small openings only left for 
the admission of the air requisite to maintain it in a state 
of low combustion after it is lighted. When the whole 
heap is on fire, the holes are stopped, and after the mass 
has cooled the residue is charcoal. This is substantially 
the method adopted on our plantations. In the other 
mode, the wood is distilled in iron cylinders, in which case 
the products are pyroligneous acids, and empyreumatic oil ; 
and what remains in the retort is charcoal. The quantity 
of the distilled products, as well as of the charcoal, de- 
pends on the kind of wood employed. One hundred parts 
of dried oak yields of pyroligneous acid, 43. parts ; carbon- 
ate of potassa, 4.5 parts; empyreumatic oil, 9.06 parts; 
charcoal, 26.2" parts. Farmer's Encyc. See also "Quercus" 
and " Pinus," in this volume. 



342 

The following advertisement appeared in the papers dur- 
ing the year 1862 : 

To Contractors. — Willow wood wanted. — Five hundred 
cords willow will be contracted for, to be delivered on the 
line of the canal, at the government powder factory, at 
Augusta, Gra., at the rate of not less than one hundred and 
fifty cords per month, commencing the 1st of December 
next. The willow may be of any size, the smaller branches 
being preferred; the larger sticks must be split into parts 
not larger than the arm. It must be cut into uniform 
lengths of three feet, and each cord will measure fourteen 
feet long, three feet high, and three feet broad, containing 
one hundred and twenty-six cubic feet. The bark must be 
carefully peeled off at the time of cutting. 

Purification of water by charcoal. — The reader is referred 
to Chaptal's "Chemistry applied to Agriculture" for much 
that is practical in the domestic economy of our planta- 
tions in the South on the manufacture of wine, brandy, 
etc. In his chapter on the "means of preparing whole- 
some drinks for the use of country people" he gives the 
following method for rendering impure water pure. It 
would be found of great service at the present time, and 
our generals in the field might thus, at little cost, purify 
water for the use of their camps, for want of which simple 
expedient moves, possibly disastrous, have often to be made 
in face of an enemy. "The water made use of is often 
muddy, or has a bad smell, either of which faults may be 
corrected by filtering it through charcoal ; the process 
may be performed in the following manner: place a large 
cask upright, in the coolest situation you can command, 
knock out the head, and form in the bottom of it a bed of 
clean sand upon which place one of charcoal, and above 
these fasten securely a double head pierced with holes. 
When this is done the cask may be immediately filled 
with the water which is to be purified. The filtrated fluid 
may be drawn off by means of a stop cock placed at the 
bottom of the bed of sand; it will be found to have be- 
come clear and inodorous in its passage through the sand 



343 

and charcoal. The preservation of this apparatus requires 
but little care; when the charcoal ceases to produce the 
desired effect it must be either well washed or replaced by 
a new portion." This plan can be put in practice by any 
one, and at any time. 

Salix Babilonica. Weeping willow^. Completely natural- 
ized in South Carolina. 

It forms one of our most beautiful and graceful orna- 
mental trees. Only the pistillate plant is found here ; and 
hence it does not mature its fruit as the others do. 

Populus alba. White poplar. Introduced. 

This is an aquatic plant, yet will grow on dry soils. It 
is easily propagated by suckers, grows rapidly, is very tena- 
cious of life, and is one of the trees planted to prevent the 
encroachment of the sea or rivers, by being planted with 
willows on the margin. See Salix. 

The poplar has a very white, light wood, very suitable 
for flooring ; also eminently suited, on account of its light- 
ness, for the manufacture of trays, bowls, etc. "It is excel- 
lently adapted for the purposes of the bellows-maker, and 
of the manufacturer of wooden soles of shoes ; as good for 
light carts ; as excellent for laths and packing-cases ; as 
very superior for wooden constructions under water ; and 
in fact as available for an almost innumerable variety of 
purposes, from the mean ones of fuel and poles to the 
noble ones of tools and furniture. Pontey even asserts it 
to be perfectly suitable for almost every article usually 
made of mahogany, and quite capable of being stained 
and doctored into a very close imitation of that valuable 
wood." Wilson. The wood of our wild, tulip-bearing 
poplar (Liriodendron) is adapted to similar purposes, being 
light, and easily worked, and used by the cabinet-maker 
for many purposes. It is stated in the Farmer's En- 
cyclopaedia that by splitting the wood of the white pop- 
lar into thin shavings like tape or braid, the stuff called 
sparterfe, used for hats, is manufactured. These shavings 



344 

are always made from green wood. One workman can, 
with the aid of a child to carry off the shavings, keep 
several plaiters employed. This might be made a source 
of successful industry in the Confederate States. 

Upon examining the excrescences caused by an insect in 
large numbers on the leaves of the cotton-wood tree (P. 
heterophylla, L.), I find them possessed of .great bitterness, 
and suggest an examination into their tonic properties. 

Balsamaceje. 

Liquidambar styraciflua, L. Sweet-gum. Diffused. Fl. 
March. 

IT. S. Disp. 273 ; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 184 ; 
Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 303 ; Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. 
vi, 190 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 562 ; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 798 ; 
Linn. Veg. M. Med. In former times the resin was used 
in scabies ; and it is said (Am. Herbal, by J. Stearns) to be 
useful in resolving hard tumors in the uterus. The In- 
dians esteemed it an excellent febrifuge, and employed it 
in healing wounds. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 
128, and the Supplem. 1846 ; Ann. de Montpellier, 1805, 
327; Journal de Pharm. vii, 339, and vii, 568; Bull, de 
Therap., Oct. 1833, where D. L'Heritier proposes to treat 
blennorrhagias and leucorrhceas with liquid styrax. A 
kind of oil, called copalm, is extracted from it in Mexico, 
which, when solidified, is called copalm resin ; this is an 
excitant of the mucous system, and it is given in chronic 
catarrhs, and in affections of the lungs, intestines, and 
urinary passages. This is cordial and stomachic ; it excites 
both perspiration and urine; it is also used in perfumery. 
In South Carolina and Georgia the temperature is not high 
enough for this tree to furnish much gum. Dr. Griffith 
experimented with it in the latitude of Baltimore, and ob- 
tained a small quantity by boiling the twigs and branches ; 
he found that it exists in greatest abundance in the young 
trees just before the appearance of the leaves. It is about 
the consistence of honey, of a yellow color, and of a pleas- 
ant, balsamic odor and taste. The tree is of rapid growth, 



345 

and is ornamental — frequently assuming the appearance of 
a sugar-loaf. The wood is soft, but not durable. A decoc- 
tion of the inner bark of the gum in a quart of milk, or a 
tea made with boiling water is one of the most valuable 
and useful mucilaginous astringents that we possess (Dr. 
Richard Moore). It can be employed with advantage in 
cases of diarrhoea and dysentery. I have discovered that 
the leaves also of the gum, as well as those of the myrtle, 
are exceedingly rich in tannin, and would advise them to 
be used while green as a substitute for oak bark. They 
can always be obtained in the greatest abundance. As the 
result of my comparative experiments, these, with the leaves 
of the sumach, possessed more tannin than any other leaf. 
See " Tannin.''' The chinquapin, given with milk, is a use- 
ful astringent; see, also, blackberry (Rubus) and dogwood 
{Cornus). The gum of the sweet-gum, mixed with suet, is 
used by the vegetable practitioners in the treatment of itch. 

Leaves of native trees for Tanning Leather recommended in 
place of Oak bark. — Compelled by sickness to make a tem- 
porary sojourn in St. John's, Berkley, S. C, during the 
months of October and November, 1861, I had the leisure 
to make some experiments upon the relative amount of the 
astringent principles in the leaves of several of our most 
abundant native trees. The reputed power of the dogfen- 
nel and other plants for the rapid tanning of leather attract- 
ed my attention to the subject. I publish the following, 
that the green leaves may be collected and used before they 
fall. They can be much more readily obtained than oak 
bark. I made two series of experiments, with a solution of 
each leaf in boiling water, in separate test-glasses. After 
they had remained a sufficient time for the coloring matters 
and the astringent principles to be extracted, I subjected 
each to the appropriate reagents. Solutions of iron as well 
as gelatine were employed, which responded perfectly, and 
gave delicate shades of difference. The leaf, well chewed 
and tasted, also gives a very good idea of its astringency, 
and consequently affords an approximation to the tannin 



346 

and gallic acid it contains. It will be seen that the leaves of 
the sumach, sweet-gum, myrtle, blackberry, Cleihra tomen- 
tosa and Andromeda nitida (both abundant in our damp pine 
barrens, along the margin of ponds), and the fruit of the 
unripe persimmon, contain the largest amounts of tannin, 
and perhaps gallic acid. 

I took special care to select trees, for the most part, which 
grew plentifully, and I particularly recommend those just 
mentioned to be used in lieu of oak bark for tanning 
leather, on account of their abundance and the ease with 
which the fresh leaves can be gathered, and because of the 
scarcity of the oak, and the injury to these raluable timber 
trees. If the oak is deprived of its bark the wood should 
always be converted into ashes. 

Strange to say, the clogfennel (JSupaiorium fceniculaceum?) 
occupied a very inferior position as a tanniniferous plant. 

FIRST SERIES. 

(Relative amount of Astringency expressed by numerals.) 

1. Clethra alnifolia, L. (G. lomenlosa, Lam.) Diffused in 
damp pine lands. 
1. Andromeda nitida. 

1. Fruit of unripe Persimmon (Diospyros Virginiana) ; 
color of solution, bluish black. 

2. Sweet-Gum (Liquldambar styraciflua). 
2^. Swamp Myrtle (Myrica eerifera). 

3. Sweet Swamp Bay, or Laurel (Magnolia, glauca). All 
the above rich in tannin. 

4. Oak Leaves, Black Jack (Quercus nigra, L.) 

5. Leaves of Persimmon. 

6. Sassafras (Laurus Sassafras), a trace. 

7. Prinos Glaber (ink-berry). Tannin not very evident. 

SECOND SERIES. 

1. Sumach (Rhus copallina L. and R. Glabra. 

2. Blackberry (Rubus villosus and trivialis), both very rich 
in tannin. 

3. Sweet leaf (Hopea tinctoria), tannin slightly present. 



347 

4. Dogfennel. (Eajpatorium fceniculaceum), a trace. 

5. Sassafras, a trace. 

6. Gall of the earth (Prenanth.es alba), very bitter ; tannin, 
none. 

Both the leaves and the excrescences on the leaves of the 
smooth Sumach (Rhus glabra), growing along streams in 
the upper districts, are very rich in tannin, and should be 
used. 

The Alder (Alnus serrulata), abundant along watercours- 
es, is also astringent. The reader can find a list of the 
plants and trees yielding tannin in lire's "Dictionary of 
Arts, Manufacture, and Mines." See also Oak (" Quercus") 
and Sumach ("Rhus"), in this volume. 

CALLITRICHACEyE. 

Callitriche verna, "W. 1 Water chickweed. Grows 

" heterophylla,~E[\. Sk.. /in shallow water. Collected 
in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 326. It is considered by the planters 
a valuable diuretic remedy in dropsy. The tincture of the 
whole plant in spirits is employed. A decoction is given 
to horses when diuresis is desired. 

Santalales. 

Nyssa aquatica,Jj. Black-gum; tupelo; sour-gum. The 
roots are immersed in inundated soils; collected in St. 
John's; observed in Fairfield district; vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Newbern. 

The roots are white, spongy, and light, and are sometimes 
used in the Confederate States as a substitute for cork. 

The genus exhibits a constant peculiarity of organization 
("the fibres are united in bundles and interwoven like a 
braided cord"), hence the wood is extremely difficult to split, 
unless cut into billets — much used for hubs of wheels ; also 
preferred for the sideboards of carts. Am. Sylva. Trays, 
bowls, dippers, mortars, and other utensils are manufactured 
from it. I had recommended it as a suitable material for 



348 

shoes in my article in DeBow's Review, August, 1861, and 
have since had a number made from the wood of the roots 
for negroes residing on plantations in South Carolina. A 
friend from St. Paul's parish recommends that only the sole 
of the shoe be made of wood, an inch in thickness, cowskin, 
with the hair turned inside, being nailed on this over a last. 
To make the back of the shoe of wood also, gives pain to 
the wearer. The wood should be well seasoned, or it will 
crack ; boiling will prevent this if the fresh wood is used. 
Very neat and well fashioned shoes, I am told, have been 
manufactured by gentlemen in Abbeville and other dis- 
tricts of South Carolina out of this wood. In the Charles- 
ton Courier, October, 1861, it is advised that when the 
black-gum is used as a substitute for leather, "for complete 
protection against moisture, a slip or inner sole and lining 
of any water-proof material may be added." 

I introduce the following from the "Farmer and Planter," 
as not inappropriate. Every one. who has visited Europe 
has seen the sabot worn by the peasantry: 

A good thing for our negroes. — It cannot be denied that a 
number of diseases must result from the wearing of leather 
shoes by our negroes, when engaged in out-door operations 
during cold weather, or in wet situations. In Germany, 
Belgium, and France, in order to prevent those evils, at 
least to some extent, the use of wooden shoes has long since 
been introduced, and they are extensively worn by the 
whole farming and laboring population. 

The governments of Europe have very much encouraged 
the manufacture of the same, and their preference over 
leather shoes is much recommended by all boards of agri- 
culture and of health. There is hardly an operation on 
the farm and about the farm-houses, the garden, etc., in 
which they could not be most profitably used. They are 
perfectly secure against the penetration of water, and being 
always dry, will keep the feet warm, and thereby prevent 
many diseases. They are light and easy to wear, of a 
pleasant appearance, may be blackened or varnished. 
They can be worn with or without stockings; and, with 



349 

many other advantages, they combine such durability as 
to last almost a lifetime, at a cost of from twenty-five to 
thirty-seven cents. 

They are certainly entitled to the attention of the farm- 
ing and laboring population of the South. The wood for 
their manufacture is to be had in great abundance in most 
of our Southern states. 

The following, addressed to the editors of the Charleston 
Courier, is on the same subject: 

Shoes without leather. — I saw the last autumn, at the store 
of Messrs. Howes, Hyatt & Co., shoe and leather dealers, 
in the City of New York, a plantation brogan, differing from 
the old shoe, in having soles of some light, tough wood — 
the root of the swamp poplar, 1 think. The proprietors 
told me that they had patented the invention a year or two 
previous, and would warrant the brogan to outlast the best 
of the leather-soled. They said that they had large orders 
from planters on the Mississippi, who had tried them, and 
found that they were warmer, more durable, and more im- 
pervious to water than the leather-soled. The soles were 
made by machinery. The upper leather was first securely 
tacked to the inner sole, and the under sole securely fasten- 
ed to the upper by about one dozen iron screws, securing 
the upper leather between the two soles. 

With soles of wood and uppers of canvas we can be in- 
dependent of leather in the present scarcity of that article 
in our Confederacy. 

Mr. W. Gilmore Simms suggests to me the use of the 
tupelo, on account of its lightness, for making cartridge- 
boxes. 

Birds are fond of the fruit of this genus. 

ThymelacEjE. (The Mezereum Tribe.) 

According to Lindley, the great feature of this tribe is 
the causticity of the bark, which acts upon the skin as a 
vesicatory, and causes excessive pain in the mouth when 
chewed. 



350 

Dirca palastris, L. Canada leatherwood. Diffused; grows 
near Augusta at Colleton's Neck (Ell.); Bartram found it 
near Savannah. PI. Feb. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 659 ; U. S. Disp. 1253 ; 
Coxe's Am. Disp. 259; Shec. Flora Carol. 513; Big. Am. 
Med. Bot. ii, 157; Barton's Collec. 32; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
563 ; Raf. Med. Fl. i, 158. The berries are said to be nar- 
cotic and poisonous, and the bark has a nauseous odor and 
acrid taste, yielding its virtues to alcohol; eight grains of 
the powdered bark will produce violent vomiting, followed 
by purging. When applied to the skin, it blisters like 
mezereon. The juice has been applied to the nerve of a 
painful tooth with relief, and in diseases where acrid masti- 
catories are serviceable. Bigelow says the decoction is 
sudorific and expectorant, and he considers it a good sub- 
stitute for senega. The bark is also uncommonly tough, 
and was used by the Indians for cordage; the wood is very 
hard and pliant. 

Its twigs are remarkable for toughness, are as strong 
and pliable as those of the lime tree, and are employed in 
America for the manufacture of various small articles. Its 
bark, also, has a homogeneous character with the twigs, and 
is used for making ropes and baskets; and both, but espe- 
cially the twigs, occasion the plant to be popularly called in 
Canada leatherwood. This plant is an excessive favorite 
with snails ! Wilson's Rural Cyc. 

Laurace^;. [The Cinnamon Tribe.) 
The qualities of the species of this order are uniform, 
being universally aromatic, warm, and stomachic. 

Sassafras officinale, Nees. 1 Sassafras. Diffused in up- 
Laurus sassafras of Ell. Sk. / per and lower country ; Va. 

Fl. March. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. 411; Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 320; Dray- 
ton's View, 68; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 341; IT. S. Disp. 
640; Royle, Mat. Med. 518; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 
253; Cullen's Mat. Med. ii, 200 and 579; Big. Am. Med. 



351 

Bot. ii, 142; Murray's Apparat. iv, 835; Kalm's Travels, 
11; Hoffman's Obs. Phys. Chem. 31; Clayton's Phil. Trans, 
viii, 332; Bremaine, "Sassafralogia," in 1627; Woodv. 
Med. Bot.; Griffith's Med. Bot. 552; Thornton's Farn. Herb. 
The plant contains an essential oil, obtained by distillation, 
which is heating, sudorific, and diuretic, and which is used 
to disguise the taste of medicines. In the Supplem. to 
Diet, de M. Med. 426, 1846, it is reported that the essential 
oil, when placed in a temperature of 40° Fahr., will form 
crystals, which, being exposed to heat, return to pure oil: 
from the Report in the Lond. Med. Journal vii, 2501, 831; 
Researches on the Ess. Oil of Sassafras, in the Comptes 
Rendus Hebd. des Sc. de l'Acad. des Sc. xviii, 705. After 
the conquest made by the Spaniards in Florida sassafras was 
used in the treatment of syphilis, the warm infusion being 
applicable in cutaneous disease, by acting on the emuncto- 
ries. The root is employed in this state, in combination 
with guaiac, sarsaparilla, and China briar {Smilax), in the 
formation of diet drinks. It is diaphoretic and diuretic, 
useful in rheumatism, and Alibert speaks highly of it in 
gout. The pith of the young branches, according to Eberle, 
contains a great deal of mucilage; which is "an exceedingly 
good application in acute ophthalmia, and no less useful in 
catarrhal and dysenteric affections;" it is not affected by 
alcohol; Griffith (Med. Bot. 552) also speaks favorably of it 
as an application to inflamed eyes, being effectual in the re- 
moval of the irritation so constant in this complaint. It is 
advantageously given as a demulcent drink in disorders of 
the respiratory organs, bowels, and bladder; being more 
efficacious than that prepared from the leaves of Bent (Sesa- 
mum Indicum). It might be used as a substitute for acacia. 
The oil extracted from this plant is one of the heaviest of 
the volatile oils. Dr. B. S. Barton states that it has been 
found an efficacious application to wens. Coll. i, 19. G. 
Velsch, "Lignum sassafras et radice diversum," Miscel. 
Cur. Nat. 332, 1670; C. J. Trew, Brevis Hist. Nat; Arboris 
Sassafras dicta? (Nova acta Acad. Nat. Cur. ii, 271); G. D. 
Ebret de Arboribus Sassafras dictis et Londini cultis (Nova 



352 

acta ii, 236); Obs. on the Sassafras, in Obs. sur la Physique, 
xxiv, 63; Bonastre, Mem. sur l'Huile volatile do Sass. 
(Journal de Pharm. xiv. 645.) And, also, A. Buchner upon 
the Crystallization of the Oil of Sassafras. 

The roots yield a drab color with copperas; no doubt a 
much lighter shade may be obtained by alum or vinegar as 
a mordant. I believe that any of our plants containing 
either tanning or colored juices may be used as dyes. Iron 
increases the shade by forming tannate or gallate of iron. 
See " JRhus", etc. 

The leaves of sassafras contain an unusual proportion of 
mucilage, which would readily serve as a substitute for 
gum arabic, flax, slippery elm, Bene, etc. Two or three 
leaves, dissolved in water, yield a mucilaginous drink. I 
made great use of the tea prepared with sassafras root, 
gathered extemporaneously, while Surgeon to theHolcombe 
Legion, S. C. Vols. It was given whenever a warm, aro- 
matic, mucilaginous tea was required, in fever, pneumonia, 
bronchitis, catarrhs, mumps, etc. The nurse detailed for 
each company procured the materials upon the spot where 
the company or regiment was posted. It served every pur- 
pose of the articles usually supplied by the medical 
purveyors of the army. The pith of the sassafras is also 
medicinal. 

The spice bush' '{Benzoin odoriferum, Nees. Laurus b., L.) 
was much used by the soldiers from the upper part of the 
state for making a pleasant aromatic tea. Many brought 
the plant with them. It is tolerably well diffused over the 
Confederate states, on banks of streams and low woods. 
In camp sassafras tea was often drunk daily by many of the 
officers and soldiers as a favorite substitute for green tea, 
It is thought to purify the blood, but the impression that it 
tends to impair the health and intellect if persisted in must 
be erroneous. The oil it contains is diuretic. 

I have since read the following in the Farmer's Encyclo- 
paedia : 

" The wood stripped of its bark is very durable, strong, 
and resists worms, etc. It forms excellent posts for gates. 



353 

Bedsteads made of it are never infested with bugs. It is, 
however, only occasionally employed for any useful pur- 
pose, and never found in the lumber-yards of large towns. 
The pith and dried leaves of the young branches of the 
sassafras contain much mucilage, resembling that of the 
okra plant, and are extensively used in New Orleans to 
thicken pottage, and make the celebrated gumbo soup. In 
Virginia, and other Southern states, the inhabitants make a 
beer by boiling the young shoots of the sassafras in water, 
to which a certain quantity of molasses or sugar is added, 
the whole being left to ferment. The beer is regarded as 
a wholesome and pleasant drink during summer. So is an 
infusion of the bark of the roots, which is much drunk for 
the cure of cutaneous and other disorders." 

A cheap and wholesome beer for the use of soldiers, or 
as a table beer, is prepared from the sassafras, the ingre- 
dients being easily obtained. Take eight bottles of water, 
one quart of molasses, one pint of yeast, one tablespoonful 
of ginger, one and a half tablespoonful of cream of tartar, 
these ingredients being well stirred and mixed in an open 
vessel ; after standing twenty-four hours the beer may be 
bottled, and used immediately. The reader interested in 
the manufacture of beer, ale, porter, etc., will find the 
methods detailed in Solly's Rural Chemistry, lire's Dic- 
tionary of Arts and Manufactures, and in Wilson's Rural 
Cyclopaedia. 

I add the method of preparing 

The French Army Beer. — The following is the recipe of 
the beer that has been introduced into the French army 
upon the recommendation of the Medical Board. It is de- 
scribed as a very wholesome beverage, of pleasant and 
refreshing taste, and promoting digestion in a remarkable 
degree. It may prove an agreeable beverage both in and 
outside of the army: 

Water 100 litres about 1 00 quarts. 

Molasses 500 grammes about 1 pound. 

Hops 100 grammes about 3 ounces. 

Marshmallow root 50 grammes , . .about 1| ounce. 

Yeast 50 grammes about lj- ounce. 

23 



354 

Make an infusion of the hops and marshmallow root 
with abput twenty times their weight of the boiling water. 
Another part of the water is used to dilute the molasses, 
and another to dilute the yeast. All the fluids are then 
mixed, and put into a vessel for fermentation. After five or 
six days it will be ready for use 

The following modification of the recipe may sometimes 
be preferable: 

Water 100 litres 100 quarts. 

Honey 800 grammes 1 lb. 10 oz. 

Brown sugar 800 grammes 1 lb. 1 oz. 

Hops 300 grammes 9 oz. 

Yeast 50 grammes 1^ oz. 

I have no doubt the mucilaginous leaves of the sassafras 
or the Bene would serve as a substitute for marshmallow. 
See also "Persimmon" (Diospyros), "Apple," and "Hop," 
in this volume, for manufacture of domestic liquors. 

Benzoin odorifemm, Nees V. Ess. "> Spice bush ; fever 

Laurus benzoin, L., Ell. Sk. J bush. Grows along 

rivulets. 

Collected in St. John's, Charleston district; Richland, 
Prof. Gibbes; Newbern. Fl. April. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 51; U. S. Disp. 1233; 
Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 201; Griffith's Med. Bot. 553; Barton, 
295. This is another of our highly aromatic, indigenous 
shrubs; the bark is, besides, stimulant and tonic; "exten- 
sively used, in North America, in intermittent fevers." 

This tree contains a remarkable amount of aromatic prop- 
erty in every portion of it: it yields benzoin. Benzoin is 
also found in our grasses, Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet 
scented vernal grass), Holms odoratus and Mellilotus offici- 
nalis — the principle which appears to give fragrance to hay 
and pasture land, and which is communicated undecom- 
posed to the urine of the cow. Wilson's Rural Cyc. The 
berries contain an aromatic oil, which is esteemed in some 
parts of the country as an application to bruises, rheumatic 
limbs, etc. It is said to have been employed, during the 



355 

Revolutionary war, as a substitute for allspice, B. S. Barton 
states that an infusion of the twigs has been found effica- 
cious as a vermifuge; the flowers are employed in the place 
of those of the sassafras. 

A decoction of the plant forms an excellent diaphoretic 
drink in pneumonias, colds, coughs, etc., and as such may 
be largely used among our soldiers in service. 

The soldiers of the upper country of South Carolina, 
serving in the Holcombe Legion, of which I was Surgeon, 
came into camp fully supplied with the spice bush for 
making a fragrant, aromatic, diaphoretic tea. This, and a 
tea prepared from the sassafras, I used entirely as a substi- 
tute for gum arabic and flaxseed in colds, coughs, pneumo- 
nias, etc. See "Sassafras" and " Ulmus fulva." Soldiers 
may supply themselves with these, as they move camp, in 
any locality. 

Laurus geniculaia, Walter. Pond spice. Grows around 
ponds; vicinity of Charleston; Newbern. This, also, is 
aromatic. 

Amstolochiaceve. [The Birthwort Tribe.) 
Generally tonic and stimulating. 

Aristolochia serpentaria, L. Serpentaria; snakeroot. Dif- 
fused. Richland; vicinity of Charleston; Newbern. Fl. 
June. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. Mat. Med. 420; Trous. et Pid. Mat. 
Med. i, 336; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 249; Eberle, Mat. 
Med. i, 280; Le. Mat. Med. i, 163; Frost's Elems. Mat. 
Med. 520; Royle, Mat. Med. 532; U. S. Disp. 658; Pe. 
Mat. Med. and Therap. i, 231 ; Journal de Pharmacie, vi, 
365; Journal de Chim. Med. vii, 493; Sydenham, Peechey's 
Trans. 4th edition, 33; Ball and Gar. Mat. Med. 375; Cul- 
len, Mat. Med. ii, 85; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 765; Mer. and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 415; Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 82; 
Murray, Apparat. Med. i, 348; Chap. Therap. and Mat. 
Med. ii, 411; Lind. on Hot Climates, 104, 254; Shec. Flora 



356 

Carol. 203; Lincl. Nat. Syst. Bot. 206; Bart. M. Bot. 251; 
Woody. Med. Bot.; Griffith's Med. Bot. 829; Linn. Veg. 
M. Med. 166; Bull Plantes Ven. de France, 83; Thornton's 
Fam. Herb. This plant is well known as a tonic, diuretic, 
and diaphoretic, of great value in the low stages of fever, 
as in typhus, in chlorosis, and' in atonic affections of the 
intestinal canal; indicated where we wish to stimulate and 
excite at the same time a free diaphoresis and diuresis. It 
is also useful in promoting the cutaneous excretions in ex- 
anthematous diseases, where the eruptions are tardy. The 
infusion is serviceable in restraining vomiting; much use is 
made of this plant among the negroes in South Carolina, 
particularly in the low stages of pneumonia, to which they 
are particularly liable. I have observed the good effects of 
both this and the senega snakeroot (Polygala senega) in this 
affection. The dose of the powdered root is ten to thirty 
grains; of the infusion of one ounce to one pint of boiling 
water, two ounces may be taken as often as occasion requires. 
Its effects are increased by combining it with camphor. Dr. 
Thornton (Fam. Herb. cit. sup.) used it in typhus fever; two 
drachms of the tincture, combined with ten grains of the 
powder and five drachms of the tincture of opium, may be 
given every hour. It is said to add much to the efficacy of 
bark. 

Several vegetable infusions surpass even sea-salt in anti- 
septic power. Sir John Pringle says that several bitters, 
such as serpentaria, chamomile, or Peruvian bark, exceed 
salt, he inferred, one-hundred and twenty times — "flesh re- 
maining long untainted when immersed in their infusions; 
camphor is more powerful than anything else." Wilson's 
Rural Cyclop. This antiseptic power of certain vegetable 
substances should be compared with their medicinal effects 
when prescribed internally. All the articles just mentioned 
are, it will be remembered, employed in typhoid and low 
fevers. Among vegetable products vinegar is also antisep- 
tic, and in the latter stages of low forms of fever, dysentery, 
etc., is highly useful. Among the astringents possessed of 
antiseptic properties, the tannin may be the potent agent, 
on account of its affinity for albumen and gelatine. 



357 

Aristolochia hastata. Rich, shaded soils. Fl. June. 
IT. S. Disp. 658; Am. Journal Pharm. xiv, 121. It is said 
to be similar in properties to the A. serpentaria. 

AristolocMa sipho. Shec. Fl. Carol. 205. Similar in prop- 
erties to the others. 

Asarum Canadense, L. Wild ginger ; Canada snakeroot. 
Rich soil ; collected in St. John's. Fl. April. 

U. S. Disp. 125; Pe. Mat, Med. and Therap. ii, 243; 
Frost's Elems. 220; Med. Journal Pharm. x, 186; Diet. Univ. 
des Drogues Simples, Ann. 1733 ; Cullen Mat. Med. ii, 473, 
553 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de Med. i, 463 ; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. i, 149 ; Schoepf, Mat. Med. 72, in op. cit. ; Barton's 
Collection, 26, 48 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 368 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. 
Bot. 206; Griffith's Med. Bot. 527. An aromatic, stimu- 
lant tonic and diaphoretic, "applicable in similar cases with 
serpentaria." It is employed in cases requiring a medicine 
of this class, and is used in colic where no inflammation 
exists. It is valuable in colds, coughs, and female obstruc- 
tions as a warm, diffusible stimulant and diaphoretic; some- 
times combined with snakeroot and puccoon root (Sanguina- 
ria<). Dr. Firth gave it with benefit in the tetanus of 
children arising from cold. The leaves, dried and pow- 
dered, have powerful errhine properties. They were once 
considered actively emetic (Shec. Fl. Carol. 219) ; but this 
has been denied by Bigelow and Barton, op. cit. The root 
is often used as a substitute for ginger, to which it is said 
to be fully equal. According to Bigelow's examination, it 
contains a pungent, volatile oil, and a resin which communi- 
cate to alcohol the virtues of the plant, fecula, a gum, 
mucus, etc., op. cit. 153, 1. By the Anal, of Mr. Rushton, 
quoted in Griffith's work from the Am. Journal Pharm. x, 
81, and more recently of Mr. Proctor, ibid, xii, 177, it is 
shown that the active principle is an aromatic, essential oil, 
and that it contains neither asarin nor camphor. 

This plant may be given either in powder, tincture, or 



358 

infusion ; dose of powder, thirty grains. It may be boiled 
in milk and drunk freely. A syrup may also be made. 

Asarum Virginicum. Heart snakeroot. Grows in rocky 
soils. Fl. July. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 218 ; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med, 219 ; 
"a stimulating diaphoretic, fully equal to the Arist. Serp." 
Probably possessed of similar properties to the other. 
Milne, in his Ind. Bot. 73, alludes to this species as one of 
the strongest of the vegetable errhines — the roots and leaves 
being used. " The fresh leaves applied to the nostrils 
speedily terminate attacks of slight cold by the discharge 
which they induce." Those who snuff find it a valuable 
addition to tobacco — the dried leaves being powdered and 
mixed with it. The decoction and infusion of this were 
considered emetic, and great relief was said to have been 
afforded by.it in periodical headaches, vertigoes, etc.; one 
scruple of the fresh or one drachm of the dried root and 
leaves was employed as an emetic and cathartic. 

Asarum arifolium, Mich. Grows in shaded, rich soils ; 
collected in St. John's, Berkley; near Whitehall PI.; vicinity 
of Charleston. Fl. May. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 217. This, no doubt, partakes of the 
properties of the others, if it is not identical ; Linnaeus 
proposes it as a substitute for hyppo ; and Dr. Cutler says 
that the powdered root, in moderate doses, acts as a gentle 
emetic, one and a half drachm given in substance. The 
"tincture possesses both emetic and cathartic virtues." 
This, like the former, is a very powerful sternutatory ; when 
the powdered leaves are used, the discharge from the nose 
will sometimes last for three days, hence it has been applied 
in this way with great advantage in stubborn disorders of 
the head, palsies, etc. "A case in which there was paraly- 
sis of the mouth and tongue was cured by one application 
of it." 

Amarantace^. (The Amaranth Tribe.) 

The leaves of many of the species are wholesome and 
mucilag-inoua. 



359 

Achyranthes repens, Ell. Forty-knot. Drffused; grows 
in Fairfield district, and in the streets of Charleston. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 311. It is possessed of well 
marked diuretic properties, and is employed in ischuryand 
dysury, and in the gravelly complaints of old persons. In 
Fairfield district, S. C, it has lately been employed with 
decided success in several cases of dropsy, but sharing the 
fate of all other diuretics in being sometimes inefficient in 
cases depending upon organic changes, or produced by 
causes other than those connected with the circulation. It 
is given in decoction — a handful of the herb to a pint of 
water — of which a wineglassful is taken three times a day. 

Salsola kali. Saltwort. 

Among the plants used in procuring soda in Spain are 
"the different species of Salsola, Salicornia, and Batis mari- 
tima. The Zostera maritima is burnt in some places on the 
borders of the Baltic. In this country (Scotland, see Thorn- 
ton's Fam. Herbal) we burn the various species of fuci, and 
in France they burn the Chenopodiurn maritimurn. In order 
to obtain it the carbonate must be treated like potash of 
commerce, with lime and ardent spirits as described before." 
Within the limits of the Confederate States we have all the 
above plants, save C. maritimurn. Little doubt, however, 
exists in my mind that our several species of Chenopodiurn, 
will be found to contain potash or soda in large amount. 
Some plants, "which in their native soil yield only potash, 
afford also soda if they are cultivated in the neighborhood 
of the sea." "The soda is more or less pure according to 
the nature of the particular plant from which it is obtained" 
(Thornton). Of Salicornia, the species are found on the 
coast of Florida, and northward. Batis maritima, L. "Salt- 
marshes, Apalachicola, and northward." Zostera marina, 
L. West Florida, and northward. (Chapman's So. Flora). 
See " Sapiudus," in this volume. 

Wilson says also of the Salsola kali that it is the best of 
our native plants for yielding "kelp, barilla, potash, and 
soda, and was formerly collected in considerable quantities 



360 

on oar western coasts, and burned to yield soda for the 
manufacture of glass, and for other purposes. It grows 
freely from seed, and does not require any great nicety of 
management, yet never has been carefully cultivated." 
Rural Cyc. See also " Fucks," in this volume, for method 
of preparing barilla and soda from sea-weeds. 

I introduce the following brief process for the manufac- 
ture of soda, as we have several plants in the Confederate 
States which furnish it. Far the best mode now adopted is 
to procure it from sea-water, but this may not always be 
attainable. "For the manufacture of soda, the marine 
plants are gathered at the season when their vegetation has 
terminated, and they are left to dry. A pit four feet square 
and three feet deep is dug iu the earth; this is heated with 
split wood, and the saline plants are afterward thrown 
gradually in. Combustion is continued during seven or 
eight days; the ashes become fused in the pit, and remain 
in this state till the end of the process, when the combus- 
tion is completed; the whole is allowed to cool, and then 
the block of soda is divided into large pieces for the mar- 
ket." "In order that soda may possess all the requisite 
strength, it is necessary to separate it from the carbonic acid 
with which it is always united, and by which its properties 
are weakened. This is easily done by mixing quick-lime 
with a solution of soda; the acid has so strong an affinity 
for lime as to quit the soda to combine with it. The lye 
procured from this mixture is caustic, and leaves a burning 
impression upon the tongue; the soda thus purified acts 
more readily upon the bodies with which it combines. This 
mode of preparation is indispensable when soda is to be 
employed with oil in the manufacture of hard soap; it is 
useless when it is to be combined at a strong heat with 
earthy bodies, as is the case in glass-works." Chaptal also 
copies from M. DeSaussure's Treatise on Vegetation a very 
extensive table, giving the constituents of a great many 
plants, trees, etc., which the reader may consult. Among 
the plants used in preparing soda on the Mediterranean are 
the Salicornia Europea, the Salsola tragus, the Stalice limonium, 



361 

the Atriplex poriulacoides, the Salsola kali. "We have grow- 
ing in South Carolina and Georgia the Salsola kali, and the 
Staliee Carolinana, Walt., which should be tested, the 
Atriplex hastata, and the two species of Salicornia, mentioned 
above, which also grow on our coast. To show the alliance 
of the natural families in physical resemblances and natural 
properties, I find Chenopodium, Atriplex, Salicornia, and Sal- 
sola all in one tribe, and each rich in potash or soda. The 
fumitory (Fumaria) is one of the plants richer in potash 
than the wormwood (Chenopodium). 

Salicornia herbacea, L. Glasswort. Salt marshes along 
coast of Georgia and Carolina. 

We have two species of this genus, which is celebrated, 
commercially, for the production of alkaline salts. Wilson 
states of S. herbacea that the whole plant abounds in saline 
juices, and possesses a saline taste; and that it was formerly 
burned in common with the richly alkaline fuci in the manu- 
facture of kelp; that it is greedily eaten by sheep and cattle, 
and that it is sometimes gathered and used as a substitute 
for rock samphire in Scotland. See " Salsola." 

Chenopodiace^e. (The Goose-foot Tribe.) 
Some are wholesome, others possess an essential oil, which 
is tonic and antispasmodic. The beet and spinach, cultivat- 
ed in the Confederate States, belong to this order. 

Atriplex laciniata, L. Jagged sea-orach. Grows along 
salt streams ; Fl. July. ' 

Shec. Flora Carol. 247. The expressed juice, in doses of 
four to eight grains is said to act as a powerful purgative. 
According to Schoepf, it is used as a substitute for gam- 
boge in dropsy and asthma. 

Chenopodium anthelminticum, L. Jerusalem oak; worm- 
seed. Diffused; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charles- 
ton; ISTewbern. Fl. July. 

Linnaeus, Veg. M. Med.; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 
274; Eberle, Mat. Med. 218; Ell. Bot. i, 331; Chap. Therap. 



362 

and Mat. Med. ii, 71 ; Drayton's View of South Carolina, 
65; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 191; U. S. Disp. 206; Bart. 
M. Bot. ii, 183; Am. Journal Pharm. v, 180; Bergii, Mat. 
Med. i, 183; Griffith's Med. Bot, 538. It is well known as 
"one of our most efficient indigenous anthelmintics," adapt- 
ed to the expulsion of lumbrici in children. Eberle em- 
ployed the oil of the seeds with success in these cases, after 
every other remedy had failed. The dose to a child under 
five years is two drops; to an adult thirty drops, given on 
sugar grated in water. The expressed juice may be used, 
or a decoction of the leaves in milk, a wineglassful at a 
dose. The dose of the seed, for a child two years old, is 
from one to two scruples, mixed with syrup or bruised in 
castor oil. The distilled water may also be used. These 
plants are much employed on the plantations in South Caro- 
lina and Georgia for their anthelmintic properties, the 
seeds being collected in the fall. 

The wormwood (Artemisia) of which there is a species 
(A. caudata) growing in Florida and northward, is said to be 
rich in potash. The Chenopodium, of which we have several 
species, although not belonging to the same natural family, 
is perhaps equally rich in the substance. The "wormwood 
is highly recommended to be converted into charcoal, to be 
used in the manufacture of gunpowder." See "Salix." In 
fact, all the Chenopodiums (goose-foot) are also rich in alka- 
line salts, potash, etc., and may be used for its manufacture. 
The Persian insect powder, a species of Pyrethrum (or Per- 
sian chamomile), destroys insects with great certainty. I 
think it likely that some of the plants just mentioned, the 
milfoil {Achillea millefolium), the tansy ( Tanaceium vulgare), 
or ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare, L.), all growing in 
the Confederate States, may possibly be found to answer 
the purpose of destroying insects, lice, etc., on plants and 
animals. They contain a pungent oil. There is a notice of 
the Pyrethrum (roseu/n, purpureum, and carneum) in Patent 
Office Reports, 1857, 129. I would advise experimenting 
with our native plants. 

See Dasistoma for plant hostile to insects. 



363 

I have several times stated that the allied Artemisia, worm- 
wood, was exceedingly rich in potash. The natural affini- 
ties are here borne out, for the family Chenopodiocece contains 
many plants furnishing soda in large proportion. Such are 
Salsola, Salicornia, Atriplex, and salt-marsh Chenopodiums ; a 
notice of species of all these genera is included in this re- 
port. They should receive the attention of the nitre manu- 
facturers. Nitrate of potash "is found in the common 
horseradish, in the nettle, and the sunflower." Farmer's 
En eye. 

Chenopodium botrys, Ph. Jerusalem oak of some. Grows 
near Columbia. Fl. August. 

U. S. Disp. 206; Le. Mat. Med. 235; Ed. and Vav. Mat. 
Med. 304; Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 181; Mer. and de L. Diet, de 
M. Med. ii, 225 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 388 ; Dem. Elem. de Bot. 
250. The juice is similar to the other, being carminative, 
pectoral, emmenagogue, and vermifuge; the essential oil is 
antispasmodic, tonic, and vermifuge. An infusion, as tea, 
is resolutive and expectorant, and is useful in flatulent colic, 
spasmodic cough, humoral asthma, and in hysteria. The 
expressed juice of this species is given in doses of a table- 
spoonful, in molasses, to children affected with worms, or 
the seeds are reduced to a powder, and made into an elec- 
tuary with syrup. See Milne, Inch Bot. 76 ; Linn. Veg. 
M. Med. 41. "It is asserted," observes Shec. Flora Carol. 
389, "that the whole seeds produce worms in the stomach, 
and if a parcel be baked in a loaf of bread they will gener- 
ate worms. Such is the belief; what credit may be due to 
it, I leave to the determination of those who either have, 
or may hereafter, put it to the trial!" 

Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ph. Vicinity of Charleston, 
Bach; grows in Georgia, according to Pursh ; Newbern. 
Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. The essential oil of this is also 
tonic and antispasmodic. U. S. Disp. 206. Plenk reports 
five cases of chorea cured by the infusion made with two 



364 

drachms to one ounce of water, of which a cupful is to be 
taken morning and night. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. ii, 222. M. Mack used it, with equal success, in the 
hospital at Vienna, in this and in other nervous affections; 
see, also, the supplement to the work last mentioned, 1846, 
p. 165. It is employed by M. Martius in the injection of 
the mucous membrane of the lungs. MM. Rilliet and Bar- 
thez used it in the chorea of infants particularly. Ann. des 
Sci. Nat. xii, 220; Bouchardat, Ann. de Therap. 1844; Ga- 
zette de Med. de Saltzburg, Bill. Med. xii, 516. It is found, 
by chemical analysis, to possess various products, the most 
important of which are gluten and a volatile oil. Bull, des 
Sc. Med. de Ferus, vii, 225. The infusion emits a very 
strong, aromatic odor, and is used in parts of this country 
in the place of tea. 

Chmopodium album, L. Richland, L. Gibbes ; vicinity of 
Charleston, Bach. 

M6r. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 223; Phys. Med. 
Trans., Calcutta, ii, 40. It is a sedative and diuretic; used 
in hemorrhoids. Chevallier remarks the singular fact that 
the C. valvaria, a foreign species, exhales pure ammonia dur- 
ing its whole existence. This is the only observation on 
record of a gaseous exhalation of azote by perfect vegeta- 
bles, and the facility with which this principle is aban- 
doned by ammonia may, perhaps, explain the presence of 
azotic products in the vegetable kingdom. Ann. des Sci. 
Nat. i, 444; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 209. It might be inter- 
esting to observe whether anything of this kind takes place 
in our species. 

The above was printed by me in 1849. Worm-seed plant 
is said to be very rich in potash — and wormwood has been 
planted for the manufacture of glass — if so, the note on 
the subject of the C. vulmria exhaling ammonia is corrob- 
orated by the above observation. I have just learned, June, 
1862, that an enterprise was set on foot several years since 
near Columbia, S. C, to cultivate the wormwood on a large 
scale for the production of potash. The sugar-maple is 



365 

very rich in potash, probably the other maples also. See 
Salsola, Quercus, Zea, Phytolacca, etc., in this volume. 

Phytolaccacejs. (The Virginia Poke Tribe.) 

' Phytolacca decandra, L. Poke. Diffused in rich spots; 
Newbern. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 537; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 135; Bell's Pract. 
Diet. 355; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 213; Am. Journal Pharm. xv, 
169; Murray's App. Med. iv, 335; Kalm, Travels in K Am. 
p. 197; Graffenreid, Mem. Berne, iii, 185; Schcepf, M. Med. 
71; Browne, Hist. Jamaica, 232; Amsen. Acad, iv; Miller's 
Diet., art. Phyt. Dec; Sprogel, Diss. Cirven. 24; Beckman, 
Com. 1764, 9; Allioni, Flora Ped. ii, 132; Franklin's Works, 
i ; Cutler, Mem. Am. Acad, i, 447 ; Rush, i, 259 ; Thacher's U. 
S. Disp. 300; Shultz's Inaug. Diss. N. Am. Journal vi; 
Journal de Med. de Corvisart Leroux, xvi, 137; Ann. de 
Chim. lxii, 71; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 298; 
Coxe, Am. Dis. 486; Liud. Nat. Syst. Bot. 210. The juice 
of the leaves or berries, inspissated in the sun to the con- 
sistence of an extract, will, it is said, discuss hard tumors 
if applied to the part, "and destroy cancers by eating them 
out by the roots!" (Am. Herbal, by J. Stearns.) Mixed 
with brandy, it is extolled in the cure of rheumatism, eas- 
ing pain and producing discharge of the cutaneous and 
urinary secretions. One ounce of the dried root infused 
in a pint of wine is said to act kindly as an emetic, in doses 
of two tablespoonfuls. Bigelow also was of the opinion 
that it resembled ipecacuanha in its mode of operation; but 
later experimenters give an unfavorable report, as it is some- 
times uncertain, acting too powerfully by accumulation. 
The pulverized root is also emetic in doses of one to two 
drachms. "The tincture of the ripe berries seems to have 
acquired a well-founded reputation as a remedy in chronic 
and syphilitic rheumatism, and for allaying syphilitic pains." 
By some thought to be more useful than guaiac. The de- 
coction has been used in scrofula also. A spirit distilled 
from the berries killed a dog in a few moments by its vio- 
lent emetic effect; and, according to De Candolle, it is a 



366 

powerful purgative. The French and Portuguese mixed it 
with their wine, to give it color, and this was prohibited by 
royal ordinance of Louis XIV, " on pain of death, as it in- 
jured the flavor!" Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 210; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. states that two spoonfuls of the juice of 
the old plant, which is acrid, will purge violently; applied 
externally, it will irritate the skin, and it is used in the cure 
of sanious ulcers, cutaneous eruptions, itch, and hemorr- 
hoids; for the latter affection, an infusion is injected per 
rectum. Drs. Jones and Kollock, of Georgia, assure us 
(adds Merat) that they cure syphilis with it, in all its stages, 
without the use of mercury. Dr. Rush relates that several 
students of Yale College were severely purged from eating 
the flesh of pigeons which had fed on the berries. From 
the analysis in Annal. de Chimie, lxii, 71, it is shown to 
contain an enormous quantity of potash, 42 in 100 parts, 
and it is proposed to cultivate it for the manufacture of this 
article. From later examinations of Dr. E. Donnelly (Am. 
Jour. Pharm. ix, 168), it appears to contain gum resin 262, 
starch 20, potash 2, a small quantity of fixed oil, and 66. o 
of woody fibre. According to the U. S. Disp., it is also 
somewhat narcotic, and, as an emetic, is considered very 
slow in its operation, sometimes not acting for several hours, 
and then frequently upon the bowels ; but the vomiting pro- 
duced by it is not attended with pain or spasm. In over 
doses, its effects are quite dangerous. As an alterative, the 
dose is from one to five grains. Dr. Griffith has also used 
it with success in syphilitic rheumatism. (Med. Bot. 535.) 
In the supplement to the Diet. Univ. de M. Med. 1846, 557, 
it is said to have been used with good effect in paralysis of 
the intestines. Precis des Travaux de l'Acad. de Rouen, 
188, 1838; Comptes Rendus Hebdom. des Sci. iv, 12, Janu- 
ary, 1837. The ointment, prepared by mixing one drachm 
of the powdered root or leaves with one ounce of lard, has 
been applied with advantage in diseases affecting the scalp, 
as psora, tinea capitis, etc. Dr. Bigelow was successful with 
it, and Dr. Haynard cured cases in which sulphur had fail- 
ed. A gentleman informs me that he has frequently seen 



367 

the sores of secondary syphilis heal up by the application 
of a strong decoction of the roots. Dr. Braconnot consid- 
ers the yellow liquor produced by the juice of the berries 
one of the most delicate tests of the presence of acids. Dr. 
Shultz procured from half a bushel of the berries six pints 
of spirits, sufficiently strong to take fire and burn with 
readiness. The root of the plant should be dog in autumn, 
sliced, dried, and kept in close-stopped bottles. 

Dr. R Moore, of Sumter district, S. C, informs me that 
the berries of the poke in alcohol or whiskey, a dessert 
spoonful repeatedly given, has been found one of the most 
efficient remedies we possess in rheumatism. Dr. Ballard, 
of the same district, has used it with satisfactor}' results for 
fifty years. It is very generally employed in this way by 
many. The root is commonly used, applied externally, to 
cure mange in dogs. The root should be dug late in 
autumn, or during the winter, and the powder kept in 
close-stopped bottles, as it deteriorates. 

An excellent crimson dye is thus prepared (Thornton's 
So. Gardener): to two gallons of the juice of pokeberries, 
when they are quite ripe, add half a gallon of strong 
vinegar made of the wild crab-apple (ordinary vinegar will 
do, as the writer has seen), to dye one pound of wool, which 
must be washed very clean with hard soap ; the wool when 
wrung dry is to be put into the vinegar and pokeberry* 
juice, and simmered in a copper vessel for one hour, then 
take out the wool and let it drip awhile, and spread it in 
the sun. The vessel must be free from grease of any kind. 

The writer has seen articles dyed successfully with this 
plant during the present year (1862). The " Solferino " 
color is obtained from it. With alum to fix the color, I 
have used the juice of the pokeberry as a red ink. The 
directions to the printer for this volume were written with 
this ; before adding alum I found that the red color was 
fugitive. I consider it, prepared as above, an excellent 
substitute for carmine ink. 

The juice of the leaf of the garden Tanya makes an 
indelible dark brown dye. I would suggest that the addi- 



tion of nitrate of silver, sulphate of iron, or alum would 
make an indelible ink for marking linen. 

Polygonace^i. [The Buckwheat Tribe.) 
The leaves and roots are generally acid and agreeable. 

Rumex crispus, L. Dock. Grows around buildings; 
diffused; collected in St. John's; Newbern. Fl. June. 

Ell. Bot. 414 ; IT. S. Disp. 606. The decoction is astrin- 
gent, alterative, and tonic, uniting a laxative power with 
these, and resembling rhubarb in its mode of operation. 
It has been used with success as an alterative in itch and 
syphilis ; the powdered root with milk, or as an ointment, 
is applied externally in scabies. 

Dr. N". S. Davis, formerly of New York, " is satisfied 
from his experiments and observations that the chief value 
of dockroot ' consists in its alterative and gently laxative 
qualities.' As an alterative he esteems it to be 'fully 
equal to the far-famed sarsaparilla.' Quod est demonstran- 
dum." Dunglison. 

It is recommended as a dentrifice, especially where the 
gums are spongy. A decoction of the roots is used as a 
coolins: alterative — no doubt on account of the saline con- 
stituents of this genus. The expressed juice is applied to 
ringworm and eruptive diseases. 

It is supposed that our species possess all the virtues of 
the officinal ; two ounces of the fresh root, or one ounce of 
the dried may be boiled in a pint of water, of which two 
ounces can be taken at a dose. 



Rumex aeetosella, Walt. Flora Carol. Sorrel. Sheep's- 
sorrel. Abundant in sandy pastures ; collected in St. 
John's ; Richland, Gibbes ; ]STewbern. Fl. June. 

IT. S. Disp. 605 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ii, 279 ; Ed. and Vav. 
Mat. Med. 536 ; Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 300 ; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 546. This is also considered one of the most valuable 
of the species. It is refrigerant and diuretic, and is em- 
ployed as an article of diet in scorbutic complaints; the 



369 

young shoots may be eaten as a salad; but it is said to 
prove injurious in large quantities, on account of the oxalic 
acid existing in it. The acid taste is owing to binoxalate 
of potash and tartaric acid ; this is almost destroyed by 
drying. 

The bruised plant is often applied to sores, and it is 
thought to be very active in allaying inflammation — doubt- 
less owing to its saline constituents. 

Plants containing vegetable acid. — The acids vary during the 
several stages of vegetation — these are the oxalic, citric, ma- 
lic, tartaric, gallic, acetic, Prussic, etc. Oxalic acid has been 
found by M. Deyeux free in the hulls of the chickpea, and 
it has been extracted from the expressed juice of the plant ; 
also found in the stalks and leaves of sorrel, and in the juice 
of all the varieties of rhubarb (Chaptal). I have seen its 
peculiar crystals in the several plants put under the micro- 
scope. It is used in detecting the presence of lime, and its 
power of dissolving rapidly the oxide of iron makes it 
useful in stamping cotton cloths. " In this process the whole 
fabric is covered with a mordant of iron, which is after- 
ward removed by means of this acid combined with gum 
— so that the color applied adheres firmly only to those 
parts where the mordant has not been destroyed." It is 
also used in removing ink spots from cloth. 

The astringency of the root of the dock is due to tannic 
acid, and the acidulousness of the leaves to tartaric acid 
and the binoxalate of potash. 

Wilson observes of the Rumex acetosa, the " common 
dock" of England, which is closely related to our H. aeeto- 
sella, that it has been celebrated from very ancient times for 
its cooling, antiscorbutic, diuretic, and gratefully esculent 
properties. The expressed juice of its leaves, or a decoc- 
tion of them in whey, aflbrds a useful drink in cases of 
inflammatory fever, and the leaves themselves, eaten freely 
as a salad, cool the blood, and act as either a cure or a pre- 
ventive of scurvy. It is also much used as a salad, and as 
a season for soups, broths, etc. Rural Cyc. Now that we 
know the composition of the juices of the sorrel we can 
24 



■a 



370 

well understand to what to ascribe its cooling and diuretic 
properties. There is an Italian proverb which says that the 
"sorrel always grows with the thistle " — the leaves of the 
first being particularly grateful when applied over parts 
irritated by the stings of the last. Our plant is not so use- 
ful as the English one. 

Humex obtusifoUus,~L. \ Common dock. Diffused; around 
" dwaricatus, Ell. / buildiegs ; introduced. 

" A decoction of its root is highly efficacious in obstinate 
cases of the kind of skin disease called ichthyosis, and 
when taken in large quantity — as well, indeed, as the decoc- 
tion of any of the fusiform dockroots — it acts as a purga- 
tive, in the same manner as the powder or the tincture of 
Turkey rhubarb." Wilson's Rural Cyc. Our various 
species of Humex may upon examination be found to be 
capable of supplying the place of cathartics, now so diffi- 
cult to obtain. 

Humex sanguineus, Walt. Flora Carol. Dragon's blood. 
Grows around Charleston ; ISTewbern. Fl. July. 

Dem. Elem. de Bot. 240. The root is astringent, sto- 
machic, and eccoprotic. Linn. Veg. Mat. Med. 65. This 
and the seeds are used in dysentery and wounds ; referred 
to in Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 136, as a mild 
astringent. Journal de Med. xxiii, 415. Dr. "Wood, in the 
XL S. Disp. 606, says that it may be used indiscriminately 
with the officinal. 

Humex Briiannicus, Walt. Swamps and along streams. 
Fl. May. U. S. Disp. 606. 

Polygonum punctatum, Ell. Sk. } Water pepper ; Smart- 
" hydroviperoides, Ph. > weed; Biting knotweed. 

" hydropiper,Mx. ) Grows in damp, rich 

soils ; collected in St. John's, where it grows abundantly ; 

observed in Charleston ; Richland, Gibbes ; Newbern. Fl. 

July. 



371 

Eb. Mat. Med. i, 441 ; U. S. Disp. 559 ; Ed. and Vav. 
Mat. Med. 128; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 193; Ogier, in So. Journal 
Med. and Pharm. 1846 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
v, 433. In the Bull. Plantes Yen. de France, 140, the 
young leaves are said to ease the pain of gout, and the 
decoction is used with great success for dissipating old 
ulcers. Dem. £lem. de Bot. iii, 2(57. The expressed juice 
is an excellent diuretic, and is applied to putrid ulcers; 
u aqua hujus stillatltia efficax est ad comminuendum calculam 
etiam vesica?." See Ray's Catalogus Plantarum, 230. This 
plant is, however, more remarkable for its power in 
amenorrhoea. Eberle asserts that he employed -it in twenty 
cases, and was never more successful. Dr. Ogier, of 
Charleston, S. C, has published cases in the journal alluded 
to above, confirming its value. One to two ounces of the 
strong infusion is given two or three times a day, or a 
tincture may be used.* The juice of this plant. is very acrid 
and caustic to the taste. It is stated in the Flora Scotiea, 
207, that it is found a convenient and useful application for 
driving off flies from wounds, occurring on cattle for 
instance ; the decoction will dye a yellow color. Linn. 
Veg. Mat. Med. 71 ; Boyle, de Util. Philosoph. Nat. pt. iij 
69. This plant should be selected with care, as it differs 
but slightly from the P. mite, and others, which possess no 
value. It may be distinguished by its burning taste, by 
the sharp, pellucid leaves, and simple flower-stalk, with the 
stamens and pistil of equal length. The stipules are long, 
truncate, and fringed, with the margin and midrib of the 
leaves slightly scabrous. 

A writer from Manchester, S. C, 1862, recommends for 
our sick soldiers in camp the use of this plant in dysentery, 
thus : " Draw a tea strong enough to taste peppery, and 
use instead of water, with or without sugar, hot or cold, 
as the patient may prefer. It may be drunk freely, having 
no unpleasant effect. It may be gathered and dried in the 

* Mr. P., of Charleston, informs me that he has repeatedly found an ointment 
made with the leaves give immediate relief when applied to piles in an irritable 
and painful condition. 



372 

shade or used fresh. Some years ago, when that disease 
raged in the village where I lived, I used it only in my 
household, every case recovering with scarcely impaired 
strength. The tea being astringent keeps up the strength. 

Polygonum aviculare, L. Knotgrass. Diffused ; grows in 
pastures and yards; Richland; collected in St. John's; ob- 
served in the streets of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. 211 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
v, 440 ; U. S. Disp. 558. According to the encyclopaedia 
the root is powerfully astringent, and is used in diarrhoea, 
and in uterine hemorrhage. Dem. de Bot. iii, 268 ; Linn. 
Veg. M. Med. 72 ; Am. Herbal, 164. It is stated in the 
Supplem. to the Diet, de M. Med. 1846, 578, that Dr. Bour- 
geois announced, in 1840, that this plant was an excellent 
febrifuge, and was used in middle Africa and Algeria as a 
substitute for quinine, and furthermore, that the assertion 
was not doubted. Dr. Levat Perroton, of Lyons, gives it 
as an excellent remedy for chronic diarrhoea, using a strong 
decoction for a month or more ; he reports nine cases 
cured which had resisted other plans of treatment. See 
Revue Medicale, Nov. 1845; Flor. Med. ii, 107. It has 
also been administered in hematemesis. This plant had 
some reputation in these diseases in former times. It was 
said to be emetic and purgative, useful in hernia, and in 
arresting the vomiting of blood, and was regarded as an 
excellent vulnerary in moderating fluxes, diarrhoea, and 
dysentery. Griffith, in his Med. Bot. 546, observes that the 
emetic property so unusual in this genus is thought by De 
Candolle to reside in the testa. Thunberg, in his "Voy- 
age," mentions that in Japan they obtain a color from it 
similar to that from indigo. 

Polygonum polygama, Vent, and Malt. ") Grows in san- 
" parvifolia, Mx. / dy pine barrens; 

Richland district. 

Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 129 ; U. S. Disp. 558. In small 
doses it is tonic ; in large laxative and diaphoretic. Bige- 



373 

low says the infusion is useful in imparting tone to the 
digestive organs. 

Polygonum convolvulus, and scandens, L. Grows in dry 
soil and pastures ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. August. 

Griffith's Med. Bot. 547. " The seeds closely resemble 
buckwheat, and may be substituted for them." 

Polygonum fagopyrum. Buckwheat. Cultivated in the 
Confederate States. 

Rheum palmatum, and emodii. Rhubarb. Ex. 

I insert this plant and Beta here, being unable at this 
time to place them in the natural system. The cultivation 
of rhubarb, rosemary, sage, rue, chamomile, and many 
other medicinal plants, is briefly described in the Patent 
Office Reports, 1854. See, also, seven articles in the "Bath 
papers, vol. 1," giving an account of the mode of culture 
in England. The superiority of foreign rhubarb is by 
some ascribed to a better mode of drying. Rural Cyc. See 
a paper translated by E. G. Smith, in Patent Office Re- 
ports, 1848, p. 604, for varieties, mode of cultivation, and 
relative value. 

In Patent Office Reports, 1855, p. 25, is another paper 
on the cultivation of the medicinal rhubarb (P. palma- 
tum). " In the middle and cooler parts of the United 
States the seeds may be sown in March in a gentle hot-bed, 
and when the roots are an eighth of an inch in diameter 
they may be carefully drawn up, preserving the top-root, 
and planted in a fine, rich, and deep soil," etc., etc. In the 
Middle and Southern states, if planted in the spring, they 
thrive in the open air. They should be shaded from very 
hot weather, and continually watered. They are, however, 
injured by a superabundance of moisture. In the month 
of August, or before, the seed-stalks should be cut off, 
which ought always to be done on the withering of the 
radical leaves, and the crowns of the plants should then be 



374 

covered with mould in the form of a hillock. The largest 
specimens of this drug have generally been allowed to 
grow six or seven years. The roots are then very large, 
sometimes weighing from thirty to fifty pounds. The 
Chinese take up their rhubarb in winter, as they then con- 
tain the entire juice and virtue of the plant. They are cut 
transversely into pieces of moderate size, and this should 
not be delayed. These are then placed on long tables or 
boards, and turned three or four times a day, in order that 
the yellow, viscid juice may incorporate with the substance 
of the root. They are then hung up to diy, exposed to the 
air and wind, but sheltered from the sun. Thus in about 
two months the roots are completely cured. Much loss in 
weight occurs in drying. 

Those interested in the culture of rhubarb will find an 
excellent account of the success with which it was raised 
in England, of good quality, in Thornton's Family Herbal. 
Consult Pereira's Materia Medica, and other treatises on 
the subject. The importation of rhubarb into the Confed- 
erate States was enormous, and it commands a very high 
price. The greatest difference exists in the quality of the 
roots. Turkey rhubarb imported from Russia is the best. 
I will state in passing that the Report for 1855 also contains 
notices of the best mode of cultivating many other medici- 
nal plants — such as the rhatany, gall-nut oak, Iceland 
moss, liquorice, quassia, senna, gum arabic, etc. 

Beta vulgaris. Beet. Mangel-wurzel. Introduced. 

Vinegar is quite important to us in the present exigency. 
The following method will enable us to supply the place of 
imported vinegar: the juice of one bushel of beet, which 
is easily obtained, will make from five to six gallons of vin- 
egar, equal to the best made of elder wine. Wash and 
grate the beets, and express the juice in a cheese-press, or 
in any other way which a little ingenuity can suggest ; put 
the liquor into a barrel, cover the bung with gauze, and set 
it in the sun, and in fifteen or twenty days it will be fit for 
use. The best vinegar is thus made. Boston Cultivator. 



375 

The saccharine matter of course soon takes on the acid 
fermentation. So the ripe fig, the skins, etc., added to 
vinegar, increases largely the amount, and large quantities 
can thus be easily made with the refuse or over-ripe figs, 
which are ready to be converted into vinegar. The juice 
of the watermelon can no doubt be as easily converted 
into vinegar or boiled down into a syrup like molasses. 

The following is the ordinary process of extracting sugar 
from the beet: the roots are reduced to a pulp by pressing 
them between two rough cylinders. The pulp is then put 
into bags, and the sap it contains is pressed out. The 
liquor is then boiled, and the saccharine matter precipi- 
tated by quick-lime. The liquor is now poured off', and to 
the residuum is added a solution of sulphuric acid, and 
again boiled. The lime united with the acid is got rid of 
by straining, and the liquor is then gently evaporated, or 
left to granulate slowly, after which it is ready for under- 
going the common process of refining raw sugars. The 
French manufacturers have acquired so much experience, 
adds Wilson, that from every one hundred pounds of beet 
they extract twelve pounds of sugar in the short space of 
twelve hours. 

The Silesian or white beet is said to be the most profita- 
ble. The reader interested in preparation of sugar from 
cane or beet may consult Boussingault's Rural Chemistry, 
Law's ed. 123, 1857, lire's Diet, of Arts and Manufactures, 
Wilson's Rural Cyclopaedia, and Chaptal's Chemistry ap- 
plied to Agriculture. In France the same land from 
which the beet has been cut is planted in wheat with ad- 
vantage to the latter. As the cultivation of the beet may 
be undertaken at no distant date, I insert this brief plan 
by a correspondent of the Southern Field and Fireside : I 
will give you my plan of planting and culture of beets. In 
the first place I have my ground broken up deeply ; then I 
have the ground covered over with stable manure ; have it 
ploughed in tolerably deep ; level the ground with a hoe or 
rake ; hen-house manure is scattered over the ground ; hoe 
it in deep with a grubbing-hoe ; level it again ; lay off the 



376 

rows eighteen inches apart, and the hills one foot apart; 
and then they will grow without any trouble. In cultivat- 
ing them I have the grass and weeds cut up between the 
rows. I have raised beets on the above plan that weighed 
five and six pounds apiece. 

It has been observed that beets containing sugar fre- 
quently underwent a change during winter, by which the 
sugar entirely disappeared, and "was replaced by saltpetre." 
Chaptal. See, also, paper by Prof. Leconte, of the South 
Carolina College, on mode of formation of nitre beds; also, 
consult Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, 
article "Nitrate of Potash." 



Coccoloba uvifera, Jacq. Sea-grape. South Florida, along 
the coast. Chapman. 

C. Floridana also grows in Florida. The fruit of some, 
though very astringent, is eaten by the natives; and the 
wood of the tallest and bulkiest is used as timber. Wil- 
son's Rural Cyc. 

Menispermace^e. [The Coeculus Tribe.) 

Menispermum Canadense, L. Moon-seed; yellow parilla ; 
yellow sarsaparilla. Ell. never saw it, but thinks that it 
grows in the mountains. Dr. Gray determines a specimen 
sent from St. John's, Charleston district, by H. W. Ravenel, 
Esq., to be this. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 1275. It is said to be much used in Virginia 
by physicians ; and in domestic practice, as a substitute for 
sarsaparilla, in scrofulous and cutaneous affections. Ryd- 
del, in his Synops. West. States, says that the roots are 
tonic, alterative, and diuretic. Griffith, Med. Bot. 103. It 
is also employed by the vegetable practitioners. See How- 
ard's Imp. Syst. Bot. Med. 334. Said to be laxative and 
tonic, and used in debility and in giving tone to the stomach 
and nervous system. 



377 



Pyrolaceje. [The Winter-green Tribe.) 

Chimaphilamaculata,~Pursh.. | Spotted winter-green. Pip- 

Pyrola, " Linn, jsissewa. Shaded soils ; dif- 

fused; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston; 
ISTewbern. 

Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. i, 313; Eberle, Mat. Med. 
ii, 321; Ell. Bot, Med. Notes, 505; Eat. Man. Bot. 240; 
Bell's Pract. Diet. 128; Mitchell's Inaug. Thesis, 1803; Ed. 
andVav. Mat. Med. 320; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 
380; U. S. Disp. 208; Bart. Collec. ii, 21; Lind. Nat. Syst. 
Bot. 219; TT. S. Disp. 207; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 281. 
See P. umbellata. "Ev€ry part of the plant is possessed of 
considerable activity;" and it is very valuable as a diuretic 
in dropsy. See Mitchell's Thesis, and Dr. Summerville's 
paper in Lond. Med. Chirurg. Trans, vol. v. It is particu- 
larly useful in those cases attended with disordered diges- 
tion and general debility, for in these its tonic properties 
and general acceptability to the stomach prove highly use- 
ful auxiliaries to its diuretic powers. It has been success- 
fully administered in ascites, in dysuria and ischuria, gravel, 
strangury, hematuria, acute rheumatism, and in various 
intermittent disorders. The Indians considered it of uni- 
versal efficacy; but employed it particularly in nephritic, 
scrofulous, and rheumatic disorders. Dr. "Wood, in the U. 
S. Disp., states that it does prove of benefit in obstinate, 
ill-conditioned ulcers, and cutaneous eruptions supposed to 
be connected with a strumous diathesis: used both inter- 
nally, and locally as a wash. The decoction and watery 
extract are employed. 

In our present need for tonics and diuretics, in dropsy, or 
swelling following low and protracted fevers among our 
soldiers, no plant will be found more serviceable than the 
pipsissevva. It is aromatic, tonic, and diuretic. It can be 
easily collected around our camps, in shady woods, in al- 
most every part of our Confederacy. 

The black alder (Alnus serrulata) is an astringent diuretic. 
The catkins or flowerets, dissolved in whiskey, is a domestic 



378 

remedy in South Carolina — relied on by many, Dr. B.. 
Moore informs me, in gonorrhoea in place of copaiba. Pills 
of pine gum are given together with it. The C. umbellata, 
pipsissewa, grows in North Carolina, and northward. 

Chimaphila umbellata, Nutt. North Carolina, and north- 
ward. 

Both the C. umbellata and maculata are used. Dr. Thomp- 
son says of the P. umbellata: "It is diuretic and tonic. It 
has been given successfully in ascites, after digitalis and 
other diuretics had failed; and has also proved serviceable 
in acute rheumatism and intermittents. It produces an 
agreeable sensation in the stomach soon after it is swal- 
lowed; increases the appetite, and acts powerfully on the 
kidneys." The whole plant is decocted. 

One of these plants may be used extemporaneously in 
our camps for its combined tonic and diuretic properties, 
associated with astringency. Its uses consequently are 
obvious in the convalescence from fevers. It can be found 
in high woods near almost every locality where a regiment 
is pitched. See " Eupatoriwn" "Persimmon," "Dog- 
wood," etc. 

In a pamphlet issued from the Surgeon-General's office, 
it is stated that the C. umbellata "should not be gathered, 
as it is inferior." The decoction of either plant is made 
with the bruised herb one ounce, water three half-pints; 
boil to one pint; one pint to be given in the twenty-four 
hours, in divided doses. Pereira refers to both species as 
being useful. I have found the spotted winter-green valu- 
able as a tonic diuretic. 

Pyrola rotundifolia. Grows in South Carolina. See Chi- 
maphila. 

MONOTROPACE^!. 

Monotropa uniflora. Fit-root. Grows in roads ; attached 
to roots; collected in St. John's; Newbern. 

This is used by the steam practitioners. See Ploward's 
Impr. Syst. Bot. Med. 339. 



379 

Ericaceae. (The Heath Tribe.) 
Generally astringent and diuretic. 

Andromeda mariana, L. Dry soils. Richland; vicinity 
of Charleston. Fl. May and July. 

U. S. Disp. 1238, App.; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
i, 289; Coxe, Am. Disp. 84; Shec. Flora Carol. 156. It is 
employed in domestic practice; a remedy for herpes. The 
decoction is used as a stimulating wash for ulcers and 
ground itch, to which negroes are liable. The honey which 
bees extract from this is slightly poisonous. See Nichol- 
son's Journal, 163. 

Andromeda nitidi, Walt. Grows in damp, pine land, bogs ; 
collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. April. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 483. A decoction of the leaves 
of this also is used in the cure of itch. The young branches, 
deprived of their pith, form good pipe-stems, see Cliftonia; 
and the bark, with copperas, yields a purple dye. Upon 
examination I find that the leaves contain a great deal of 
tannin. See " Liquidambar," sweet-gum, for detail of ex- 
periments. 

Andromeda arborea, L. l Sour-wood, sorrel tree; clif- 
Oxydendron arbor enm, D.C. j fused; grows in upper dis- 
tricts. I collected it in St. John's, and Spartanburg district, 
S. C. 

U. S. Disp. 1227. The leaves, when chewed, allay thirst. 
A decoction of the bark and leaves is also given as a tonic. 

Andromeda speciosa, Mich. Vicinity of Charleston. Bach. 
U. S. Disp. 1228. It is said to be a powerful errhine. 

Andromeda angustifolia, Ph. Vicinity of Charleston. 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 223. This and the A. mariana are 
said to be poisonous to sheep. 

Clethra alnifolia, L. (C. tomentosa, Lam.) Abundant in 
wet pine lands and swamps throughout the Confederate 
States. 



880 

Upon careful examination with reagents of the leaves of 
the plant, I find tannin in great amount. I recommend it 
with the leaves of sweet-gum, myrtle, etc., as a substitute 
for oak bark in tanning leather. See " IAquidambar " for 
detail of experiments. 

Gaultheria procumbens, Ph. Spicy winter-green ; par- 
tridge-berry ; mountain-berry. Grows in the mountains of 
South Carolina, Dr. MacBride ; ISTewbern. Fl. May. 

U. S. Disp. 345 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 29 ; Lind. Nat. 
Syst. Bot. 221 ; Bart. M. Bot. i, 178 ; Kalm, Amcen. Acad, 
iii, 14 ; Bart. Collec. i, 19 ; Raf. Med. Fl. i, 202 ; Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 425. It possesses stimulant aromatic properties, 
united with astringency; hence used with advantage in 
some forms of chronic dysentery. It is said to have also 
some anodyne power. The infusion of the leaves has been 
found beneficial in amenorrhcea. attended with debility, 
and in promoting the mammary secretion when deficient. 
In the Revolutionary war it was used as a substitute for 
tea. The berries, which are aromatic and pleasant, are 
employed to flavor spirituous liquors. An infusion of them 
in brandy is a convenient and useful substitute for the ordi- 
nary bitters. An essential oil is obtained from the leaves 
by distillation. From Mr. Procter's examination (Am. 
Journal Pharm. viii, 211 ; and ix, 241) it is shown to pos- 
sess acid properties, and to have the same composition as 
the salitilate of methylene. It is one of the heaviest of the 
essential oils, having a specific gravity 1.173, with a burn- 
ing, aromatic taste, mixing with alcohol or ether in all 
proportions. This is found also in the Betula lenta, some of 
the Spiraeas, etc. It is applied with good effect to diminish 
the sensibility of nerves affected by carious teeth, and to 
disguise the taste and smell of nauseous medicines. 

Rhododendron maximum, L. Mountain laurel; wild rose- 
bay. Grows among the mountains. Fl. July. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 221. "It is well known to be pos- 
sessed of poisonous properties." Mer. and de L. Diet, de 



381 

M. Med, vi, 75. Employed with success in chronic rheu- 
matism, gout, and glandular enlargements. The petioles 
act as a sternutatory. Coxe, Am. Disp. 526; Big. Am. 
Med. Bot. iii, 103. It is a resinous astringent, its leaves 
containing tannin ; but its supposed poisonous, narcotic 
power is doubted by some, as Bigelow swallowed an entire 
leaf, and no bad effects resulted. B. S. Barton, however, 
in his Collections, i, 18, says it is certainly poisonous. The 
brown powder attached to the foot-stalks possesses consid- 
erable power as an errhine. The purple variety, one of 
the most beautiful, grows in South Carolina. 

A writer under the signature of "Cunio" commmuni- 
cates the following to the "Atlanta Commonwealth,'' 1861: 
" Wood for engraving. — Upon the authority of Mr. Charles 
Foster, long known as a wood engraver at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, many years since, I can state that the wood of the 
maximum or mountain laurel, as well as its confrere, Kalmia 
latifolia, known by every farmer as poison ivy, are equalled 
only by the best boxwood, the former of which abounds 
on every mountain from Mason and Dixon's line to North 
Georgia that has a rocky branch." I had reported the K. 
latifolia in my Sketch of the Medical Botany of South Car- 
olina, as "possessing a wood much used for mechanical 
purposes, being hard and dense." See Amelanchier for sub- 
stitutes for boxwood, which is costly. 

Rhododendron punctatum, L. and Ph. Grows at the head 
branches of rivers in South Carolina and Georgia; "Tugo- 
loo branches of the Savannah." Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 75 ; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 428. A stimulant and astringent. Michaux says it 
furnishes to bees a deleterious honey. 

Kalmia latifolia, L. Calico bush ; ivy bush. Grows 
along rivers in upper districts ; Richland, Gibbes ; at Sis- 
ter's ferry, Savannah river; Aiken, S. C. Fl. July. 

Drayton's View of South Carolina, 69 ; Ell. Bot. i, 481 ; 
U. S. Disp. 1269; Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 133; Kalm's 



382 

Travels, i, 335; Barton's Coll. i, 18, 48; and ii, 26; Thach- 
er's Disp. 247; Thomas' Inaug. Diss., Raf. ii, 16; Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 528. The leaves are poisonous and narcotic, 
and animals have been poisoned by eating them. It is 
said that death has been occasioned by eating the flesh of 
partridges and pheasants that had fed on them. Dr. Shoe- 
maker publishes two cases ; see 1ST. Am. Med. and Surg. 
Journal. Thomas, in Inaug. Diss. Phil. 1802, reports cases 
of obstinate diarrhoea cured by a decoction, thirty drops 
being taken four times a day. The leaves have been ad- 
vantageously used in syphilis, and extensively applied in 
tinea, psora, and cutaneous affections. Dr. Barton states 
that nervous symptoms have resulted from the external use 
of the strong decoction, thirty drops taken internally six 
times a day producing vertigo. Dr. Bigelow detected in 
the leaves tannin, a resinous matter, and gum. Besides 
these, Dr. Stabler finds a volatile oil of a narcotic odor 
and nauseous smell, supposed to be the active principle : 
see Am. Journal of Pharm. x, 241 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
428. From these experiments of Dr. S. he determines it 
to be a direct arterial sedative, without any acrid or nar- 
cotic property ; hence he supposes it suitable to cases of 
hypertrophy of heart, and other diseases, when it is neces- 
sary to decrease the action of that organ ; and from the 
tannin present that it is peculiarly fitted for cases of hem- 
orrhage, dysentery, etc. He proposes that two ounces of 
the leaves be macerated in a pint of alcohol for a week, 
and then strained, the dose of which for an adult is thirty 
drops every two or three hours. If these observations are 
confirmed it will give the plant a high reputation as a 
sedative, and attention is invited to it. The wood is much 
used for mechanical purposes, being hard and dense. 

Kalmia hirsuta, Walt. Grows in wet pine barrens ; vi- 
cinity of Charleston. PI. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 483. The leaves are used by 
negroes, and the poorer white people, as a cure for itch, and 
for the mange in dogs. A strong decoction is applied 



383 

warm to the eruptions, which occasions much . smarting ; 
and it seldom requires more than one application to effect 
a cure. 

Kalmia angustifolia, L. Sheep laurel. Barren hills ; upper 
districts. Chapman. 

The leaves of the Kalmia (angustifolia ?) exude a sweet, 
honey-like juice, which is said when swallowed to bring 
on a mental intoxication both formidable in its symptoms 
and long in its duration (Torrey). In this it appears 
closely to resemble the Armenian azalea (Johnston's Chem- 
istry of Common Life, vol. ii, p. 157). About Long Island 
the K angustifolia is believed to kill sheep, and is known 
by the name of sheep poison. The Azalea pontica, a kin- 
dred shrub, is said to be the source of the narcotic quality 
for which the Trebizond honey is famous. 



VaccinacejE.' (The Bilberry Tribe.) 

Bark and leaves are astringent, slightly tonic, and stimu- 
lating. 



Vaccinium macrocarpon. Ait. (Oxycoccos.) American cran- 
berry. Grows in North Carolina, and northward. 

The cranberry, useful for their ascescent, cooling proper- 
ties, for making pies, etc., are now exported to Europe, and 
they are said to bring eight dollars a bushel in the London 
market, as they are easily transported without suffering 
from the voyage. They are cultivated on boggy or swampy 
land, sand being thrown over it to kill the grass. There is 
a communication in the Patent Office Reports, 1857, on the 
mode of cultivation of the plant. Cranberries may be pre- 
served perfect for several years merely by drying them a 
little in the sun, and then putting them up closely in clean 
bottles. They also keep well in fresh water. The red- 
fruited variety yields a juice which has been employed to 
stain paper or linen purple. 



384 

Vaccinium arboreum, Marsh. Farcle-berry. Grows in 
damp soils; diffused; collected in St. John's; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. May. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 496; Griffith, Med. Bot. 431. 
The bark of the root is very astringent, and is employed in 
diarrhoea and bowel complaints. The leaves also are astrin- 
gent, and a decoction, as tea, is given in diarrhoea and dys- 
entery, and as a wash in sore mouth; the fruit is more 
palatable, and equally as efficacious. The bark is also used 
for tanning. The root and bark are very much used as an 
astringent in Sumter district, S. C, given in the form of 
tea to children affected with diarrhoea from teething, simply 
because it contains tannin, I suppose, like the chinquapin, 
oak bark, etc. It is very much relied upon. The root is 
sometimes stewed in milk and given in the same way. 
Most of the species possess qualities similar to this one. 
Some of those in South Carolina bear fruit very pleasant to 
the taste, and are generally known as huckleberries. I re- 
gard the wood as uncommonly hard and close. 

Primulace^. (The Primrose Tribe.) 

More remarkable for beauty and fragrance than for their 
sensible properties. 

Anagallis arvensis, L. Red chickweed; scarlet pimpernel. 
Nat. on Sullivan's island. Collected in St. John's, Berkley. 
Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 1227; Le. Mat. Med. i, 80; Mer. and de L. 
Diet, de M. Med. i, 276; Orfila, Toxicologic, ii, 275; Woodv. 
Med. Bot.; Mem. Acad. Royale de Med. 18 Mars. aim. 1826. 
The flowers close at the approach of rain, and occasions the 
plant to be called the "poor-man's weather-glass." Rural 
Cyc._ 

This plant enjoyed great reputation at one time, and was 
said to possess sudorific, vulnerary, antiepileptic, and anti- 
hydrophobic virtues. Woodville states that it is acrid and 
poisonous. It was considered very valuable for the bite of 
serpents, but more particularly in hydrophobia, given in 



385 

the form of powder in doses of two drachms. See the re- 
port to the Econ. Soc., Berne; Dem. Elem. de Bot. ii, 124. 
Milne, in his Ind. Bot. 260, asserts that it was frequently 
successful even after dangerous symptoms had supervened; 
and the great Hoffman himself yielded to this opinion. It 
"really possesses highly energetic powers, for Oriila de- 
stroyed a dog by making him drink three drachms of the 
extract." Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 224. It is used as a local 
application in ill-conditioned ulcers, and internally in vis- 
ceral obstructions, dropsy, epilepsy, and mania. 

Samolus valerandi, L. Brookweed. Vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; grows in morasses ; collected in St. John's, Charleston 
district. Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 201; Journal Gen. 
de Med. lii, 413; Dem. Elem. de Bot. ii, 121. Lemery says 
it is an antiscorbutic, aperient, and vulnerary. 

Sapotace^e. (The Sapotilla Tribe.) 

Bumelia lycioides, 1 £\\.$k.. Ironwood. Vicinity of Charles- 
ton, Bach; very rare in St. John's, Berkley; a tree on Sa- 
razin PL (Mrs. I. S. Porcher's). PI. June. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 441. The bark is said to be austere, 
and to be useful in bowel complaints. The tree is classed 
by some, with the persimmon, under the "ebony tribe" — 
the wood being characterized by great density and hard- 
ness. 

Ebenace,e. (The Ebony Tribe.) 
Wood generally hard and black. 

Diospyros Virginiana. Persimmon. Diffused ; grows 
abundantly in both upper and lower districts. Fl. March. 

Coxe, Am. Disp. 259; U. S. Disp. 302; Ed. and Vav. 

Mat. Med. 135; Am. Journal Med. Sc, N. S. iv, 297; Mer. 

and deL. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 657; Ann. Chim. de Montp. 

xxiv, 247; Shec. Flora Carol. 510; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 

25 



386 

227; Griffith, Med. Bot. 436. An astringent and styptic. 
The inner bark is used in intermittent fever, in diarrhoea, 
and with alum as a gargle in ulcerated sore throat. The 
powdered bark can be used wherever an astringent is re- 
quired. The unripe fruit is exceedingly astringent; em- 
ployed while fresh, or dried in the sun and powdered, it is 
very valuable in diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, and uterine 
hemorrhage. It forms a convenient and useful prescription 
for those residing in the country, made into pills or in the 
shape of a spirituous tincture. Mr. B. Smith found that the 
green fruit contained tannin, sugar, malic acid, and woody 
fibre ; the first disappears, and the others increase as it 
ripens. (Am. Journal Pharm. xii, 157.) The juice, in the 
unripe state, is said to be preferable to oak bark for tan- 
ning ; and a black dye may be extracted from it. The fruit, 
when matured, is very sweet and pleasant to the taste, and 
yields on distillation after fermentation a quantity of 
spirits; a beer is made of it, and mixed with flour, a pleas- 
ant bread. I have used the wood for engraving. Every 
tree of slow growth seems to me to have a dense and hard 
wood, because the rings are close together, though the con- 
sistence of the interspaces varies in different plants. See 
"Amelanchier." Persimmon bark with iron yields a dye, the 
color depending on the mordant used. See " Rhus ;" also 
Treatises on Calico printing and on Dyeing, Ure's Diet, of 
Arts and Manufactures, and Wilson's Rural Cyc. Processes 
are there described. Upon testing for tannin the leaves of 
the persimmon I find very little, but a great deal in the un- 
ripe fruit. See detail of experiments under sweet-gum, 
" Liquidambar." 

I am informed by a friend that the persimmon makes a 
particularly fine brandy. He tells me that a variety of 
persimmons are occasionally met with in Sumter district, 
S. C, with fruit almost twice the size of the ordinary 
plant. I have known of a large-fruited variety from 
Cooper river also. They were found near Claremont and 
the river. Ale, also, can be made with the different species 
of gentian, and in England they use G. lutea and purpurea 



387 

as substitutes for hops. The persimmon should be used in 
camps as an astringent. See " Castanea" 

To make Persimmon Seer. — Gather the persimmons per- 
fectly ripe and free from any roughness. Work them into 
large loaves with bran enough to make them consistent ; 
bake them so thoroughly that the cake may be brown and 
dry throughout, but not burned. They are then lit for 
use. But if you keep them any time it will be necessary 
to dry them frequently in an oven moderately warm. Of 
these loaves broken into a coarse powder, take eight bush- 
els. Pour on them forty gallons of cold water, and after 
two or three days draw it off; boil it as other beer, adding 
a little hops. This makes a very strong beer. See Thorn- 
ton's Southern Gardener, p. 138. W. Gilmore Simms, Esq. 
writes me word that the persimmon beer manufactured in 
Orangeburg district,' S. C, by the Hon. J. M. Felder, 
equalled the best sparkling "Jersey Champagne." The 
latter is generally made of apples, and is a species of car- 
bonated cider. See "Apples," "Hops," "Sassafras," for 
method of manufacturing useful liquors. 

The following, from the Southern Cultivator, was pub- 
lished in the Charleston Mercury : 

Persimmon Beer. — The best persimmons ripen soft and 
sweet, having a clear, thin, transparent skin, without any 
rough taste. A good ripe persimmon is a delicious morsel; 
most animals fatten on them; the chicken, duck, turkey, 
goose, dog, hog, sheep, and cow, all eat them greedily. 
The fruit, when mashed and strained through a coarse 
wire sieve, makes delightful bread, pies, and pudding. 
When kneaded with wheat bran, and well baked in an 
oven, the bread may be put away for winter use in making 
beer, and used when wanted. 

The following is one of the very best receipts for making 
the beer: sweet ripe persimmons, mashed and strained, 
one bushel; wheat bran, one half-bushel. Mix well to- 
gether, and bake in loaves of convenient size ; break them 
in a clean barrel, and add twelve gallons of water and 
two or three ounces of hops. Keep the barrel in a warm 



388 

room. As soon as fermentation subsides, bottle off the 
beer, having good long corks, and place the bottles in a 
low temperature, and it will keep and improve for twelve 
months. This beer, when properly made, in a warm room, 
is an exquisitely delightful beverage, containing no alcohol, 
and is to the connoisseur of temperate taste not inferior to 
the fermented juice of the vine. 

The ordinary way of making it is more simple, and the 
drink is relished heartily by most persons: a layer of 
straw is put in the bottom of the cask, on which a suf- 
ficient quantity of fruit, well mashed, is laid, and the cask 
then filled with water. It should stand in a warm room, 
and if the weather is cold, fermentation will be promoted 
by occasionally putting a warm brick or stone in the barrel. 
The addition of a few honey locusts, roasted sweet po- 
tatoes, or apple peelings, will make the beer more brisk. 
Wheat bran always improves the quality. 

A syrup made with unripe persimmons boiled in sugar 
is recommended as a portable and useful astringent to be 
used by our soldiers in camp to prevent dysenteries and 
diarrhoeas. 

(1862). The ripe fruit of the persimmon. May-apples, 
figs, etc., are also useful with a basis of molasses or honey 
in making vinegar. 

Hopea linctoria, L. Sweet-leaf. Diffused ; grows spar- 
ingly in the low country ; vicinity of Charleston, Bach.; 
collected in St. John's, Berkley; Ward swamp; Newborn. 
Fl. May. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 437. The root is esteemed a valuable 
stomachic. Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 177. Its leaves afford 
a yellow dye; they are sweet and pleasant to the taste, and 
are eaten by cattle. Major J. Le Conte informs me that 
the leaves and root are much used in Georgia, in syphilitic 
and scrofulous affections. This does not seem to be the 
genus Hopea belonging to the order .Dipteracece, which fur- 
nishes such valuable resins. 



389 



StyracacEjE. (Styrax Tribe.) 

Styrax. Several species grow in the Confederate States, 
but none are medicinal, so far as I can ascertain. It is 
well known that storax and benzoin are furnished by some 
of them. 

Symplocas tincloria, L'Her. Low woods and banks of 
streams. Florida to North Carolina and westward. (Chap). 

The dyer's or laurel-leaved species, under the name of 
sweet-leaf, is used for yielding a yellow dye. Rural Cyc. 

AquifoliacEuE. (The Holly Tribe). 
These are generally astringent. 

Prinos verticillatus, L. Black alder; winter-berry. Damp 
soils. Fl. May. 

U. S. Disp. 874 ; Wild. Spec. Plantaruin, 275 ; Mer and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 15 ; Barton's Med. Bot. i, 203. 
The berries and- bark are tonic and astringent, and are used 
in intermittent fevers, diarrhoeas, and diseases connected 
with a debilitated state of the system, especially gangrene 
and mortification. It is a popular remedy in ill-conditioned 
ulcers, chronic cutaneous diseases, administered internally, 
and locally as a wash. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 229. " The 
bark and berries possess in an eminent degree the proper- 
ties of the vegetable astringents and tonics, combined with 
antiseptic powers highly spoken of." They are extensively 
prescribed in some parts of the country in diarrhoea, and 
as a corroborant in dropsy. The leaves are employed as a 
substitute for tea. The plant was used by the Indians. It 
may be taken in substance, in doses of thirty grains to a 
drachm, to be repeated, or a decoction made with two 
ounces of the bark to three pints of water, of which three 
ounces may be taken several times a day. A saturated 
tincture of the bark and berries has also been used. 
Bigelow did not speak highly of this plant, but W. P. C. 
Barton extols it, and recommends it to the profession, 



390 

having employed it on several occasions. Dr. Meara, in 
the Phil. Med. Museum ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 434 ; Coxe r 9 
Am. Disp. 500. 

Prinos glaber, L. Inkberry. Grows in damp soils, along 
bays; Richland district; collected in St. John's. Fl. May. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 229 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. vi, 53. The leaves are employed as a tea. The 
plant probably possesses properties similar to those of the 
other. Upon chemical examination I find very little 
tannin in the leaves. See sweet-gum (Liquidambar) for 
detail of experiments. 

Ilex opaca, L. Holly. Diffused ; in rich soils ; New- 
bern. Fl. May. 

Griffith, Med. Bot.' 432; U. S. Disp. 1263. I am 
informed by gentlemen who have used this plant that the 
decoction of the bark of the root has been found very 
serviceable as a demulcent in colds, coughs, and incipient 
phthisis ; and by Dr. Joseph Johnson, of Charleston, that 
the berries are serviceable as an emetic. It is asserted by 
some to possess properties fully equal to those of the /. 
aquifolium of Europe, the inner bark of which also yields a 
viscid substance called birdlime ; its leaves are esteemed as 
a diaphoretic in the form of infusion ; employed in catarrh, 
pleurisy, small-pox, etc. Its febrifuge virtues are supposed 
to depend on a bitter principle, ilicin, and the berries are 
considered purgative,' diuretic, and emetic. The good 
effects resulting from the use of the I. opaca, in diseases 
affecting the mucous passages, may be owing to the 
substance contained in the inner bark. Some declare that 
they find it fully as efficient in intermittent fevers as the 
Peruvian bark. As an emetic, the berries are said to be 
more active than the leaves. 

Birdlime can be made from holly and mistletoe ; also 
from elder. The bark and juice are used. See process 
described in Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures, 
article "Birdlime." I have often noticed the mucilaginous 



391 

taste of the holly root {Ilex opacd), and have used it, 
chewed, for colds and coughs. It is also a pleasant, agree- 
ahle hitter, mucilaginous tonic. It is extensively employed 
i»i this way by many persons in South Carolina, also a tea 
made with the root. I would particularly recommend the 
holly root as an .^article for the relief of colds and coughs. 
It increases the appetite, and is a tonic. The leaves of the 
Ilex opaca, like the Ilex dahoon and Ilex cassina, are used 
as substitutes for green tea. See Ilex cassina. 
I condense the following from Wilson's Rural Cyc. : 
" Birdlime for catching birds, mice, and other vermin 
is generally made from the middle bark of the holly, 
which is boiled in water seven or eight hours, till it 
becomes soft and tender. After the water has been 
drained off it is laid in masses in the earth, covered with 
stones, and left to ferment during a fortnight or three 
weeks. When thus changed into a kind of mucilage it is 
taken from the pit, pounded in mortars until reduced to a 
paste, washed and kneaded in river water until freed from 
all extraneous matter. It is left in earthen vessels four or 
five days to purify itself by fermentation, and it is then 
put up for use or commerce. In every kingdom or dis- 
trict there is a different mode of preparing this substance. 
The mode employed by M. Bouillon Legrange is to take a 
sufficient quantity of the second bark of the green prickly 
holly, to bruise it well, and boil it in water four or five 
hours ; to pour off the water, to deposit the bark in pits in 
earthen pans, to moisten it from time to time with a little 
water, to let it remain until it becomes viscous, and to 
cleanse it by washing when it has attained a proper degree 
of fermentation." 

Birdlime may be procured from the young shoots of the 
common elder tree, from a number of plants, from slugs, 
snails, and from the pods of certain caterpillars. The 
common kind of birdlime readily loses its tenacious 
quality when long exposed to the air, and particularly 
when subjected to moisture; but it may be rendered 
capable of sustaining the action of water by the following 



392 

process: take a pound of common birdlime and wash it 
thoroughly with spring water till its hardness be de- 
stroyed ; then pound it completely, that its water may be 
entirely separated, and when it is well dried put it into an 
earthen pot with as much goose or capon's grease as will 
make it run. Add two spoonfuls of strong vinegar, one 
of oil, and a small quantity of Venice turpentine, and let 
the whole boil for a few moments over a moderate fire, 
stirring it all the time. It is then ready for use ; and this 
is the only kind that can be successfully used for snipes 
and other birds which frequent wet situations. When 
birdlime is to be applied for use it should be made hot, and 
the rods or twigs should be warmed a little before they 
are dipped in it. When straws or cords are to be limed it 
should be very hot, and after they are prepared they 
should be kept in a leather bag till used. In order to 
prevent birdlime from being congealed by cold it should 
be mixed with a little oil of petroleum ; and, indeed, 
before the common kind can be used at all it must be 
melted over the fire with a third part of nut-oil or any 
thin grease, if that has not been added in the preparation. 
It has been found to resemble gluten in many particulars, 
but differs from it essentially in the acetous acid which it 
contains ; in being very slightly animalized ; in the mucil- 
age and extractive matter which may be obtained from it; 
in the great quantity of resin which it yields by means of 
nitric acid; and in its solubility in ether. See, also, 
Wilson's article on "Bird-catching" for the various 
methods of ensnaring game. See " Yiscus " in this paper. 
Our Ilex opaca is said to resemble closely the English 
holly {I. aquifolium). It has a hard, white wood, with a fine 
grain. Among many trees and plants which I have exam- 
ined, with a view to testing their relative hardness, I do not 
rank the holly so high as others. The English holly is said 
by Wilson to be very retentive of its sap, which renders it 
liable to warp unless well dried ; to be susceptible of a high 
degree of polish, which renders it well adapted to many 
purposes in the arts. It readily takes a durable color of any 



393 

shade, hence used by cabinet-makers in forming what are 
technically called ''strings and borders" in ornamental 
works. When properly stained black, its color and lustre 
are little inferior to ebony. It ma}' be turned to a great 
number of purposes by turners, engineers, cabinet-maker's, 
philosophical-instrument makers, and others. Next to box- 
wood, the pear tree is the best wood, says Wilson, for en- 
graving upon, as it is compact, and stands the tool well. 
Rural Cyc. I do not think that I found our I. ojmca equal 
to the dogwood for the purposes of the engraver; certainly 
when green it yielded to the graver's tools more readily, and 
was not so hard. 

The berries of the English holly are said to be purgative, 
and six or eight of them swallowed will produce violent 
vomiting ; the bark is said to be febrifugal. Op. til. 

Ilex cassina, Mich. ~i Yaupoh ; cassina; emetic- 

" vomitoria, L. and Ait. j holly; grows near the sea- 
coast; Newbern. Fl. March. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 591 ; see I. vomito- 
ria. Linn. Veg. Mat. Med.; U. S. Disp. 1263, App. ; Grif- 
fith, Med. Bot. ; Ell. 8k. of Bot. of South Carolina, ii, 682. 
The leaves act as a powerful diuretic, and are employed in 
calculous, nephritic diseases, diabetes, gout, and small-pox. 
This plant is said also to act as a mild emetic. (Mer. and 
de L.) The Indians used the cold infusion, which was 
called the black drink, and which was said to enliven them, 
in the place of opium. The Creeks employed it, according 
to Elliott, at the opening of their councils, sending to the 
sea-coast for a supply. They considered it one of their 
most powerful diuretics. (Bart. Coll. 38.) The inhabitants 
of North Carolina purify brackish water by boiling in it 
Cassina leaves. 

In North and South Carolina much use is made of the 
leaves of cassina for making tea. I would refer the reader 
to the Ceanothus Americana, New Jersey tea tree. The 
leaves of the common holly [Ilex opaca) are also recom- 
mended by some as a substitute for tea; and I would call 



394 

attention to the fact that the famous plant used so exten- 
sively in Paraguay, Mate or Paraguay tea, is an Ilex (L Par- 
aguaiensis, plants of which have been introduced by Lieut. 
Page, and distributed. See a notice of it in Patent Office 
Reports, 1854, p. 34, and 1859, p. 15. Mate is univer- 
sally drunk in many of the South American States, and 
almost fabulous properties are attributed to it. "It is un- 
questionably aperient and diuretic, and produces effects 
very similar to opium. * * * Like that drug, however, 
it excites the torpid and languid, while it calms the restless 
and induces sleep." I have little doubt but that great re- 
semblance does exist between this and the kindred plant, 
the cassina, from which also was prepared a "black drink," 
which was used by the Indians of North America in their 
ceremonials. The mode of preparation may be lost to us. 

The Yaupon is sometimes referred to as I. vomitoria. The 
Indians drank it very strong, and in copious draughts, at a 
certain period of the year, in order to purify themselves. 
It acted as an emetic. The Matt of Paraguay is not iden- 
tical, says a recent writer, with our 1. cassina. Lawson, in 
his account of this plant, in his Travels in Carolina (pp. 
90, 91, London, 1709), celebrates the virtues of the tea, and 
gives a particular account of the mode of preparing it. 
"This plant (the Yaupon, called by the South Carolina In- 
dians Cassina), is the Indian tea, used and approved by all 
the savages on the coast of Carolina, and from them sent to 
the westward Indians, and sold at a considerable price." 
"The savages of Carolina bore this tea in veneration above 
all the plants they are acquainted withal," p. 221. "As for 
purgings and emetics they never apply themselves to, unless 
in drinking vast quantities of their Yaupon or tea, and 
vomiting it up again, as clear as they drink it." Croom, 
in quoting the above, adds that in North Carolina it is still 
esteemed a useful diaphoretic. Notes to his Catalogue, p. 
45, referred to as I. cassina, of Walter. 

The preparation of Mate" is very simple. It can be gath- 
ered during the whole year. It is collected in the woods — 
"a process of kiln-drying is resorted to upon the spot, and 



395 

afterward the branches and leaves are transported to some 
rude mill and powdered in mortars. The substance, after 
this operation, .is almost a powder, though small stems, de- 
nuded of their bark, are always permitted to remain." A 
small quantity of the leaf, either with or without sugar, is 
placed in a common bowl, upon which cold water is poured; 
after standing a short time, boiling water is added, and it is 
at once ready for use. It must be imbibed through a tube 
on account of the particles of leaf and stem which float 
upon the surface of the liquid. The plant is not cultivated. 
See, also, Ceanothus and Thea viridis. 

Ilex dahoon, Walt. Also called cassina. Grows in swamps ; 
it is said to possess properties similar to those of the I. cas- 
sina. 

Ilex myrtifolia, Walt. Grows around ponds, in flat, pine 
barrens, forty miles from Charleston ; ISTewbern. 

Dr. Joseph Johnson, of Charleston, informs me that this 
is used to some extent in domestic practice in South Caro- 
lina, as a diuretic in dropsy. 

CuSCUTACEiE. 

Cuscuta Americana, Linn. Dr. Engleman, of St. Louis, 
has determined that we have not the C. Am. of Linn., and 
he has substituted three distinct species which are found in 
South Carolina, the C. compacta and cornuti of Choisey, and 
C. vulgivaga, Engl. Love-vine. Grows in damp soils ; col- 
lected in St. John's; Hewbern. Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 527; Flora Med. des 
Antilles, ii, 334; Shec. Flora Carol. 485. 

This is said to be laxative and hydragogue. It imparts 
a yellow dye to cloth. The vine may be snapped in pieces, 
and the divisions will retain a separate existence, throwing 
out new tendrils, and reattaching themselves to surround- 
ing objects. 



396 

Convolvulace^i. ( The Bindweed Tribe.) 

An acrid, milky juice is found in their roots, which is 
strongly purgative, this quality depending upon a peculiar 
resin, which is the active principle of the jalap, the seam- 
mony, etc., plants belonging to this order. 

Ipomcea nil, Pursh. | Grows in dry soil;, vicinity of 
Convolvulus, Sprengel. /Charleston; St. John's; Newbern. 

Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 409. The root was 

employed by the ancients as a purgative. 

Convolvulus, Ell. Sk. | Wild potato vine ; found 

Ipomcea panduratus, of late bot. J in dry pine barrens; col- 
lected in St. John's, Charleston district, where it grows 
abundantly; Newbern. 

Coxe, Am. Dis. 226; Barton's Collec. ii, 49; Ell. Bot. 
Med. Notes, i, 254; XL S. Disp. 269; Mer. and de L. Diet, 
de M. Med. ii, 409; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. i, 252; Griffith's 
Med. Bot. 477. The root is diuretic, and in the form of 
infusion, is said to be very serviceable in calculous com- 
plaints. It is employed with great success by Dr. Harris, 
of New Jersey, in these and in other affections as a substi- 
tute for jalap and rhubarb; Dr. B. S. Barton says that an 
extract from one of our native species is little inferior to 
scammony. The powder or the decoction may be used. 

Convolvulus macrorrhizus, Ell. | Vicinity of Charleston ; 

Ipomcea of Michaux. /dry soils. 

U. S. Disp. 408; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 253; Mer. and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 406; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 
140. This is thought to resemble jalap. De Candolle men- 
tions the root as possessing purgative properties (Essai); 
and the expressed juice was said to be very active. Lind. 
Nat. Syst. Bot. 231; Flore Med. des Antilles, ii, 288. Dr. 
Baldwin, however, was of the opinion that it possessed very 
little purgative power. It is said to contain a great deal of 
saccharine with a considerable quantity of farinaceous 
matter. 



397 

Convolvulus Jfilapa. 

It has been supposed by some that the officinal jalap 
may be obtained from plants growing within the limits of 
the Confederate States, but late researches have almost dis- 
proved it. See XL S. Disp. ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. 

Batatas edulis, Chois. "» Sweet potato, and its varie- 

Convolvulus batatas, Cult, j ties. 

This valuable plant is cultivated to a large extent in the 
Confederate States, and great use is made of the root as an 
article of food. It may, therefore, not be out of place to 
furnish some references to the various sources of informa- 
tion concerning it that have come in my way. A large 
quantity of sago, called "Bowen's patent sago," was made 
in Georgia from the potato, particularly by Dr. Bancroft, 
near Savannah The roots were scraped and grated, the 
pulp was then mashed through sieves, and the deposited 
flour collected and dried in pans either by fire or sunlight. 
See Shec. Flora Carol. The root is used as an article of 
food prepared in various forms. They maj r be grated when 
raw and the pulp made into a pudding; they are sometimes 
eaten roasted or boiled, in which state, with wheat flour, a 
very pleasant bread is made of them. On the plantations 
they furnish a large proportion of the food of animals. 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplem. 1846, 205. See 
Depuy's Memoire sur la culture de la patate, Bordeaux, 
1801 ; Lelieur de Ville-sur Arce, Mem. sur la culture de 
la patate et du ma'i's, Paris ; Gosse, Culture de la patate 
(Biblioth. Univ. de Geneve, iii, 1818); Roberts' Note on 
the culture of the potato in the Mem. de la Soc. Roy. 
dAgric. 1841; Southern Agriculturist, Charleston, passim. 

In Patent Office Reports, 1854, p. 169, is an illustrated 
paper on the Dioscorea batatas, or Chinese yam, recom- 
mended as a substitute for the potato. See Dioscorea 
villosa in this volume. 

The Cantharis vittata, or blistering fly, can be found on 
the potato, and I have myself produced blistering by ap- 



398 

plying them to the hand. I collected the flies from vines 
growing on Daniel's island near Charleston. Mr. Town- 
send Glover, in a valuable paper illustrated with wood-cuts 
in Patent Office Reports, 1854, page 59, states that he found 
a species of cantharis, C. strigosa, in large numbers on the 
cotton plants near Columbia, S. C, in the month of Sep- 
tember. I have little doubt that the Confederate States 
could be easily supplied with blistering ointment from 
these flies. 

The reader interested in the appearance, nature, and his- 
tory of the "insects injurious and beneficial" to plants 
and vegetables, is referred to the paper cited. Those in- 
festing the cotton plant, the peach, the vine, garden vege- 
tables, etc., are all described. I am indebted to Mr. Glover 
for drawings of these. See, also, Patent Office Reports, p. 
88, 1855, in which the papers are continued. 

A Substitute for Spanish Flies. — The present scarcity of 
Spanish flies for medical use in blister plasters makes a 
proper substitute a desideratum. A writer in the Savan- 
nah Republican says we have in this country many repre- 
sentatives of the same genus, and enumerates the blister- 
ing beetle, or potato fly, so prevalent in our gardens, and 
so injurious to vegetation, as efficacious. He says : 

The blistering plaster and Cantharides of medicine are 
prepared from the Spanish flies, Cantharis vesicatoria, which 
are collected in Spain and Italy in large quantities for ex- 
portation. We have in North America many representa- 
tives of the same genus. Several species have been used 
for the same purpose, and in this immediate neighborhood 
the Cantharis vitlata, var, striped blistering beetle, com- 
monly called the potato fly. The blistering beetles have 
been enumerated among the insects directly beneficial to 
man, on account of the important use made of them in 
medical practice ; yet the gardeners in our neighborhood 
will testify that the insect in question is very injurious to 
vegetation, appearing in large numbers on the Irish potato, 
tomato, egg-plant, and beet, which they will strip of every 
leaf. I have, however, remarked that they will give the 



399 

preference to a common weed, if in close proximity — an 
Amarantus — a kind of prince's feather. The insect is of a 
dull, tawny, or light yellowish color, with two black spots 
on the head, two black stripes on the thorax, and three 
broad ones on each wing cover. The under side of the 
body, the legs (excepting the first joint, which is yellow- 
ish), the antennae,, or feelers, are black. Its length is from 
five to eight lines, its breadth of body two lines. The body 
is quite soft. These beetles are very shy, timid insects, 
and whenever disturbed fall immediately from the leaves, 
and attempt to conceal themselves among the grass, or 
draw up their long slender legs and feign themselves dead. 
In the night, and in rainy weather they descend from the 
plants and burrow in the ground, or under leaves and tufts 
of grass. It is, therefore, during clear weather, in the 
morning and evening that they feed, and are to be col- 
lected. They should be killed by throwing them into 
scalding water for one or two minutes, after which they 
should be spread upon cloth or paper to dry, and may be 
made profitable by selling them to the apothecaries for 
medical use. 

Dunglison, in his Theraputics, says that the Cantharis 
vittata, Lytta vittata, potato fly, is somewhat smaller than the 
Spanish fly (Cantharis vesicatoria), its length being about six 
lines. The head is of a light red color, with dark spots on 
the top ; the feelers are black ; the elytra, or wing-cases, 
black, with a yellow longitudinal stripe in the centre, and a 
yellow margin; the thorax is black, with three yellow 
lines ; and the abdomen and legs, which are of the same 
color, are covered with an ash-colored down (Wood and 
Bache). They are first observed about the end of July or 
the beginning of August. They are found in the morning 
and evening, and are collected by shaking them from the 
plant in hot water, after which they are carefully dried in 
the sun. It resembles the Spanish fly in all its properties. 
Other species are found in the United States, viz: C. 
cinerea, a native of the Northern and Middle states; C. 
marginata; 0. atrata, common in Northern and Middle 



400 

states; but C. vittata is the only one that is officinal, op. cit. 
sup. In England, according to Pereira, the blistering bee- 
tle is found on species of the Oleacece, as the ash, privet, and 
lilac, and upon the elder and lonicera. Cloths are spread 
under the trees and the flies shaken upon them or beaten 
with long poles ; the flies are then killed by being exposed 
to the vapor of vinegar, hot water, or oil of turpentine. 

Potato Coffee. — I have seen this used on several planta- 
tions in lower Carolina as a substitute for coffee. It is one 
of the best when carefully made by our Southern matrons. 
The following is given as the mode of preparing and 
using: the sweet potato is peeled and cut to the size of 
coffee berries, spread in the sun until perfectly dry, then 
parched in an oven or pan until thoroughly brown before 
being ground. As much as is intended to be used is then 
put into a cup with a little hot or cold w T ater ; it is mixed 
well until all is wet; boiling water is added, and it is set- 
tled like coffee. 

The mucilaginous liquor prepared from potatoes washed 
and grated, the fecula being allowed to remain at the bot- 
tom of the vessel, is used for cleansing silk, woollen, and 
cotton goods without damage to the color. The coarse 
pulp which does not pass the sieve is of use in cleansing 
worsted curtains, carpets, tapestry, and other coarse goods ; 
also in cleansing oil paintings. 

Among the plants for supplying starch, none is superior 
to the sweet potato — the red-skin variety, white within, is 
preferred. Large supplies are made upon our plantations 
by grating and washing out the starch granules, then dry- 
ing. See Maranta arundinacea in this volume for mode of 
making starch; also, Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufac- 
tures, etc., vol. 2, p. 462, New York, 1853, for a paper on 
the manufacture of sugar from the potato, with a table of 
the amount of starch in the several varieties of the potato. 

IIydroleace^e. 
Itydrolea quadrivalvis. Immersed in ponds; collected in 
St. John's. Fl. July. 

A bitter principle exists in this genus. 



401 

LiOBELIACEjE. 

Lindley states that all are dangerous or suspicious, in 
consequence of the excessive acridity of their milk. 

Lobelia inflata, L. Indian tobacco ; lobelia ; emetic-root. 
Grows in Spartanburg and Abbeville districts, and in 
Georgia. Ft. August. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 219 ; U. S. Disp. 434 ; Barton's 
Collec. 36, 56 ; Thacher's IT. S. Disp. 267; Frost's Elems.; 
Mat. M6d. 83. This is one of the most valuable of our 
indigenous plants, well known as a nauseating diaphoretic 
and expectorant, possessing some narcotic power, and act- 
ing particularly on the bronchial mucous membranes. The 
infusion of the flowers promotes urine, diaphoresis, and 
the discharge of the lochia ; used also in convulsions and 
palpitations of the heart. The juice which exudes from 
the plant is of a penetrating and diffusible nature; from 
its effects upon the eye it is called "eye-bright." The tinc- 
ture, in small doses, is used to prevent colic and croup in 
infants, just sufficient to produce slight nausea. The plant 
in spirits is given largely in the bite of serpents and in- 
sects, and the tincture applied externally is said to relieve 
the pain caused by the stings of spiders and insects. See 
the "Cherokee Physician." The infusion of the plant is 
stimulating to the throat, and is largely employed in 
asthma, as it occasions a copious secretion of saliva and 
of mucous fluid: "It, however, sometimes operates vehe- 
mently and speedily on the stomach." Lind. Nat. Syst. 
Bot. 237; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 137. Chap- 
man, Bigelow, and Barton spoke of it as a very active and 
dangerous plant. Supplem. to Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. 1846, 438. Dr. Noach, of Leipsic, says that it acts 
specifically on the "pneumogastric nervous system," and 
consequently possesses such a remarkable influence on the 
bronchial mucous membrane. In Geneva, also, it has 
acquired great reputation in spasmodic asthma. See the 
12th series of the Journal de Chim. et de Pharmacie, i, 454. 
Dr. Elliotson cured two cases in four days with the alco- 
26 



402 

holic tincture in a sufficient quantity of distilled water. 
It has been found in Europe very useful in chronic bron- 
chitis, aphony, and nervous affections of the bronchia, and 
in laryngitis and hooping-cough. It has been administered 
in convulsions, tetanus, and dance of St. Guj 7 . Mer. 
Supplem. See also Lancet, February 23, 1838. The In- 
dians used it as tobacco, and this is a convenient way of 
administering it. Rufz, d'empoisonnement pratique par 
les 2^"egres, 139; Sigmond on the properties of L. inflata 
and syphilitica, in Journal de Chim. Med. ix, 587, 1833 ; 
Glasgow Med. Journal, May, 1828; Bidault de Villiers, 
notice sur l'emploi du Lob. inflat. dans l'asthme et comme 
emetique, Nouv. Biblioth. Med. v. 226. Lobeline has been 
extracted from it: Phil. Journal Pharm. 1834. Dr. Proctor 
found it also to contain an odorous volatile principle, a 
peculiar acid, lobelic, gum, resin, fixed oil, lignin, salts of 
lime, potassa, oxide of iron, etc. Am. Journal Pharm. ix, 
106, xiii, i. It has been used as an enema in the same way 
as tobacco, and, in small doses, to produce relaxation of 
the os uteri. Eberle employed it with success in a case of 
strangulated hernia; he considers the root and inflated 
capsule the most powerful parts of the plant. Am. Journal 
Med. Sc. xvii, 248. Some have doubted whether it pro- 
duces its effects in the same way as tobacco. Dr. Cutler, 
who introduced it, says if the leaves be held in the mouth, 
they induce giddiness and pain in the head, with agitation, 
and finally nausea. Both Dr. Randall and himself found it 
very efficacious in asthma, and employed it as a speedy 
expectorant in catarrh ; the latter did not observe any 
narcotic effect ensue from it in moderate doses. In Xew 
England the infusion has been used advantageously in 
leucorrhcea. The active principle is extracted by water 
and alcohol; hot water is said to impair its emetic power; 
te?i to twenty grains of the powdered leaves will act as an 
emetic, a moiety less as an expectorant: two ounces of the 
dried plant are added to one pint of diluted alcohol, of 
which one teaspoonful given to an adult will generally 
bring on nausea, and "sometimes vomiting. This is the 



403 

form in which it is usually prescribed in asthma, repeating 
it several times a clay, and desisting when headache or 
nausea ensues. Coxe, Am. Disp. 373 ; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. i, 179 ; Cutler, Mem. Am. Acad, i, 484; Schcepf, 128; 
Mass. Report, vi; Griffith's Med. Bot 419; Raf. Med. Fl. 
ii, 22. Great use is made of the lobelia in South Carolina 
and Georgia — the steam and vegetable practitioners relying 
on it. , Obstinate and very violent cases of flatulent colic, 
which the tinctures of cardamom, etc., fail to relieve, we 
know to be immediately dissipated by preparations of this 
plant. See Matson's Veg. Pract. and Howard's Imp. Syst. 
Bot. Med. 334. I have generally selected the tincture or 
powder of lobelia wherever I thought relaxation was re- 
quired, and where there was a tendency to spasmodic 
action. Some physicians use the powder habitually as an 
emetic ; others consider it too depressing for ordinary 
cases, and prefer ipecacuanha. The habit of giving an 
agent like this repeatedly, almost daily, throughout a long 
attack of pneumonia, must certainly be injurious; it is, 
nevertheless, adopted by some practitioners. 

Lobelia syphilitica, L. Mountains of Carolina and Geor- 
gia; jSVwbern. Fl. September. 

Bart. M. Bot.; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 268. In the 
Dem. Elem. cle Bot. ii, 92, it is spoken of as an acrid and 
purgative plant: " Se guerissont de la verole en buvant 
line decoction de cinq a six racines." Am. Herbal, 208. 
The Indians employed the decoction internally and topi- 
cally for lues; they communicated their opinion of its vir- 
tues in this respect to Sir W. Johnson, who published it in 
the April number of the Amam. Acad.; "Woodv. Med. Bot. 
177; Kalm. L. C. ; Linn. Veg. M. Med. ; Thornton's Fam. 
Herbal, 727. Dr. Wood, in the U. S. Disp. 436, allows its 
emetic, diuretic, and cathartic properties, but denies it any 
value in syphilis. Dr. Chapman states that it is beneficial 
in dropsy. It is less powerful than the L. inflata, but more 
diuretic and diaphoretic ; its diuretic effects are produced 
by free doses, purging or vomiting as it is augmented. 



404 

From an analysis by M. Boissel, it is found to contain a 
fatty, butyraceous matter, sugar, mucilage, a volatile bitter 
substance, some salts, etc. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iv, 138 ; Des Bois de Rochefort, Mat. Med. ii, 212 ; 
Diet, des Drogues, iii, 378. For analysis, see Journal de 
Pharm. x, 623 ; Kalm. Description du Specifique contre 
le Mai. Venerien, in the Mem. de l'Acad. de Storck, xii, 
1750. 

Lobelia cardinalis, L. Cardinal flower. Grows in inun- 
dated soils, roots often immersed ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
collected in St. John's, Charleston district; Richland, Prof. 
Gibbes ; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 268 ; Drayton's Views, 77 ; U. S. 
Disp. 436; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv. 137; 
De Candolle's Essai, 189 ; Journal de Pharm. iii. 470 ; 
Bart. M. Bot. ii, 186 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 236 ; Griffith's 
Med. Bot. 421. This plant is used by the Indians as an 
anthelmintic — some say quite as efficient as the pinkroot. 
(Spigelj llaryland.) Merat says it is employed as a poison 
by the negroes at the Cape of Good Hope. It is well 
known for its beautiful scarlet flowers. 

Cinchonace^e. (The Co fee Tribe.) 

The grand features of this order are powerful febrifugal 
properties in the bark and emetic in the root. Quinquina 
represents the first and ipecacuanha the second. 

Pinckneya jmbens, Mich. Georgia bark. "Found from 
New river, South Carolina, along the sea-coast to Florida." 
Vicinity of Charleston, Bach. Named in honor of Gen. 
C. C. Pinckney. Fl. June. Plants sent to me by Dr. F. 
P. Pope from Bluffton, S. C. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, i, 267 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 1830 ; U. 
S. Disp. 128; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 519; Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 366. It was said by Michaux in his N. Am. 
Sylva to be very useful in intermittent fever. Dr. Law, 
of Georgia, cured six out of seven cases with it. It did 



405 

not distress the stomach, though to two patients one ounce 
was given at a dose ; one drachm is the usual quantity in 
which it is administered. Dr. Farr detected a considerable 
amount of cinchonine in it, but was prevented from com- 
pleting his examination. The attention of those residing 
where it may be found is invited to it as a substitute for 
quinine. In Georgia a handful of the bark is boiled in a 
quart of water till the liquid is reduced to one-half; the 
infusion is given. 

Mitchella repens, L. Mitchella ; partridge-berry. Vicin- 
ity of Charleston ; grows in shady swampy lands ; collected 
in St. John's. Fl. May. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 199. An infusion of the stems 
and leaves is used in dysuria, its diuretic powers, however, 
not being of any importance. The "Cherokee Doctor" 
declares that the " decoction taken freely is an excellent 
article to facilitate childbirth. It should be used daily 
for two or three weeks before that period ! " The fruit is 
slightly acid, and is edible. 

Cephalanthus occidentalis. Button-bush. Grows along 
rivulets in damp soils ; collected in St. John's ; specimens 
from Aiken ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 187; Drayton's View, 62; Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de Med. ii, 176; Shec. Flora Carol. 376. 
The decoction has been used in palsy. Elliott states that 
the inner bark of the root is frequently employed in obsti- 
nate coughs. Merat notices it as an anti-venereal. A 
writer in the "Mercury" says: "The root of the button- 
wood or crane willow, a shrub which is conspicuous in our 
swamps in the spring, when boiled with honey and cum- 
frey, makes a pleasant syrup, which is the most effective 
remedy known to me in diseases of the lungs. It is 
thought by many intelligent persons to be a radical cure for 
consumption." 

Cojfea Arabica, L. Coffee. Exotic. 

Should the culture of coffee be attempted in the Con- 



406 

federate States, I would refer the reader to Patent Office 
Reports, Agriculture, 1858, p. 313, for an instructive con- 
densed report on the mode of cultivation in Jamaica, 
Central America, and other countries, with the mode of 
planting, harvesting, curing, etc., etc. See "Potato " and 
"Rye" for substitutes for coffee. 

RuBiACEiE. [The Madder Tribe.) 

Rubia tinctorium. Madder. Exotic, 

Any one interested in ascertaining what amount of any 
plant, vegetable or agricultural product was exported from 
or imported into the United States, can obtain a list of 
quantities and value in Patent Office Reports, 1858. It 
serves to show the consumption of certain articles, the 
demand for them, and the consequent necessity for their 
cultivation. I find upon consulting these tables, that 
madder, for example, was imported to an enormous 
amount, twenty million pounds, for calico-printing, dye- 
ing, etc.; a plant which might be cultivated within our 
limits. See method, Patent Office Reports, 1855. So, also, 
soda, barilla, coffee, and numerous other articles which we 
are or were in the habit of importing. We may find 
among the genus Galium some plants yielding dyes — 
Galium trifidum, L. and hispidulum (Rubia JBrownii, Mx.), 
grows from Florida to jSTorth Carolina. G. verum, found 
in England, contains so much pigment as to have been 
cultivated in place of madder. "Its flowering tops boiled 
in alum dye a bright yellow color, its roots yield a red dye 
equal to that of madder, and the whole of the plant when 
bruised has the property of curdling milk, and is some- 
times employed both for coloring and flavoring milk in- 
tended for cheeses;" hence called cheese-rennet. Rural 
Cyc. 

Since writing the above I see it stated by Pursh that the 
Indians use our G. tr(fidum, L. (G. tinctorium) for dyeing 
their porcupine quills, feathers, leather, etc., of a beautiful 
red color. 



407 

Oldenlandia, Houstonia, Medyotis. These plants, growing 
abundantly in the Confederate States, and belonging to the 
madder tribe, should be experimented with for tinctorial 
purposes. 

CAPRiFOLiACBiE. {The Honeysuckle Tribe.) 

Independently of the fragrance and beauty of these 
plants, astringent and purgative properties are possessed 
by some of them. 

Triosteum perfoliatum, Linn. Fever-root ; wild ipecacu- 
anha; wild coffee ; horse gentian. 

Bart. M. Bot. i, 59 ; Barton's Collec. 29 ; Ell. Bot. Med. 
Notes, i, 271 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 91 ; Raf. Med. Fl. i, 
59 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 353. This plant acts as a gentle 
but certain cathartic, particularly when combined with cal- 
omel, when its operation is almost as marked as that of 
jalap. The bark of the root is also emetic, the leaves and 
stalks proving less powerful. To produce its cathartic 
effect Bigelow finds a somewhat larger dose than that of 
aloes or jalap necessary, though it is supposed to be influ- 
enced by age. Rafinesque says the leaves are also diapho- 
retic ; and it is stated by Dr. Muhlenberg that the hard 
seeds, properly prepared, are a good substitute for coffee. 
Randall, in his communication to the Linnsean society, 
asserts that water extracts its virtues best; but it is now 
recommended to be treated with alcohol. The decoction is 
said to be used by the Cherokee Indians in the cure of 
fevers ; also given hot in colds and female obstructions. 
The dose as a purge is from ten to fifteen grains of the 
extract, and twenty to thirty grains of the powdered root. 
Dose of the extract from ten to twenty grains. 

Triosteum angustifolium, Linn. Grows in South Carolina. 
Dr. Tinker's weed. 

Griffith Med. Bot. 353. Possesses properties similar to 
those of the T. perfoliatum, 



408 

Lonicera semjpervirens, Ait. and T. and G. \ "Woodbine. 

Caprifolium, Ell. Sk. J Grows in wet 

swamps ; more abundant in lower country ; vicinity of 
Charleston ; collected in St. John's. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 143. The plant is 
not much used in medicine. The syrup made of the leaves 
is given in asthma, and in angina tonsillaris. The leaves and 
bark of the L. caprifolium of Linn, are styptic and acrid ; 
the flowers diuretic ; the latter in decoction calm the pain 
of colic (coliques ou tranchees) following childbirth. 

Diervitta trifida, Mcench. and T. and G. ^ Bush honey- 
" Canadensis, Ell. Sk. Muhl. \ suckle. Grows 

Lonicera diervilla, Linn. ) in the moun- 

tains of South Carolina and Georgia. Fl. June. 

Dem. Eem. de Bot. iii, 554. The leaves possess a nar- 
cotic principle, inducing nausea, and are recommended as 
a gargle in catarrhal angina. The decoction calms the 
pain attending the disease ; taken largely it causes stupor 
and catalepsy. 

Sambncus Canadensis, Linn. Elder. Grows abundantly 
in South Carolina along fences, and in rich, damp soils ; 
diffused ; Newbern. Fl. June. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 248 ; Bell's Pract. Diet. 404 ; Dray- 
ton's View, 55; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 325; U. S. Disp. 625; 
Eoyle, Mat. Med. 423 ; Cullen, Mat. Med. ii, 534 ; Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 196 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
354. " The leaves are fetid, emetic, and a drastic purga- 
tive;" the plant acting in the same way as the European 
species, the S. nigra ; the leaf-buds also operating as a pow- 
erful purgative. The flowers are excitant and sudorific, 
and are used in the form of an ointment as a discutient. 
The inner bark is a hydragogue cathartic and emetic, act- 
ing well in dropsy, and as an alterative in various chronic 
diseases. The purgation which results from its employ- 
ment is sometimes, however, too severe. The berries are 
diaphoretic and aperient, and are used as a remedy in 



409 

rheumatic gout and syphilitic affections. The juice of 
these diluted with water furnishes a cooling and valuable 
laxative drink. This plant is employed to some extent in 
domestic practice for the purposes severally referred to 
above. A decoction made by pouring boiling water over 
the leaves, flowers, or berries of the elder is recommended 
as a wash for wounds to prevent injury from flies. An 
ointment used for the same purpose is prepared by stirring 
the elder or mixing the juice into lard while boiling, and 
straining through a coarse sieve. Beeswax may be added. 
According to Mr. Cozzens, the ripe berries afford a delicate 
test for acids and alkalies. 

The leaves of the English elder (S. nigra) are noxious to 
insects, moles, etc. The flowers are used in fomentations 
and cooling ointments. " The leaves boiled in lard make 
one of the most emollient and suppling unguents known to 
the farmer. The flowers are used for making a perfumed, 
distilled water. The berries, according to experiments of 
M. Wehrle, of Vienna, produce a comparatively much 
larger quantity of spirits than can be obtained from the 
malt of the best wheat. The juice in these experiments 
was expressed from the berries, treated in the same manner 
as the must of grapes, and afterward distilled." "Wilson's 
Rural Cyc. It would be interesting to ascertain to what 
extent our species share the above properties. 

Composite. 

These embrace four orders, all of which are distinguished 
by bitterness, which in the different sections is variously 
combined. In the order Asteracejs it assumes a particular 
character, being united with a resinous principle; in the 
Cynarace^e this bitterness depends upon the mixture of 
extractive with a gum, which is sometimes yielded in great 
abundance; the Chichorace,e are characterized by a juice, 
which is milky, bitter, astringent, and narcotic. 

Vernonia angustifolia, Mx. Grows in the pine lands in 
lower country; collected in St. John's. Fl, July, 



410 

The root is used by the negroes in South Carolina as a 
remedy for the bite of serpents. It is also considered by 
them to be aphrodisiac. 

Liatris odoratissima, Walt. Wild vanilla. St. John's, S. 
C. ; Wassamasa swamp ; North Carolina, near sea-coast 
(Croom). 

Very aromatic. Used for scenting cigars. The aroma is 
abundantly given out when trodden upon by horses' feet. 

Liatris squarrosa, W. Crows in pine lands; collected in 
St. John's; Richland district; vicinity of Charleston. 

IT. S. Disp. 1273; Journal de Chim. Med. v, 419. "Y 
sont usitees contre la morsure des serpens." Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. iv, 97. 

Liatris scariosa, W. Grows in pine lands ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 1273, Appendix. It is employed in gonor- 
rhoea, and as a gargle in sore throat. 

Liatris spicata, W. Crows in wet pine lands ; collected 
in St. John's, Charleston district; vicinity of Charleston; 
iSTewbern. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 1272. One of the "rattlesnake's masters." 
Dr. Barton said that all the tuberous-rooted Liatres were 
active plants. 

This plant, called " button-snakeroot" by some, is report- 
ed to be a stimulant, diuretic, and expectorant; also pos- 
sessing powers as an anodyne ; it is consequently given as 
a remedy in colic, the tincture or the decoction of the root 
being employed — said to resemble senega snakeroot, and 
to excite a flow of saliva when chewed. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum, Linn. Thoroughwort ; boneset. 
Grows in damp soils ; diffused ; Richland district ; common 
in low country. Fl. July. 

Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. i, 387, and ii, 435 ; Bell's 



411 

Pract. Diet. 197 ; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 303 ; Pe. Mat. 
Med. and Therap. 389; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 216; 
Eberle, Mat. Med. ii, 216 ; Royle, Mat. Med. 445 ; U. 8. 
Disp. 319 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 197 ; Big. Am. Med. 
Bot. i, 34 ; Thacher's Am. Disp. 217 ; Am. Med. Record, 
iii, 331; Barton's Essay to Mat. Med. 28; Ball, and Gar. 
Mat. Med. 315 ; Schcepf, Mat. Med. 121 ; Guthrie, in An- 
nal. of Med. iii, 403 ; Anderson's Inaug. Thesis, New York ; 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 177 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 
271; "Shec. Flora Carol. 549; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 133; Lind. 
Nat. Syst. Bot. 253. A warm infusion of this plant is 
emetic, sudorific, and diaphoretic ; employed cold as a tonic 
and febrifuge. The hot decoction may be given in the hot 
stages of fevers without exciting the system. Small quan- 
tities of the cold infusion, repeatedly given will, it is said, 
>purge, and are prescribed in constipation. The leaves and 
flowers, in powder, also purge, given in doses of ten to 
twenty grains. The discharge of bile is promoted by it. 
It has been repeatedly prescribed with advantage in rheu- 
matism, typhoid pneumonia, catarrhs, dropsy, and in the 
influenza which prevailed at the North, and which was de- 
scribed b} 7 Dr. Rush ; he also used it with great success in 
the yellow fever of 1798 ; and Dr. Chapman found it one 
of the most effectual remedies in the epidemic called the 
"break-bone fever." Graves, of Dublin, has made much 
use of it in the ship, or typhus fever. See note to Graves 
and Gerhard, Am. ed. This plant is extensively employed 
among the negroes on the plantations in South Carolina as 
a tonic and diaphoretic in colds and fevers, and in the ty- 
phoid pneumonia so prevalent among them. In a few cases 
which have come under my observation, I have found this 
and the senega snakeroot [Poly gala senega) convenient and 
useful prescriptions in this disease; the latter, with tartar 
emetic solution, to promote expectoration ; and the former, 
with flaxseed tea, as a stimulant diaphoretic, combining 
them with spirits of turpentine when it has assumed the 
typhoid form. From its action on the capillaries, it has 
been recommended in chronic cutaneous diseases. Barton 



412 

said it possessed no power in this regpect ; but in the hands 
of Dr. Zollickoffer it has proved eminently successful in 
tinea capitis, given in combination with cremor tartar. See 
Griffith, Med. Bot. 391. In the Supplem. to the Diet, de 
M. Med., 1846, it is reported to have been given with benefit 
in asthma. Echo du Monde Savant, 16 ; Janvier, 1845. 
The infusion of the roots and leaves is usually preferred, of 
which one to three ounces may be taken several times a 
day; of the root, in powder, the dose is thirty grains. As 
an emetic and cathartic a strong decoction is used, made by 
boiling an ounce of the herb in three half-pints of water to 
one pint ; given in doses of one or two gills or more. 
Given hot, it acts as a diaphoretic ; cold, as a tonic. 

Thoroughwort or boneset tea used hot, in the cold stages 
of malarial fever, and cold in the hot stages, is believed by 
many physicians in South Carolina, who have used it since 
the beginning of the war, to be the very best of our indige- 
nous antiperiodics as a substitute for quinine. It is thought 
to be superior in this respect to either poplar bark (Lirioden- 
dron tulipifera), willow (Salix), or dogwood. It is also an 
excellent stimulating diaphoretic in low fevers. 

The plants just mentioned, the blackberry, chinquapin, 
(Ga&tama) and dogwood to be used as astringents, the 
gentians, pipsissewa, Sabbatia, etc., as bitter tonics, can 
easily be obtained by our soldiers while in camp, and they 
will be found to fulfil all the indications required in most 
cases of fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, catarrhs, etc. In the 
formation of demulcent drinks, as substitutes for flaxseed 
and gum-arabic, the roots and leaves of the sassafras, and 
the leaves of the Bene (Sesamum) will suffice. The Podo- 
phyllum (wild jalap) will supply the purgative ; therefore, 
with the possession of opium and calomel, the surgeon in 
the field can himself obtain almost everything desired, and 
with comparatively little aid from the Medical Purveyors. 
Our chief desiderata now are the preparations of potash, 
viz : nitrate chlorate and bicarbonate, and sup. carb. of soda. 
We may procure soda from our Salsola kali. 

The winter-green (Chimaphila umbellata) is both tonic and 



413 

diuretic, and may be given with advantage in dropsy. In 
examining* (1862) the excrescences produced by an insect on 
nearly all the leaves of the cotton-wood tree [Populus hete- 
rophylla, L.) I find them possessed of an intensely bitter 
principle, which may be made useful as a tonic given in 
spirits. The cinquefoil (Potentilla) is mucilaginous, and I 
am informed that in Sumter district, S. C, it is used with 
great advantage as a remedy in affections of the lungs, 
chronic colds, etc. The "Indian doctors" make a pill to 
act upon the liver, which they call the "hepatic pill," by 
boiling thoroughwort leaves until their strength is extract- 
ed, then strain the decoction and continue boiling till it 
becomes thick — an extract in other words. It is made up 
with starch into pills, and three are given at a dose. See 
"Indian Guide to Health." 

Eupatorium purpureum, L. Purple thoroughwort; gravel 
root. I have a specimen from Abbeville district from Mr. 
Reed ; Richland district ; collected in St. John's, Charles- 
ton district ; grows in damp or inundated soils ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 319 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 
177. It is said to operate as a diuretic ; and it is one of 
the popular remedies for calculus, probably possessing prop- 
erties somewhat similar to those of the Eup. per/. 

Eupatorium teucrifolium, W. and T. and G. 1 Wild 

" verbencefolium, Ell. Sk. j horehound. 

Grows in damp soils ; collected in St. John's. Fl. August. 

Michaux, Flora Amer. ii, 98 ; U. S. Disp. 319. This is 
tonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, and aperient. A popular 
remedy in intermittents. See observations of Dr. Jones, 
of Georgia. It may be substituted in some cases for the 
Eup. perfol. 

Eupatorium rotimdifolium, L. Grows in dry pine barrens ; 
collected in St. John's, Berkley ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Richland district. Fl. July and August. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 177 ; Journal Gen. 



414 

de Med. xxxvi, 111. The infusion is said to be useful in 
consumption. See Dr. Mitchell's letter. 

Ewpatorium fceniculacewn, Willd. Dog-fennel. 

This plant is said to tan leather in an extraordinarily short 
space of time, by a process which attracted much attention 
during the fall of 1861. Strange that in my examination 
of this plant, with that of others, I found that it contained 
scarcely a trace of tannin. But the common name of dog- 
fennel has been applied to the ox-e}-ed daisy (Leucanthe- 
mum vidgare, Lam.), and to the wild chamomile (JSIaruta, 
cotida), or stinking Mayweed. Since my publication advis- 
ing the myrtle as a material for tanning, I see a notice of 
its being used by Mr. Cummings for the purpose. It is 
believed by some that the presence of this plant indicates 
the existence of the cause of malarial fevers. It is used to 
keep off insects and bugs by strewing on the floors of 
cellars and dairies. 

The Tallahassee Floridian (1861) says : 

" Leather tanned by the new process. — "We have seen a 
specimen of kip leather said to be tanned by Isaac Bier- 
field, of aSTewberry, S. C, in twenty days, with his dog- 
fennel preparation. The sample was soft and pliable, and 
had all the appearance of being equal to the best French 
leather. We understand that our shoemakers so pro- 
nounce it. 

"Everybody knows what dog-fennel is, and will be glad 
to learn that it is of some account after all. The weed 
grows in great abundance and perfection in all parts of 
Florida. Mr. Bierfield says that now is the time to gather 
it, and that it should be put under shelter. Planters 
would do well to lay by a goodly portion of it, as it may 
prove highly valuable in the manufacture of their leather." 

I have not been able to procure, by application made to 
Mr. Bierfield, any specimens of the plant. 

Aster iortifolius, Mx. Mouse-ear. Vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; grows in dry pine barrens : collected in St. John's. 



415 

This plant has some reputation in domestic practice in 
South Carolina as a diuretic. I have noticed the summit 
generally covered with little insects. 

Aster cordifolium. Grows in rich lands. Fl. August. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 387. It possesses antispasmodic prop- 
erties. A small species (Diplopappus Unarifolius, Hooker, 
Aster, Ell. Sk.) grows in pine barrens, St. John's, S. C, the 
leaves of which contain an unusual amount of silica ; they 
are employed to polish horns, and as a substitute for sand- 
paper. 

Erigeron Canadense, L. Colt's-tail ; flea-bane. Common 
in damp, sandy soils; collected in St. John's; vicinity of 
Charleston ; Richland, Gibbes ; Kewbern. Fl. July. 

Royle, Mat. Med. 447 ; Matson's Veg. Prac. 368 ; U. S. 
Disp. 316; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. iii, 140; 
Journal de Bot. 448 ; et des Pharm. 214 ; Coxe, Am. Disp. 
268 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 395 ; D6m. £lem. de Bot. 200 ; 
Raf. Med. Fl. 

This is a stimulant tonic, diuretic, and astringent, 
employed with marked success in dropsy and diarrhoaa; it 
is much used by the vegetable practitioners in the latter 
disease ; they give a teacupful of the infusion of the herb 
in hot water every two hours ; when chewed it relieves 
cholera morbus. Dr. Depuz found it useful in these 
diseases. See his observations quoted in the U. S. Disp. 
316. He found tannin, gallic acid, and volatile oil among 
its constituents, from whence its beneficial action in the 
diseases specified may be inferred. An infusion of the 
powdered flowers is antispasmodic, and is employed in 
hysterical and nervous affections. The oil obtained from 
the plant possesses extraordinary styptic properties. The 
dose of the powder is thirty grains to one drachm. 

Erigeron Philadelphicum, L. iSTon. Ell. Frost-root. Com- 
mon in pastures ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of 
Charleston. Fl. May. 

Liud. Nat. Syst/Bot. 253; Shec. Flora Carol. 537; 



416 

Royle, Mat. Med. 447; Bart. M. Bot. i, 234; IT. S. Disp. 
317. It is diuretic, without being offensive to the stomach. 
Fr. Elems. 81. In great repute as a remedy in calculus 
and in nephritic diseases. It was a favorite prescription in 
Philadelphia in dropsy, and Dr. Wistar recommends it in 
hydrothorax complicated with gout. The plant is officinal. 
One ounce of the plant to be administered in infusion or 
decoction of one pint in twenty-four hours. 

Erigeron strigosum, Muhl. Grows in sandy soils ; vicin- 
ity of Charleston. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 396. It is similar in properties to 
the jE7. annuum, a favorite diuretic in the dysuria of chil- 
dren — used by Physick and Dewees in painful micturition 
dependent on nephritis. This also yields a styptic oil 
similar to that afforded by the E. Canadense. 

Erigeron pusilum, Grows in pastures and cultivated 
soils ; collected in St. John's. Fl. June. 
IT. S. Disp. 316. 



/o odora, Ait. Golden rod. Grows in rich soils, 
among the mountains, and in the upper districts, accord- 
ing to Ell. Collected in St. John's also; Newbern. Fl. 
October. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 437 ; IT. S. Disp. 679 ; 
Big. Am. Med. Bot. i, 189. An aromatic, moderately 
stimulant, and carminative plant, and like other substances 
of the same class, diaphoretic in warm infusion. It is used 
to allay pain from flatulence, lessen nausea, and cover the 
taste or correct the operation of irritating or unpleasant 
medicines. Merat states that the infusion is also employed 
as an astringent in dysentery, and in ulceration of the 
intestines. Journal Gen. de Med. xxxvi, 3. When the 
leaves are subjected to distillation a very aromatic, volatile 
oil collects, and an essence may be made by dissolving this 
in proof spirits. This will also stop vomiting and correct 
the taste of medicines, even laudanum and castor oil ; 



417 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 397, observes that it is valuable in 
allaying the pain from headache, externally applied. It is 
much used in the Eastern states, and Bigelow thinks it will 
entirely supplant more expensive articles. According to 
Pursh, the dried flowers are a pleasant and wholesome 
substitute for tea. 

Solidago Canadensis, L., ) Margin of fields. Used in 
" ^mocera, Ell. J Canada as a most valuable dye. 

The leaves^ and flowers of the English species are used 
for making a yellow dye; said to be as good as woad. 
Eng. Flora, v. iii, Farm. Encyc. Its stalks are numerous, 
straight, and grow almost five feet in height; they afford 
very strong fibres if treated in the same manner as hemp. 

Solidago sempervirens, L. Narrow leaf golden-rod. Grows 
in wet lands ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. September. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 437. Very effica- 
cious in the cure of wounds. 

Inula helenium. Elecampane. Mountains of North Caro- 
lina. Chap. Introduced. 

Inuline, a vegetable substance of closely kindred nature 
to starch and dextrine, was discovered by Rose in Elecam- 
pane, and takes its name from the old botanical designation 
of that plant (I. helenium). It is spontaneously deposited 
from a decoction of the roots of Elecampane, and it consti- 
tutes the greater part of the solid matter of the tubes, both 
of the dahlia and the Jerusalem artichoke. It is a white 
powder, and consists by analysis of Payen of 46.6 per cent, 
of carbon, 6.1 of hydrogen, and 49.3 of oxygen. It is solu- 
ble in hot water, being distinct from both gum and starch 
by its insolubility in cold water. But when exposed to a 
temperature of three hundred and seven degrees, it com- 
pletely melts, acquires new properties, and becomes solu- 
ble both in cold water and in alcohol. Boussino;ault 
showed that it is not colored by iodine, while acetic acid, 
which is without action on starch, produces with inuline 
27 



I 418 

precisely the same effects as the sulphuric and other acids ; 
finally, diastase, whose reaction upon starch is so peculiar, so 
prompt, and so powerful, does not cause any change in inu- 
line. It is, therefore, easy to separate these two substances 
when they are mingled, by heating the mixture either with 
acetic acid, which dissolves the inuline, or with diastase, 
which dissolves the starch. I insert the above from Wil- 
son's Rural Cyc. and Boussingault's treatise on account of 
the interesting nature of the product. See, also, works on 
chemistry. The roots should be dug in autumn, and in the 
second year of their growth, as when older they are apt to 
be stringy and woody. The dried root has a very peculiar 
and agreeable aromatic odor, slightly camphorous. The 
taste at first is glutinous and somewhat similar to that of 
rancid soap ; upon chewing it becomes warm, aromatic, 
and bitter. In its medical properties, elecampane is tonic 
and gently stimulant. By the ancients used in diseases of 
females ; in the United States mostly confined to diseases 
of the lungs. It has also been extolled when applied ex- 
ternally for the cure of itch, tetter, and other diseases of 
the skin. Farmer's Encyc. 

Baccharis halimifolia, Jj. Sea myrtle; consumption weed. 
Grows along the sea-coast ; collected in St. John's, where 
it is found in abundance ; vicinity of Charleston ; JSTew- 
bern. Fl. October. 

Shec. Flora. Carol. 256. This plant is of undoubted 
value, and of very general use in popular practice in South 
Carolina, as a palliative and demulcent in consumption and 
cough ; I have frequently seen it used with advantage, and 
have often heard those employing it confess the benefit de- 
rived from it. A strong decoction of the root may be 
drunk several times a day. It is slightly bitter and mucil- 
aginous to the taste. No analysis has yet been made, so 
far as I can learn. Shecut states that the " bark is said to 
exude a gum so much resembling honey as to attract bees 
in great numbers." This, like many others of our indige- 
nous plants possessed of unequivocal utility, is unnoticed 
in the dispensatories and other works. 



419 

Pterocaulon pycnostachyum. Grows abundantly in dry 
pine barrens; collected in St. John's, Berkley. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, ii, 324. Much use is made of this 
plant in St. John's, Berkley, as an alterative; it is supposed 
to be possessed of decided value. It is well known as the 
blackroot of the negroes. A decoction of the root is given 
several times a day. 

Xanthium strumarium,~L. Burr; burdock. Grows abun- 
dantly in cultivated lands ; collected in St. John's, Berk- 
ley; vicinity of Charleston; Richland, Gibbes. Fl. Au- 
gust. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 970 ; Dioscorides, 
lib. iv, 133. It has been used in scrofula. The only works 
in which we have been able to find any account of it are 
the Dem. filem. de Bot. iii, 91, where the leaves are said to 
be astringent, the seeds diuretic, and the expressed juice 
useful in affections of the bladder, and as an auxiliary 
remedy in the treatment of ringworm ; also in Linnaeus, 
Vegetable Mat. Med. 172, according to which it is found 
beneficial in herpes and in erysipelas ; hence, we may infer 
that it has at any rate some power as an alterative. Its 
leaves afford a yellow dye. No use is made of it in South 
Carolina or Georgia, so far as I can ascertain. The plant 
is considered a nuisance by farmers, as the burrs get entan- 
gled in the wool of sheep, from which they are with diffi- 
culty removed. 

Verbesina Virginica, Linn. Grows along fences ; collect- 
ed in St. John's; Richland district. Fl. July. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 380. The root, in decoction, is said 
to be a powerful sudorific. 

Ambrosia arteiyiisicefolia, "W. Rag-weed. Grows in culti- 
vated lands and pastures; collected in St. John's, Charles- 
ton district. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 227. The plant is 
ueed in fevers in Maryland as a substitute for quinine; a 



420 

tincture is made, or the juice given with whiskey. It is 
very bitter, and is thought to be useful. 

Ambrosia trifida, Linn. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 387. A plant has been noticed by 
Dr. Robertson (Am. Journal Med. Sci. xii, 382, new series), 
which appears to be this, which is highly beneficial in ar- 
resting excessive salivation. 

Eclipta erecta, Linn. T. and Gray. 1 Collected in St. 
" procumbens, Ell. Sk. J John's; dry soils; 

vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 387. It is said to stain the hair black. 

Helianihus tuberosus. Artichoke. Cultivated in South 
Carolina. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplem. 1846, p. 351. 
The root washed in water, and given to animals, will, it 
is said, produce meteorism ("meteorizations mortelles"). 
Nouv. Biblioth. Med. viii, 426. 

In Patent Office Reports, p. 578, 1848, a paper on the 
culture of the Jerusalem artichoke, translated from the 
French, is published. This contains a full description of 
its various uses as an article of food, etc. I will enumerate 
some of them : 

The tubers are regarded in Alsatia, and near Strasburg, 
as an excellent nutriment for milch cows; equally good 
as food for horses, which are thus kept in a good condition, 
and sustain hard labor. With the addition of salt, they 
are also useful in feeding sheep. The tubers compare very 
well with the potato in the amount of dry matter they con- 
tain, and its relative value as a root-plant used for fodder is 
maintained. The " stalks are of nearly as great use as the 
tubers ; and here is the advantage which it has over the po- 
tato." Even if the stalk is cut early in September, which 
diminishes the size of the tubers, it is compensated for by 
the supply of green food at that early period. According 
to Schwertz's experiments, one hundred kilogrammes of 



421 

the green stalks equal, as regards nutritious qualities, 
31.250 kilogrammes of our hay. The stalks of the arti- 
ehoke can be employed even should they be allowed to 
remain till the tubers are ripe, when they are readily eaten 
by all domestic animals. "Finally, the stalks of artichokes 
have for fuel a value which no other product of field cul- 
ture has. To prepare them for use they are cut in two, 
and made up into fagots. This fuel is especially adapted 
for heating ovens or furnaces." 

It bears a great amount of cold. It can be left in the 
ground all winter, and does not easily suffer from heat. It 
is well adapted even to dry and poor soils. The article 
which I condense contains full information as to the best 
mode of planting, gathering, etc. "Kade, an Alsatian, 
saw the same soil produce every year for thirty years a tol- 
erable crop of stalks and tubers of this plant, though it had 
not for a long time received either culture or manure." 
Early in April is the best time to plant, but even in winter 
they can be put in the ground. Withered tubers may be 
used as seed if soaked; but planting of pieces or cuttings 
has not the same success as with the potato. Unless the 
season is too moist the tubers may be left in the ground all 
winter. To preserve them when gathered " it is sufficient 
to make a heap and cover them with earth, for they are not 
affected by cold unless when exposed to the open air. The 
stalks intended to serve as fodder in place of hay are cut 
with a sickle, and carefully dried by leaning them up in 
heaps." M. Vilmerne, of the Agricultural Society of Lyons, 
remarks that the artichoke was known as an esculent plant 
by the Romans, but neglected in the dark ages, till it again 
came into notice in the sixteenth century. Almost all 
parts of this plant, he says, may be rendered useful. The 
leaves yield an extract which may be substituted for quinine. 
The leaves themselves may be cooked and eaten after the 
fruit is gathered, or used as fodder mixed with certain 
grasses. They may be substituted for hops in making 
beer, and they contain a great proportion of potash. 

The Jerusalem artichoke contains a very large propor- 



422 

tion of starch. It is used for making pickles, and eaten as 
a vegetable. It is easily cultivated, gives less trouble 
than almost any other plant, reproduces with scarcely any 
attention, and is a most valuable food for cattle, hogs, etc. 
See Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, etc. ; Thae'r's 
Science of Agriculture. 

Among our best plants which may be cultivated for 
starch may be mentioned the potato, .wheat, rice, arrow- 
root (Maranta arundinacea), corn, etc. For methods, see 
Ure, and domestic receipt books. 

Helianthus annuus. Sunflower. Cult. 

Evaporation takes place in plants to an inconceivable 
degree under certain circumstances. It is known by the 
experiments of Dr. Hales that a sunflower plant will lose 
as much as one pound fourteen ounces by perspiration in 
twelve hours. " Taking all things into account, a sunflower 
perspires seventeen times more than a man." 

The French make a moxa out of the pith of the sun- 
flower. The English use for this purpose cotton dipped in 
a solution of saltpetre. 

A few years since Commander Maury recommended the 
sunflower to be planted around exposed residences, as a 
barrier against malaria. 

The seeds are used for fattening poultry, as they are 
highly nutritous. One hundred pounds of the seed of the 
sunflower are said to yield forty pounds of oil. The refuse 
after expression furnishes excellent food for cattle. "From 
the leaves of the plant cigars are manufactured, of singular 
pectoral qualities. The stalk affords a superior alkali." 
(Mrs. Ellsworth.) 

The following I extract from the Farmer's Encyclopaedia: 

"An acre of land will contain twenty-five thousand sun- 
flower plants, twelve inches distant from each other. The 
produce will be according to the nature of the soil and 
mode of cultivation ; but the average has been found to be 
fifty bushels of the seed per acre, which will yield fifty 
gallons of oil. The oil is excellent for table use, burning 



423 

in lamps, and for the manufacture of soaps. The marc, or 
refuse of the seeds after the oil has been expressed, made 
into cake, will produce fifteen hundred pounds, and the 
stalks when burnt for alkali will give ten per cent, of 
potassa. The green leaves of the sunflower when dried 
and burnt to powder make excellent fodder for milch cows, 
mixed with bran. From the ease with which sunflowers 
are produced in gardens (for they seem to flourish in any 
soil, and to require no particular care), we may safely say- 
that an acre of land will yield a considerable return. 
Poultry are very fond of the seeds." 

The following appeared in the "Atlanta Commonwealth," 
1862 : 

"Sunflower seed and ground-nut oil. — The fact has been 
known for some time that the crop of linseed oil was 
short, and that there would, in consequence, be a great 
scarcity of linseed oil. Very naturally those interested 
began to look around for a substitute, and the oils of cotton 
seed, sunflowers, and pea-nuts have been favorably men- 
tioned. How far either will serve as a substitute we do 
not know; but certainly the oil extracted from some one or 
all of them might subserve some useful end. 

" We recollect that some years ago the cultivation of the 
sunflower was strongly urged in an agricultural periodical 
for various useful purposes ; first, for a bee pasture ; 
secondly, the seeds were good for poultry, or the manufac- 
ture of oil; and then, after the oil was expressed, to be 
compressed into oil-cake for cow-food and fattening hogs ; 
the leaves for fodder and the stalk for wrapping paper. In 
the present condition of the country, these suggestions 
may not be without value. 

" The manufacture of oil from cotton seed, we believe, 
has been carried on for some time in !N"ew Orleans, and 
expressed seed made into oil-cake for cow-food. We see 
no reason why this oil should not be made in any desirable 
quantity and with great profit, as well as serve most of the 
purposes for which oil is used." 

Anthemis. See Maruta. 



424 

Maruta cotula, D. C, T. and G. "I Wild chamomile ; 

Anthemis, Ell. Sk. J May -weed. Grows 

in dry soils; collected in St. John's, Berkley; vicinity of 
Charleston ; liTewbern. Fl. July. 

Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 741 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. i, 741 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. Med. 263 ; IT. S. Disp. 
278 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 171 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 398. A 
tonic, diaphoretic, and emetic; resembling chamomile in 
its effects, to which it is full} 7 equal, but more nauseous. 
It is one of our most useful domestic remedies, and is 
given in numerous diseases. It is also possessed of some 
power as an antispasmodic. A decoction acts as a sudor- 
ific and anodyne, and is given in colds and hysterical 
attacks. Merat mentions it as a substitute for assafcetida, 
that it is employed as an antihysteric, and is recommended 
in rebellious bilious fever. Dr. Ash by speaks of it as a 
prompt and powerful vesicant when bruised and applied to 
the surface as a poultice. Barton and Rafinesque had con- 
veyed a different impression concerning it. Dr. Ashby 
adds that unlike blisters caused by other vegetable irri- 
tants, the vesications readily heal. Journal Phil. Coll. 
Pharm. Every part of the plant is fetid and acrid, has 
minute resinous dots upon its surface, and when much 
handled blisters the skin. Rural C} 7 c. The flowers of the 
medicinal chamomile are powerfully antiseptic — one hun- 
dred and twenty times superior to salt. 

Achillea millefolium, L. Milfoil; yarrow. Grows in damp, 
rich soils; collected in St. John's, Berkley; vicinity of 
Charleston ; ISTewbern. Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 1225, Appendix; Le Mat. Med. ii, 108; Ed. 
and Vav, Mat. Med. 267; Bergii, Mat. Med. 738; Hoff- 
mann, "De Prfestantia Remed. Domest. ;" Matson's Veg. 
Pract, 299; Mer. and de L. Diet, de Mat. Med. i, 22; 
Shec. Flora Carol. 91; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 253; Woodv. 
Med. Bot. 180. This is an astringent; employed in the 
suppression of hemorrhages. The Highlanders made an 
ointment of it to dry up wounds. Linnaeus informs us 



425 

that the inhabitants of Delecarnia mix it with ale in place 
of hops, and think it imparts to the liquor an intoxicating 
quality. Lightfoot's Flora Scotica, 486; Thornton's Fam. 
Herb. A tablespoonful of the expressed juice will arrest 
spitting of blood ; and it is also valuable as an astringent 
in dysentery. Dr. Buckwald says he experienced great 
benefit from the plant in the bleeding piles. Stahl boasted 
of it as a specific; and the great Haller asserts that the infu- 
sion, taken inwardly, with the outward application of the 
leaves, cut fine, will dissipate dreadful wounds — cicatrizing 
them rapidly. Stahl, Diss, de Therap. ; Hoffman, "De 
Pnestant. Remed." 18 ; Linnaeus, Flora Shec. 299. Besides 
the astringent, it possesses a mild, antispasmodic, tonic 
power, which renders it beneficial in hysterical affections 
and in leucorrhoea. The flowers are stronger than the 
leaves, being somewhat similar to chamomile, and yielding 
by distillation a small quantity of essential oil of a blue 
color. Dr. Grew says it resembles contrayerva in its 
effects. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplem. 1846, 
p. 5. See Analysis in Bull, des Sci. Med. de Ferus, xxii, 
119, and xxvi, 253; Soc. de Med. Botanique de Londres, 
1830. It is asserted that this plant has a marked tonic 
power upon the bladder ; it is employed in debility of that 
organ, and is especially useful in correcting the involun- 
tary discharge of urine in children. A handful of the 
leaves is infused in a pint of boiling water, and three 
ounces may be taken by an adult three times a day. See 
Culverwell's treatment. This plant might be found of 
great service by practitioners residing in the country. 
The leaves of yarrow, or milfoil, are said by Johnson, in 
his Chemistry of Common Life, to "have the property of 
producing intoxication. These are also used in the north 
of Sweden by the Delecarnians to give headiness to their 
beer." 

Tanacetum vidgare, L. Tans}^. Sparingly nat. in North 
Carolina. Chap. 

Plant emits a strong but not unpleasant odor, and has a 



426 

bitter taste; said to possess tonic, cordial, and anthelmintic 
properties. Rural Cyc. See, also, medical authors. Plant 
yields an oil, and is culinary and medicinal. 

Leucanthemum vulgare, Lam. and T. and G. \ Ox-eyed 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, L. J daisy; white 

weed. Natural in upper districts; collected in St. John's 
Charleston district; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 394; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
ii, 271; Nouv. Journal de Med. v, 208; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
387. It is vulnerary and detergent. Dem. Elem. de Bot. 
iii, 212. In Siberia, according to Dr. Rehmann, they em- 
ploy the plant in leucorrhoea. It is not used in this country. 
Nouv. Journal de Med. v, 208. Contraine states that it is 
a certain safeguard against fleas, destroying, or driving them 
oft' in a short time. Bull. Acad. Brux. viii, 234. 

Antennaria margaritacea, R. B. T. and G. T Cat -weed; 

Gnaphalium margaritaceum, L. Ell. Sk. - / life - everlast- 
ing. Grows among the mountains of South Carolina; 
vicinity of Charleston, Bach. Fl. Sept. 

U. S. Disp. 1258. It is employed in popular practice in 
diseases of the chest and bowels, and is externally applied 
as a fomentation to wounds and bruises. Schoepf says it 
possesses anodyne properties. 

Gnaphalium polyeepkalum, Mx. Cat-foot. Diffused in 
upper and lower country. Grows in pastures; collected in 
St. John's; vicinity of Charleston; •STewbem. Fl. August. 

U. S. Disp. 1258; Matson's Veg. Pract. 275. "It proba- 
bly possesses little medicinal virtue." A popular remedy 
in hemorrhagic affections, and as a fomentation in bruises 
and languid tumors. The infusion is employed by the 
vegetable practitioners in fever, influenza, fluor albus, and 
consumption. Acting probably as a warm sudorific. It 
has a pleasant, aromatic, and slightly bitter taste when dry. 

Arnica nudicaulis, Ell. Grows in damp, pine barrens; 
vicinity of Charleston, Bach; St. John's, S. C; Florida; 
Richland, Gibbes. 



427 

Griffith, Med. Bot. 409. It is supposed that this may be 
used as a substitute for the European species, the A. Mon- 
tana, which is well known as a powerful plant, possessing 
stimulant properties ; directed with peculiar energy to the 
brain and nervous system. It also produces an emetic and 
cathartic effect, and is much used by the Germans in paral- 
ysis, amaurosis, and other nervous diseases. 

Senecio aureus, Ell. Sk. Ragwort.- Mountains of South 
Carolina. Fl. July. 

II. S. Disp. 1295. It is said by Schcepf to have been a 
favorite vulnerary with the Indians; the juice of the plant 
in honey, or the seeds in substance, are employed. 

Onicus benedictus, T. and G. \ Nat. along the sea-coast, 

Centaur ea benedicta,~L. J near Beaufort; collected in 

St. John's; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. August. 

Trous. et Pid. Traite de Therap. etc., i, 253 ; Pe. Mat. 
Med. ii, 408 ; Ed. and Yav. Mat. Med. 179 ; U. S. Disp. 
196; Le. Mat. Med. i, 202; Woodv. Med. Bot. 34, i, 14; 
Ann. de Therap. 1843, 206; Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 747; Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 171; Thompson's Steam 
Pract. 

The plant is emetic, tonic, and febrifugal; one drachm of 
the powder of the flowers in wine, with a decoction of the 
leaves, is said to be invaluable in anorexia, weak stomach, 
impaired by irregularities of diet, atony, jaundice, and ter- 
tian fevers ; Thorn. Fam. Herbal, 725 ; Dem. Elem. de Bot. 
iii, 115. It is used, also, in chronic diarrhoea and in gout. 
Woodv. he. cit. A decoction "possesses marked tonic 
properties;" a large dose acting as an emetic, and occasion- 
ing a plentiful discharge from the cutaneous surface. It is 
employed as a febrifuge in dyspepsia, pleurisy, and chronic 
peripneumony. Woodville says the extract is strongly rec- 
ommended in the catarrh of children ; the seeds are very 
bitter, and may be used with the same intention as the 
leaves. Rectified spirits extract the virtues of the plant. 
The watery extract appears, also, to possess the emetic prin- 



428 

ciple. By keeping, a salt is produced upon the surface 
resembling nitre. See Hist, des Sc. de Berlin, 79; and 
Duncan's Edinb. New Dispensatory. 

Cynara scolymus. Jerusalem artichoke. Ex. Cult. 

I call attention to this plant, as it grows luxuriantly in 
the Confederate States. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. Supplem. 1846, 234. 
"Dr. Montaine, of Lyons, assures us," remarks Merat, "that 
each year he treats with success a large number of fever 
patients with the extract of the leaves in the form of pills." 
Great use is made of it on the plantations in this state as 
a tonic and diuretic in dropsy; the leaves are steeped in 
rum, of which a wineglassful is administered three times a 
day; among the negroes I have frequently seen it pre- 
scribed with advantage in this way. It is employed also in 
jaundice, the expressed juice or the infusion being used; of 
the former two or three spoonfuls may be given; large 
doses purge. We also use the corollas for curdling milk. 
The modern Arabians consider the root aperient, and class 
the gum among their emetics. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 284; 
Ainslie, Mat. Med. Ind. i, 22. Dr. Copeman, pharmaceu- 
tist to the hospital at Norfolk, makes a favorable report on 
the value of the leaves in the form of tincture and extract, 
in rheumatism. See London Med. Gazette, 1833, from 
extracts in Gazette Med. de Paris, 13th April, 1833. Dr. 
Barry first employed the leaves in chronic jaundice, and 
Perroton, of Lyons, also administered it frequently in the 
same disease. Revue Med., Nov. 1845. 

Taraxacum de)is-leonis,Desf., T. and Gray. \ Dandelion. 

Leontodon taraxacum,, Ell. Sk. / Collected in 

St. John's, Berkley; I have observed it growing in the 
streets of Charleston and New York; Newbern. 

Watson's Pract. Physic, 39; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 
184; Wilson Philip, Diss. Abdom. Viscera; Bell's Pract. 
Diet. M. M. 445; Royle, Mat. Med. 453; Pe. Mat, Med. ii, 
401; IT. S. Disp. 706; Le. Mat. Med. i, 396; Brande, Diet. 



429 

Mat. Med. and Pharm. v, 632; Woodv. Med. Bot. 39, t. 16; 
De Cand. Prodromus, vii, 45; Ball. Gar. M. M. 319 ; Bergii, 
Mat. Med. ii, 687; Mer. and de L. Diet, de Mat. Med. iv, 
87; English Physician, by Mch. Culpepper, gent, "Student 
in Physic and Astrology," p. 109. 

The root is deobstruent, cathartic, and diuretic. "Good 
in obstructions of the viscera, scirrhosities of the liver, stone 
in the gall-bladder, ascites, jaundice, etc." A decoction of 
the root is also useful in impetigo and itch; the doses are 
one drachm of the juice and two ounces of the decoction. 
Thornton's Fam. Herbal, 677; Dem. Elem. de Botanique, 
iii, 169. At Gottingen the roots are washed and substitut- 
ed for coffee by the poorer inhabitants ; they say the differ- 
ence between this and the imported article can scarcely be 
distinguished. Murray's Apparat. Med. Withering men- 
tions that when a swarm of locusts destroyed vegetation on 
the Isle of Minorca the inhabitants subsisted on this plant. 
The great Boerhaave entertained a favorable opinion of it; 
and Bergius found it useful in derangement of the biliary 
apparatus from gall-stones, etc. Mat. Medica. Delius, de 
taraxaco praBsertim aquse, etc. Dr. Mendelstaed cured black 
jaundice (l'ictere noir) with it. Van Swieten, in his Com- 
ment., Zimmermann, and Storck spoke of it in jaundice and 
hypochondriacal affections. Later writers have confirmed 
these opinions expressed by those living at an earlier period. 
Dr. Wood, in the IT. S. Disp., says that his experience in 
derangements of the biliary secretions has been decidedly 
in its favor, it being particularly valuable in chronic hepa- 
titis. Eberle recommends it in chronic cases of infantile 
jaundice: "Diseases of Children." Griffith, in his Med. 
Bot. 415, alludes to its use in deranged conditions of the 
digestive organs, connected with an abnormal state of the 
liver, and in dropsical effusions arising from the same cause. 
In habitual costiveness, dependent on a want of due biliary 
secretion, it acts with peculiar benefit; and, as an adjuvant 
to more active remedies, where the liver is indurated, it has 
been prescribed with advantage. It has been employed, 
likewise, in affections of the spleen, uterine obstructions, 



430 

chronic cutaneous disorders, etc. "When its diuretic effect 
is desired, it is advised that it be given in combination with 
supertartrate of potash. This plant is supposed to be pos- 
sessed of valuable properties as an alterative, and much use 
is made of it among patients of a strumous diathesis, and 
those affected with diseases of the skin. I have seen it em- 
ployed to some extent in New York for these purposes, 
constituting an important ingredient of diet drinks. It 
may be easily obtained, and might be found of much ser- 
vice to practitioners residing in the country. The young 
shoots are eaten as salad. It has been observed that the 
flowers possess a certain degree of sensibility; for when 
under the influence of the direct rays of the sun on a sum- 
mer morning an evident motion of the filaments is percep- 
tible. See MSS. Lect. of Dr. Hope. The plant should be 
gathered in the summer and early in the autumn. An 
analysis of it is found to contain gum, gluten, albumen, an 
odorous principle, extractive, caoutchouc, a peculiar bitter 
crystallizable principle, some salts, etc. The decoction 
made with two ounces of the root of a whole plant to two 
pints of water, boiled to one-half, may be given in doses of 
a wineglassful; of the extract, the dose is ten grains to a 
half-drachm; the latter should be of a brown color, and 
entirely soluble in water. 

The young shoots are edible, and produce in children a 
diuretic effect. The leaves and roots of this plant are bit- 
ter, and contain a bitter milky juice. I have given the 
extract largely during five years attendance at the Marine 
Hospital, Charleston; and I ascertain that the extract 
certainly produces a laxative effect given in from ten to 
Shirty grains — the same, or a much larger quantity, dissolved 
in water, proved diuretic. In this way I account for the 
different qualities ascribed to it. There was always a ten- 
dency to ascribe a power in the dandelion to act upon the 
portal system. "The roots of the plant were esteemed to 
be diuretic, saponaceous, and resolvent, and to be powerful 
remedies for removing obstructions of the liver, and of the 
other viscera." Their purified, expressed juice has been 



431 

given, from two to six ounces, twice, thrice, or oftener in 
the day ; and infusions and decoctions of the herb and root 
have been used for the same purpose. Boerhaave had such 
a great opinion of the continued use of the juice, or of the 
infusions of the plant, that he believed they were capable 
of removing most obstructions of the viscera that were to 
relieved by medicines. Bergius, likewise, as was stated, 
speaks much in the praise of this simple, and says "that 
he has often seen it prove of service after other reme- 
dies had failed; and that he had seen hardness of the liver 
removed by patients eating, daily, for some months, of a 
broth made with dandelion root, the leaves of sorrel and 
the yolk of an egg with water, while they took at the same 
time cream of tartar to keep their bodies open;" and he 
adds "that he has seen a similar course of service in the 
ascites, and in cases of gall-stones." (Thornton's Herbal, 
677.) The yolk and yellow of eggs undoubtedly produces 
a laxative effect ; so does the dandelion in the fresh state, or 
in the form of the extract. It is a useful vegetable laxative 
in place of calomel. I have seen a physician in Charleston 
send to the ISTorth for the fresh plant while it grew abun- 
dantly at his own door. Leontodon contains caoutchouc. 

Cichorium intybus. — Wild endive; chiccory. Introduced. 
As this plant is cultivated to some extent in the Confeder- 
ate States, and will probably be largely required in the 
future, I insert the following, which I find in Dickens' 
"Household Words." 

Chiccory is in truth, however, one of the most harmless 
substances that ever have been used for the purpose of the 
adulteration of coffee, not excepting even water — as it is 
obtained in London. In the case of all low-priced coffee — 
of all coffee purchased by the poor — adulteration with chic- 
cory yields profit to the grocer simply because it yields pleas- 
ure to the customer. Good chiccory and middling coffee 
dexterously mixed can be sold at the price of bad coffee, 
and will make a beverage at least twice as good, and possi- 
bly more, certainly not less wholesome. Coffee that chic- 



432 

cory would spoil is bought by none of the poor, and by a 
portion only of the middle classes. We do not advocate 
secret adulteration, but we would have the adulteration to 
be made open, and all people to understand distinctly that 
since chiccory is altogether wholesome it is a matter that 
depeuds upon the taste and the pocket whether they will 
buy coffee pure or mixed. Take away all fraud from the 
use of chiccory, and we shall be glad to see its use fairly 
promoted. Let us look a little more closely into the sub- 
ject. 

Chiccory is better known to many of us when growing 
wild in many parts of England on dry, chalky soils under 
the name of the wild endive; it belongs to a tribe of com- 
posite plants called "the Cichoracese," in which are inclu- 
ded, also, dandelion and the garden lettuce. It shoots 
above the soil a tuft of leaves, and when it runs to flower, 
sends up a stem from one to three feet high, rigid, rough, 
branched, clothed with leaves and blue flowers. It has a 
long root like that of a carrot, which becomes enlarged by 
proper cultivation, and is the part used for the manufacture 
of a substitute for coffee. Every part of the plant is per- 
fectly wholesome — the root when fresh is tonic, and in large 
doses slightly aperient. Chiccory is cultivated extensively 
in Belgium, Holland, and Germany. It is cultivated in 
France for its leaves, as herbage and pasturage; in Germany 
and Flanders for its roots. It was first cultivated in Eng- 
land about 1780 by the well-known agriculturist, Arthur 
Young. It is a most valuable article of farm produce. On 
blowing poor and sandy land it yields more sheep food than 
any plant in cultivation ; it will thrive on fen, and bog, and 
peat ; it is good fodder for cattle ; it is good for pigs. It 
grows only too readily, if that be an objection, for if not 
carefully extirpated, it is apt to become a vivacious weed. 
For herbage chiccory is sown precisely in the same way as 
clover; for the roots it is sown and thinned in the same way 
as carrots, and taken up, as carrots are, in the first autumn 
after sowing. 

The great demand for chiccory has led to its very exten- 



433 

sive cultivation in this country; considerable sums of money- 
have been expended on the kilns and machinery required to 
prepare it for the markets, and a large amount of capital is 
at the present time profitably employed upon this new 
branch of English agriculture. It is not unimportant to 
notice that the cultivation of chiccory requires and remuner- 
ates the use of lands worth from five pounds to eight pounds 
per acre; that so far from exhausting the soil, wheat may 
be grown upon it after chiccory with the greatest advantage ; 
that it furnishes occupation for a very large number of la- 
borers, including women and children, and at a time of year 
when the fields aflbrd but little other employment ; and that, 
consequently, in some parishes, the poor's rate has been 
diminished by one-half since chiccory was introduced. 

The blanched leaves of chiccory are sometimes used as a 
substitute for endive, and are commonly sold as an early 
salad in the Netherlands. If the roots, after being taken 
up, be packed in sand, in a dark cellar, with their crowns 
exposed, they will push out shoots, and provide through the 
winter a very delicate blanched salad, known in France as 
Barbe de Capucin. When chiccory is to be used for coffee 
the roots taken up by the grower are partly dried, and then 
sold to the manufacturer, by whom they are cut into slices, 
roasted, and ground. The ground chiccory thus made is 
used by many poor upon the Continent as a substitute for 
coffee by itself. It has not, of course, the true goftee flavor r 
but it makes a rich and wholesome vegetable infusion of a 
dark color, with a bitterish sweet taste, which would prob- 
ably be preferred by a rude palate to the comparatively 
thin and weak, and at the same time not very palatable in- 
fusion of pure coffee of the second or third quality. 

By the combination of a little chiccory with coffee the 
flavor of the coffee is not destroyed, but there is added to 
the infusion a richness of flavor, and a depth of color — a 
body, which renders it to very many people much more 
welcome as a beverage. The cheapness of chiccory enables 
a grocer, by the combination of chiccory powder with good 
coffee, to sell a compound which will yield a cup of infi- 
28 



434 

nitely better stuff than any pure coffee that can be had at 
the same price. Any one with a sensitive taste, and a suffi- 
cient purse, would of course buy coffee of the finest quality, 
and never think of bettering with chiccory the enjoyment of 
its delicate aroma. The majority of the people, however, 
are by no means in this position. Coffee, with an admix- 
ture of genuine chiccory (which we take care to procure by 
purchasing the article in its raw state, and having it roasted 
the same as coffee), was preferred to coffee in its pure state. 
The reason of this we can clearly understand, and will ex- 
plicitly state. We can afford to sell, and do sell a finer 
coffee when mixed with chiccory than we can sell in its pure 
state at the same price; and the superiority of the coffee in 
conjunction with the fulness of the chiccory, in our opinion, 
decidedly gives greater satisfaction to the public. 

It is, however, a rule that will bear harshly on the com- 
forts of the poor if coffee is to be sold only in its pure state, 
and chiccory cannot be obtained in any less quantity than a 
two-ounce packet. Two ounces of chiccory would go in 
mixture to about a pound of coffee, and there are thousands 
who buy coffee itself by ounces. Moreover, the chiccory cof- 
fee sold by the grocer is made with coffee of a higher price 
and better quality than the poor man would dare to give 
for coffee bought pure, when he has to make another outlay 
upon chiccory for mixing. The necessity of two purchases 
would suggest the idea of greater cost, lead to a desire for 
more economy ; so in the buying the poor man would be a 
loser. Certainly, also, he would lose by having to make at 
home, in his own clumsy way, the mixture which it had 
been before the interest of the grocer so to proportion that 
he might bring custom to his shop by issuing an article as 
good and palatable as any that could be contrived by his 
competing neighbors. 

"Of all the plants," says Thaer, in his Principles of Agri- 
culture, "which have been proposed as substitutes for coffee, 
and which when roasted and steeped in boiling water yield 
an infusion resembling coffee, chiccory is the only one 
which has maintained its ground. It has been used in this 



435 

manner for thirty years, even when the price of coffee has 
"been low; and has always yielded considerable profits, both 
to manufacturers who prepare it in large quantities and 
those who cultivate it in their neighborhood. It has also 
been cultivated as a fodder-plant, and highly recommended 
by Arthur Young in England. A plentiful supply of fodder 
is obtained without injury to the roots." See Thaer for 
method of cultivation, etc. 

In Patent Office Reports, 1854, p. 348, is a briet notice 
of the mode of cultivating chiccory. A variety which the 
French call Chicor&e sauvage h cafe, has long fleshy roots 
like the white carrot, which are used for making coffee. 
" In the Middle and Southern states the roots may remain 
in the ground during winter without injury from frost." 

Among the substitutes for coffee employed in the Con- 
federate States during its great scarcity, I may mention 
rye, raw yam potato, cut into small fragments, roasted and 
parched, okra seed, and corn flour parched and ground, cot- 
ton seed, the ground-nut, Bene, etc., which have all been 
tried. 

Lactuca elongata, Muhl. } Wild lettuce. Damp soils; 
" longifolia, Mx. / collected in Charleston dis- 
trict; Newbern. Fl. June. 

U. S. Disp. 421; Ann. de Therap. Ann. 1843; Woodv. 
Med. Bot. 75-31 ; see L. virosa, Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. iv, 10. 

It is said to act as an anodyne, and to produce discharge 
by the kidneys and skin, being similar in its effects to the 
L. virosa of Europe; according to others, it is destitute of 
narcotic power; see M. Aubergier's experiments. 

Nabalus fraseri, D. C. and T. and G. V Gall of the earth, 
Prenanthes alba, Ell. Sk. J Grows in damp 

pine lands; collected in St. John's; Richland; vicinity of 
Charleston ; Newbern. 

The root is excessively bitter; it is used in domestic prac- 
tice in this state as a tonic. I would invite further ex- 
amination. 



436 

Sonchus oleraceus, L. Common sow-thistle. Diffused; 
collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston; JSTewbern. 
Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 439. It is said to be 
useful in stagnation of the portal circulation ; according to 
some, it increases the secretion of milk. Fl. Scotica, 428; 
Dem. Elem. de Bot. iii, 177. The tender leaves are boiled 
and eaten in some countries as greens; they are of a cool- 
ing nature, are applied outwardly as an emollient cataplasm, 
and are found serviceable in inflammatory swellings, car- 
buncle, etc. The flowers open at 6, a. m., and close at 12, m. 
The roots are milky and bitter, but have occasionally been 
converted into bread. Rural Cyc. 

Plantaginace^;. (The Bib-grass Tribe.) 

The herbage slightly bitter and astringent. 

Ptarttago major. Plantain. Nat. Collected in St. John's, 
Berkley, near the Santee river; I have also observed it in 
the streets of Charleston; Richland district; Newbern. Fl. 
June. 

Bergii, Mat. Med. i, 71; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 232; U. S. 
Disp. 1289, App.; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 135; Mer. and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 358; Journal Univ. des Se. Med. 
xix, 127. 

The leaves, when chewed, tinge the saliva red. This 
plant was a popular vulnerary and astringent once in great 
repute. It was also highly valued for its efficacy in fevers. 
Bergius, however, tested it with unfavorable results. We 
are informed that "the seeds in milk will stop a dysentery." 
Boerhaave states, from his own experience, that the fresh 
leaves applied to the feet will ease the pain and fatigue oc- 
casioned by walking, and that the whole plant was esteemed 
useful in healing and consolidating ulcers and recent wounds, 
and as a dressing for blisters and sores. The leaves no 
doubfrmake a soothing application to inflamed surfaces. A 
decoction of the leaves in milk was employed as a gargle 
in inflammation of the fauces, and a collyrium was made 
with a decoction of the seeds. Thornton's Fam. Herb.; 



437 

Woodv. Med. Bot.; Dem. Elena, de Bot. 85; Milne, Ind. 
Bot. 102. It was looked upon as a panacea by the ancients; 
see Pliny, 1. 26, c. 11; Celsus, lib. iii, c. 22; Scultz, Mat. 
Med. i, 112; Boyle de Util. Phil. Nat. ii, 150; Petzolat, 
Eph. Nat. cur. cent, vii, Obs. x, 25. It was formerly carried 
as an amulet. "En fin," remarks Merat, "on a porte la 
racine des plantains en amulet pour guerir ou prevenir une 
multitude des maladies." See the Diet, de M. Med. Sup- 
plem. 1846, 567; Rev. Med. Juin, 1837, 399. Dr. Perret 
communicated to the Soc. des Sc. Med. de Lausanne a re- 
port on the beneficial effects derived from the root in vari- 
ous maladies: Journal Univ. des Sc. Med. xix, 127; and 
Desbois says he has seen the good effect resulting from the 
use of the leaves in scrofulous ulcers and in indolent tu- 
mors. Mat. Med. ii, 254. The authors of the U. S. Disp., 
however, refer to it as a plant of feeble power, allowing it 
to be refrigerant, diuretic, deobstruent, and somewhat as- 
tringent. A chemical analysis would be desirable, as it is 
probable that a narcotic principle exists in it. 

Plantago lmiceolata,VYi. Ribwort; snake plantain. Grows 
around Charleston and Savannah; collected in damp mead- 
ows in St. John's, Berkley; Newbern. Fl. July. 

Fl. Scotica, ii, 1089. It possesses properties very similar 
to the above. The Highlanders attribute great virtue to 
the leaves as an ointment for healing up fresh wounds. 

Plumbaginace.e. {The Leadwort Tribe.) 

This order embraces plants possessed of very opposite 
qualities; part are tonic and astringent, and part acrid and 
caustic in the highest degree. 

Statice limonium, Torrey. V Marsh rosemary. 

" Caroliniana, Walt. Fl. Carol. / Grows on the sea- 
shore. Fl. Sept. 

U. S. Disp. 680; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 251; Coxe, Am. 
Disp. 568. This is one of our "most intense and powerful 
astringents;" much used in New England for all the pur- 



438 

poses to which catechu and kino are applied. A large dose 
acts as an emetic, and in smaller quantities as a powerful 
expectorant; it also possesses considerable antiseptic power. 
Its chief popular application is to aphthous and ulcerative 
affections of the mouth and fauces. Dr. Balies, of Massa- 
chusetts, found it highly serviceable in eynanche maligna: 
he used a decoction of the roots both internally and locally, 
and these beneficial results have been corroborated by 
others. It is also given with advantage in S. anginosa, and 
in aphthous fever attendant on dysentery, where bark is in- 
admissible. From the experiments of Prof. Y. Mott, in an 
inaugural thesis spoken favorably of by Dr. Bigelow, it 
proved serviceable in chronic dysentery after the inflamma- 
tory symptoms had subsided. From his observations, as 
well as from those of Dr. Edward Parrish, the cold infusion 
was the best form. Dr. P. found it to contain twelve per 
cent, of tannin', also gum, extract, alkali, etc., but no gallic 
acid. Am. Journal Pharm. xiv, 116; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
525; Am. Journal by John Stearnes, 281; see S. limonium; 
Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 524. It was regarded 
as an astringent in the time of Pliny ; lib. xxvi, 28. The 
root is employed in infusion, decoction, or tincture. Alco- 
hol is a better solvent of the properties of the root than 
water. The infusion with cold water is preferable to that 
with hot. 

Ehretiace^e. 

Heliotropium Indicum. Turnsole. Michaux found it at 
the Eutaw battle-ground, St. John's, Berkley ; and Mr. 
Oemler in the Dutch Fork, in Richland district. Fl. July. 

Ell. Bot. ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M! Med. iii, 462. It 
has been employed in the cure of headache. See Walke- 
naer, "Voyage," xii, 469. It is used in Guinea and in 
India. The juice is applied to eruptive surfaces, opthal- 
mias, etc. Ainslie, Mat. Med. Ind. ii, 414. Rottboll, after 
Sprengel, says it is a vulnerary, employed in some coun- 
tries to arrest flooding. Hist, de la Med. iv, 467 ; Abbet, 
Guyane, i, 117. 



439 

Boraoinaceje. {The ISorage Tribe.) 

Characterized by soft, mucilaginous, and emollient prop- 
erties. Some are said to contain nitre, a proof of which is 
shown by their frequent decrepitation when thrown on the 
fire. Lindley. 

Lithospermum arvense, L. Bastard alkanet. Introduced. 
Waste places, Florida, and northward. 

"Wilson states that the red bark of the root stains paper, 
linen, oily substances, and the human skin ; and that it is 
sometimes used as a rustic substitute for rouge, and as a 
coloring matter of ointments. Rural Cyc. 

Cynoglossum amplexicaule, Mx. 1 Hound's tongue. Wild 
" Virginicum, L. j comfrey. Grows in shady 

spots ; Richland and Charleston districts. Fl. June. 

The root is mucilaginous, and much emplo} 7 ed in domes- 
tic practice for complaints of the lungs, and externally for 
poultices in sprains, bruises, etc. Farmer's Encyc. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 489. According to Clayton, the root 
is astringent, and is administered in diarrhoea. The leaves 
intoxicate when smoked as tobacco. According to Griffith, 
it is stated that the root may be used as a substitute for 
comfrey. Med. Bot. 500. 

Cynoglossum officinale, L. Introduced. Waste grounds, 
North Carolina, and northward. Chapman. 

The leaves, when touched, emit a pungent and disagree- 
able odor, like that of mice in a trap. The plant is eaten 
by goats, but is disliked by all other domestic animals. Its 
roots have astringent and narcotic properties — regarded as 
antiscorbutic. Wilson's Rural Cyc. 

Lamiace^e or Labiate. ( The Mint Tribe.) 

These do not contain a single unwholesome or even sus- 
picious species ; their tonic, cordial, and stomachic quali- 
ties are due, according to Lindley, to the presence of an 
aromatic, volatile oil, and a bitter principle. 



440 

Mentha tenuis. American spearmint. Cult. 

It is an antispasmodic, and is said by Culpepper to be 
also an aphrodisiac. English Physician, by Nieh. Culpep- 
per, gent, " Student of Physic and Astrology," p. 214. It 
is considered by the steam and vegetable practitioners a 
specific in allaying nausea and vomiting. Thompson's 
Practice, and Matson's Veg. Pract. 286. 

Melissa officinalis. Balm. Introduced. 

The balm, sage, mint, and other aromatic plants, for the 
most part cultivated in our gardens, need scarcely more 
than a reference. The melissa is cultivated for bees. The 
reader is referred to an article on "Secretion in plants," 
in Wilson's Cyc, showing the deposits of aromatic and 
other properties at the base of plants, with the theories of 
De Candolle, Macaire, and others. 

Mentha piperita, L. Peppermint. Introduced. 

We have also the round-leaved mint (M. rotundifolia) — 
introduced. 

They abound in resinous dots, which contain an essential 
oil. The pleasant, aromatic, antispasmodic properties of 
these labiate plants are well known. They flourish within 
the Confederate States, and the essence and mint water can 
be extracted in any quantity. In Patent Office Reports, 
1854, the mode of culture of a number of medicinal herbs 
is described, particularly the aromatic plants, viz : sage, 
mint, rosemary, mustard, etc., pp. 367 to 380. Nearly all 
the native and introduced plants containing aromatic oils 
can be raised at the South in sufficient quantities to supply 
all demands. An establishment such as that at New Leba- 
non, New York, and at other localities, for the cultivation 
of medicinal and useful plants on an extensive scale, should 
now receive consideration. See my paper in De Bow's Re- 
view, August, 1861. . . 

Ijycopus Europeus, Eat. M. ^ Water horehound. Nat. in 
" angustifolius, and V damp soils; collected in St. 
" sinuatus, Ell. Sk. J John's ; vicinity of Charles- 
ton. PL July. 



441 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 25; U. S. Disp. 437; Mer. and de 
L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 168; Matson's Veg. Pract. 250; 
Milne, Ind. Bot. 34. This is reputed to give an indelible 
stain to whatever it touches. Hoffmann says the gypsies 
use it to disguise themselves. It has been highly spoken 
of on the Continent of Europe in intermittent fevers; Prof. 
Re, of Turin, declares that in doses of two drachms of the 
dried plant the most obstinate intermittents were removed. 
Broffiero says it is astringent. See letter (in French) on 
the properties of L. Eurojjeus in allaying fever. Dr. Brof- 
fiero's note in the Repertorio Medico Chirurg. 832, and 
Griffith's Med. Bot. 505. It is emplo3 7 ed by the vegeta- 
ble practitioners in diarrhoea, atonic conditions of the di- 
gestive organs, and as a cleansing wash for sores. I 
would invite attention to this and the following, which are 
easily obtained. 

Ly co-pus Virginicus, Mich. Bugle-weed; Virginian ly co- 
pus. Diffused; collected in St. John's, Berkley; vicinity 
of Charleston; Richland district. Fl. August. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 168. It has been 
administered internally with great success in hemorrhage 
aiid haemoptysis ; and in phthisis it lessens the force of the 
circulation. Iu the diseases first mentioned Dr. Silliman 
verifies the results obtained b}^ Linstey — twent}^ persons 
having tried it with benefit in internal hemorrhage. Drs. 
Porter and Winkoop also report cases in which they have 
employed it with success. See Journal des Sc. Med. 154. 
According to Dr. Ives, of New Haven, it' is a mild narcotic. 
Drs. Pendleton and Rogers, of New York, obtained favor- 
able effects from it in incipient phthisis and hemorrhage 
from the lungs. See New York Med. and Phys. Journal 
i, 179; U. S. Disp. 436; Raf. Med. Fl. 11. As a direct 
sedative, it is useful in diminishing the frequency of the 
pulse, quieting irritation, and allaying cough. Practition- 
ers, observes Griffith (Med. Bot. 505), are unanimous in 
declaring that it is an important addition to the Mat. Med. 
It appears to act like digitalis in abating the frequency of 



442 

the pulse; its use, however, not being attended with the 
disagreeable symptoms sometimes accompanying the em- 
ployment of the latter. An infusion may be given ad libi- 
tum, made with one ounce of the herb macerated in a pint 
of boiling water. It imparts a black color to linen, wool- 
len, and silk. This plant grows abundantly in the lower 
country of South Carolina. 

Salvia lyrata, L. Caucer-weed. Grows in shady, rich 
lands ; collected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Richland district; Xewbern. Fl. June. 

Ell. Bot, Med. Notes, i, 31. " The fresh radical leaves of 
the plant, when bruised and applied to warts, generally 
destroy them;" continue the application for a day or two, 
and renew it every twelve hours. The leaves of the 
Hieracium gronovii are also applied in this way. The H. 
venosum is announced as a certain remedy against the bite 
of the rattlesnake. 

Salvia officinalis. Sage. Ex. Cult. 

Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 268 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. 
Med. vi, 191. This is a warm aromatic, and according to 
the experiments of Ellinger, is possessed of marked anti- 
spasmodic power : it strengthens the circulatory, cutane- 
ous, and digestive functions ; stimulates the action of the 
nerves, and has a decided effect upon the cephalic organs 
(see Merat and authors) ; prescribed as a stomachic, and in 
catarrhal and cellular infiltration, and used as a gargle in 
mucous angina and fungous ulcers. u Cur moriaiur homo 
cui salvia crescit in hortof became an adage, so much confi- 
dence was formerly reposed in the plant. Its reputation is 
most extensive in domestic practice, the warm infusions 
being given as a sudorific, and in promoting the menstrual 
discharge. The plant is said to have great power in resist- 
ing the putrefaction of animal substances. Van Swieten, 
Com. ii, 370 ; Woodv. Med. Bot. It is thought to have a 
remarkable efficacy in stopping night sweats, infused in 
wine or spirits, and this opinion was sustained by Quarin, 



443 

Methodus Medend. 37. Baron Yan Swieten also found it 
efficacious in restraining the inordinate flow of milk after 
weaning children. In the English Physician, p. 295, the 
quaint author, Nich. Culpepper, gent., "Student in Physic 
and Astrology," mentions it as an aphrodisiac: "Helpeth 
conception and hinders miscarriage." "Jupiter claims 
this, and bids me tell you it is good for the liver and to 
breed blood!" The essential oil deposits camphor in abun- 
dance, hence employed as a friction in rheumatism, paraly- 
* sis, etc. Journal de Pharm. xvi, 574. 

I introduce the following on the cultivation of 
Sage. — The cultivation of this herb is among the most 
profitable of the market gardener's products. Large quan- 
tities of it are sold while green during the season, as every 
housekeeper uses it in the cooking of game, or water-fowl, 
and it is essential as a component of sausages, so that tons 
of it are used in the winter season. At the price it is usu- 
ally retailed in the markets of our larger cities, an acre of 
sage plants will yield a return of over seven hundred dol- 
lars; and at the wholesale price, it will give a return of 
over three hundred dollars .to the acre. The seed can be 
had of most seedsmen. It should be sown in any light, 
loamy soil, covered about half an inch deep ; and when the 
plants are about two inches high, should be picked out and 
replanted at distances of about one foot each way. As 
soon as it has grown so as to begin to show form of flower 
buds, cut it off' to within two inches of the ground, and so 
on, again and again, throughout the season. If planted on 
land thoroughly drained, the plant will stand many years ; 
but plants not over two years old produce the best flavored 
leaves. 

Monarda punctata, L. Dotted monarda ; horsemint ; 
origanum. Grows in rich and damp soils ; collected in St. 
John's, where it is found abundantly ; vicinity of Charles- 
ton ; Richland district ; Spartanburg. Fl. August. 

Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. ii, 302; Ell. Bot. Med. 
Notes, 30 ; IT. S. Disp. 462 ; Am. Med. Record, ii, 496 ; 



444 

Ball, and Gar. Mat. Med. 360 ; Mer. and de L: Diet, de M. 
Med. iv, 444 ; Bull des Sci. Med. de Ferns, xi, 302. This 
is another of our very aromatic indigenous plants, possess- 
ing stimulant aud carminative powers, and regarded as a 
very popular emmenagogue among those residing in this 
country. The French authorities speak favorably of it; an 
aromatic oil is obtained from this ; and the infusion of the. 
leaves, recent or dried, is very efficient in allaying nausea 
and vomiting in bilious fevers. Dr. Chapman mentions 
cases of long-standing deafness cured by the oil rubbed on 
the head as a counter-irritant. It was used in cases of this 
description, and in many diseases, by Dr. Atlee, of Phila- 
delphia; see his essay; among other affections in hemi- 
plegia and paralytic diseases, in the sinking state of epi- 
demic typhus, in cholera infantum, where there is prostra- 
tion of strength, and in mania a potu ; sometimes employing 
a liniment (see Chap. Therap. and Mat. Med. ii, 305) ; and 
sometimes the undiluted oil rubbed on the parts. The oil 
is of an amber color approaching to red, and if exposed to 
a great degree of heat, leaves a beautiful straw-colored 
camphor ! 

Thymus vulgaris. Ex. Cultivated in South Carolina. 
A well-known warm aromatic. 

Collinsonia Canadensis. Gravel root ; horseweed ; knot- 
weed; Canadian collinsonia. Grows in the mountains of 
South Carolina. Fl. September. 

The root is used in colic from lochial discharge. Linn. 
Veg. M. Med. 9. " The infusion of the bruised root in 
cider cured several alarming cases of dropsy." Shec. Flora 
Carol. 482, and Mease's Domestic Encyc. ii, 177. Dr. 
Wood says it possesses tonic, astringent, diuretic, and dia- 
phoretic powers ; the root in substance, even in small 
doses, is said to irritate the stomach, and produces vomit- 
ing; the active principle is volatile, so that it is best em- 
ployed, in the fresh state. The decoction is efficacious in 
catarrh of the bladder, leucorrhoea, gravel, dropsy, etc., 



445 

and as a cataplasm to internal abdominal pains. IT. S. 
Disp. 1248. Merat says, Diet, de M. Med. ii, 364, that in 
America it merits the name all heal (gu&rit tout), having the 
properties referred to above. Drs. A. French and Beers 
speak highly of it in pains of the bladder, in ascites, and 
dropsy of the ovaries; given, also, as a powerful tonic in 
putrid and malignant fevers, and in leucorrhoea; the con- 
tused leaves are applied to bruises, lividities (les meurtris- 
seurs), pains in the stomach, and as an application to erup- 
tions produced by the poisonous sumachs. (See Rhus.) 
The plant, by chemical analysis, contains tannin, gallic 
acid, extractive matter, and a coloring principle. Op. cit. 
See, also, Ann. de la Soc. Linn, de Paris, v. 508. In his 
late work, Griffith (Med. Bot. 513) states that externally 
it has been employed as a friction in rheumatism. See 
account of it by Dr. Hooker, of New Haven, Ann. Linn. 
Soc. Dr. H. thinks the infusion should be made with a 
gentle heat, in a close vessel. The best preparation is sup- 
posed to be the essential oil, which is said to be an excel- 
lent tonic, given with benefit in low fevers, exhaustion of 
the forces, etc. This plant certainly merits further notice. 

Collinsonia anisata. Griffith's Med. Bot. 515. 
It possesses an odor somewhat similar to that of anise- 
seed, having the properties of the C. Canaden. 

Collinsonia scabra. Rough-leaved collinsonia. Collected 
in St. John's, in shaded soils. Fl. June. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 364. It is possessed 
of properties similar to those of the C. Canaden. Tonic, 
astringent, and diuretic. See C. Canaden. 

Cunila mariana, Mx. Dittany ; Maryland cunila. Grows 
in the mountains of South Carolina; Richland; I find it 
abundant in Spartanburg district, S. C. 

Bart. M. Bot. ii, 175 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. 
ii, 517; Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 276; Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 
127. The infusion forms a pleasant and refreshing drink ; 



446 

it is diaphoretic, and is employed in fevers and colds. A 
gentleman in Spartanburg district, S. C, tells me that 
in his day "everybody cured everything with dittany." 
Doubtless they took less mercury and drastic purgatives in 
consequence. 

Hedeoma pulegioides, Pursh. Pennyroyal ; tickweed. 
Grows in the upper districts, and among the mountains of 
South Carolina ; abundant in Spartanburg, S. C. 

U. S. Disp. 365; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 165; Lincl. Fat. "Syst. 
276, and Flora Med. 491 ; Griffith's Med. Bot. 508 ; Raf. 
Med. Fl. i, 231 ; Bart. Veg. Mat. Med. ii, 165. A gently 
stimulant aromatic, given in flatulent colic, and sick stom- 
ach; also as a stimulant diaphoretic in catarrhs and rheu- 
matism. The warm infusion is a convenient and useful 
prescription, which is largely employed in popular practice 
in promoting the menstrual discharge. It is said that the 
plant, or the oil extracted from it, is an effectual remedy 
against the attacks of ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes. 

Prunella vulgaris. Heal-all. Grows in dry soils; col- 
lected in St. John's, Berkley. Fl. July. 
' Le. M. Med. ii, 245; Med. Diet, by Carr, art. Brunella ; 
U. S. Disp. 1291 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 276 ; Mer. and 
de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 520. This plant, though pos- 
sessing some power as a stimulant, has fallen into disre- 
pute. It was also used as an astringent in affections of the 
throat. 

Scutellaria lateriflora. Mad-dog scull cap; hood wort. Grows 
along ditches; Richland, Gibbes; collected in St. John's; 
Elliott says it is found in the mountainous districts. 

Watson's Pract. Physic, 386 ; IT. S. Disp. 1294, Appen- 
dix ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 274 ; Bulletin de 
la Faculte, vii, 191, aim. 1820, where Spalding's (of Geo.) 
report concerning its antihydrophobic virtues is referred 
to. Youatt spoke in favorable terms of this remedy as 
enjoying the reputation for some time of being the only 
one for this disease. See Watson, loc. cit. 



, 447 

Scutellaria integrifolia, L. Diffused in swampy soils : col- 
lected in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston. Ft. June. 
U. S. Disp. 1294. 

Nepeta caiaria, L. Catnip. Nat. in upper districts ; col- 
lected also in St. John's ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

Le. Mat. Med. ii, 130 ; II. S. Disp. 191 ; Ed. and Vav. 
Mat. Med. 216 ; Bergii, Mat, Med. ii, 540 ; Mer. and cle L. 
Diet, de M. Med. iv, 592 ; Dem. Eletri. cle Dot, 248 ; Am. 
Herbal, 26. This plant is possessed of stimulant, tonic, 
and warm aromatic virtues. Employed in popular prac- 
tice in colds, asthma, amenorrhcea, chlorosis, hysteria, and 
the flatulent colic of infants ; in the latter condition this 
herb is universally employed. It was also used in yellow 
fever, and, like many others, enjoyed an ephemeral repu- 
tation as a remedy in hydrophobia. An iufusion of the 
flowers was said to open obstructions of the liver and 
spleen. In the Supplement to the Diet. Univ. de M. Med. 
1846, 509, it is stated that Dr. Guastamachia had used the 
N. cataria with great advantage in toothache, caused by 
cold or carious bone, mashing the leaves in the decayed 
tooth ; this produces an abundant flow of saliva, and causes 
the pain to cease in a few moments. See, also, Journal de 
Chirm Med. vii, 2d series. The dose of the powder is a 
drachm and a half. This plant is used by the vegetable 
practitioners. Cats roll in it with the same avidity that 
they do in valerian, and cover it with their urine. 

Dracocephalum variegatum. Vent. Grows in inundated 
swamps ; roots frequently immersed. Collected in St. 
John's, Berkley; in the Santee swamps, near Somerset PL; 
vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. ii, 682. The organiza- 
tion of the peduncle is peculiar. See observations on cer- 
tain phenomena attending the plant called the D. Ameri- 
canum. Acad, des Sci. 276, 1702. It is supposed to pos- 
sess a "cataleptic power." "Pourvues de cette singuliere 
faculte," namely: " la propriete, de la cataleptique, e'est-a- 



448 , 

dire, de garder la position dans laquelle on place la fleur." 
Siippiem. to Diet. Univ. de M. Med. 252, 1846. 

Dracocephalum Virginianum, L. Grows in the mountains 
of South Carolina. 

Its properties are similar to those possessed by the pre- 
ceding. 

Leojiurus cardiaca, L. Motherwort. Nat. Grows around 
buildings ; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. July. 

" The leaves are deobstruent, laxative, diaphoretic, em- 
menagogue, antihysteric, and anthelmintic." Am. Herbal, 
230 ; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 168. L. states that the herb, 
drunk as a tea, is useful in hysteria and hypochondriacal 
affections. Griffith, in his work on Med. Bot. 515, supposes 
it to be tonic, and to relieve palpitation of the heart. It is 
extolled in Russia as a preservative against hydrophobia. 
In the "Indian Materia Medica" it is stated that "an 
infusion of the plant is a stimulant, cordial bitter, and 
when taken at bedtime it procures a quiet, refreshing 
sleep, even where opium and laudanum have failed." It is 
probably useful as an ingredient for a soothing tea. See 
Linden, " Tilia." 

Marrubium vulgare. Ex. Nat. Ilorehound. 

Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 284; Watson's Pract. 
Physic, 118 and 332 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 273 ; Trous. 
et Pid. Mat. Med. ; Traite de Therap. 308 ; Royle, Mat. 
Med. 470 ; Le. Mat. Med. ii, 89 ; U. S. Disp. 452 ; Ball, 
and Gar. Mat. Med. 358; Matson's Veg. Pract.; Cullen, 
Mat. Med. ii, 154 ; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 558 ; Wooclv. Med. 
Bot. In the United States, it is used only as a warm, 
aromatic stimulant. The leaves are tonic and somewhat 
laxative, and are employed in colds, asthma, hysteria, and 
meuorrhagic diseases. The warm infusion acts as a sudor- 
ific, and is applicable as a palliative in phthisis and perip- 
neumonia, but is not allowed the possession of any very 
decided powers. In the Supplem., however, to the Diet. 



449 

Uni. de M. Med. 457, 1846, it is said to be certainly useful 
in chronic rheumatism, one ounce and a half of the infu- 
sion being given morning and evening. See, also, the 
Journal des Connaissances Medic. Dec. 10, 1836. Ferrein 
notices the root as an excellent vermifuge. Mat. Med. i, 
279, iii, 312; and Desbois de Rochefort says the decoction 
of three or four ounces is a good remedy in taenia. Dr. 
Cutler asserted that the infusion was a very useful applica- 
tion in salivation. Am. Herbal, by J. Stearns, LL.D. 
Griffith states that obstinate catarrhs are much benefited 
by the expressed juice taken in milk. Dose, one drachm 
of the powder, or one ounce to two ounces of the infusion 
made with an ounce of the dried herb to one pint of boiling 
water. From this plant it is well known the candy so 
much used in pectoral affections is made. 

The horehound has a bitter taste and an aromatic odor. 
"It possesses tonic, diuretic, and laxative properties, and it 
seems to owe all its powers to a bitter extractive, a volatile 
oil, and gallic acid." Used in coughs, colds, asthma, etc., 
on account of the combination of moderate qualities just 
described. From the very fact of its simplicity, I consider 
it one of the very best remedies for children and infants 
suffering with colds and coughs. Given during the day 
with opiates, and nitre at night, it restores appetite, is 
expectorant and duretic, and thus removes the slight re- 
mains of cold and fever so frequent with children. If the 
fever is a prominent symptom ipecacuanha should also be 
used. Besides, it may perform a most important role in 
taking the place of more active and injurious drugs. I 
know of no better remedy for colds and coughs than the 
juice of horehound sweetened and given during the day. 

Verbenacete. [The Vervain Tribe.) 
Callicarpa Americana, Mx. French mulberry. Collected 
in St. John's, Berkley, in dry soils ; vicinity of Charleston ; 
Richland district; Newbern. 

Drayton's View of S. C. 62. This is said to be useful in 
dropsical complaints. It bears very pretty red berries, 
29 



450 

growing in wliorls around the stem, which are slightly 
sweetish to the taste. I could not extract much coloring 
matter from their skins with vinegar or alum. 

Verbena urticifolia, L. Kettle-leaf vervain. Common in 
damp soils; collected in St. John's; vicinity of Charleston. 
Fl. July. 

U. S. Disp. 1301. Boiled in milk and water, and com- 
bined with the inner bark of the white oak, it is advan- 
tageously used in poisoning from the sumachs (Rhus). Mer. 
and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 868 ; Journal de Med. lxx, 
529. 

Verbena hasiata, L. Vervain ; Simpler's joy. Middle 
districts of South Carolina, and in Georgia ; vicinity of 
Charleston ; ISTewbern. Fl. Aug. 

U. S. Disp. 1304. This is more bitter than the European 
species, and it is said to be emetic. This plant is described 
by the "Cherokee Physician" as an emetic inferior to the 
"Indian Physic ;" a decoction of the dry or green herb or 
a powder is prescribed like lobelia. A decoction of the 
root is used to check fevers when given in the early stage. 
The plant should be examined. 

Verbena aubletia, L. Grows in the middle districts of 
South Carolina and in Georgia. Fl. Sept. 

Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 865. It is said to 
contain a very acrid mucilage. Die. des. Sci. ]STat. x, 426. 

Pedaliace2E. (The Oil Seed Tribe.) 

Sesamurn Indicum. ~) Bene. Introduced by the Africans. 
" Orientate. J Fl. July. . 
This is the sesame of the Anabasis, mentioned also by 
Dioscorides, Theophrastus, and others. The seeds contain 
an abundance of fixed oil as tasteless as olive, and for 
which it may be substituted ; it is said to be used ex- 
tensively in Egypt and Arabia. Lind. Nat. Syst. 280; U. 
S. Disp. 661. Merat says that in Egypt they drink large 



451 

quantities of the oil morning and evening, to give them 
embonpoint. It is also used medicinally as a laxative, and 
is by some preferred to castor oil ; also as an application 
to furfuraceous eruptions. In India it is regarded as an 
emmenagogue and as provocative of abortion ; employed in 
cutaneous affections and ophthalmia; a solution is given 
in colic and dysentery, and used as an application for soft- 
ening the skin. Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 332, 
and the Supplem. 1846, 657, according to which it is also 
becoming an object of considerable commercial impor- 
tance, being substituted for olive oil in the manufacture of 
Marseilles soap. See Essay of M. Hardy, Revue Agricole, 
Avril, 1845, 177. In the Trans. Phil. Soc, it is said that 
one hundred parts of the seed yield ninety of oil. Coxe, 
Am. Disp., art. Sesam. orient., states it was found beneficial 
in a dysentery which prevailed in 1803. We have seen it 
given to some extent, and with great advantage, in New 
York, in diarrhoea and dysentery, particularly in these 
affections as they occur in children; two or three of the 
leaves, thrown in water, are sufficient to render it very 
mucilaginous. This is taken internally. It also serves as 
a convenient vehicle for enemata, gargles, collyria, etc. In 
South Carolina the seeds are largely used by the negroes in 
making broths. They are also eaten parched, and are 
made with sugar into a very nice candy. It might be 
made a source of profit to raise the plant in the Con- 
federate States, as it grows well and the seeds bring a 
high price. 

The above was contained in my report on the Med. Bot. 
of South Carolina, published in 1849. 

The oil pressed from the seed will keep many years 
without acquiring any rancid taste, but in two years be- 
comes quite mild, so that the warm taste of the oil when 
first drawn is worn off, and it can be used for salads and all 
the ordinary purposes of sweet oil. In some countries it is 
used for frying fish, as a varnish, and for some medicinal 
purposes. Nine pounds of seed are said to yield upward 
of two pounds of fine oil. The oil may be extracted by 



452 

bruising the seed and immersing them in hot water, when 
the oil rises on the surface and may be skimmed off. But 
the usual mode of extraction is similar to that practised in 
the expression of linseed oil. The plant is generally sowed 
in drills about four feet apart, in the month of April. Am. 
Farm. Encyc. I consider, after examination, that the sas- 
safras leaf contains more mucilage than the Bene, and that 
both should be gathered and cured for winter use in mak- 
ing mucilaginous teas to be used in dysenteries, pulmonary 
diseases, etc. 

From a statement of H. M. Bry, of Louisiana, P. O. 
Rep., 1854, p. 225, sixteen bushels of seed of Bene plant 
(S. orientale) was sent to a mill in Cincinnati to be manu- 
factured into oil. It yielded thirty-nine gallons of clear 
oil and about live quarts of refuse oil, or about two and a 
half gallons to the bushel. In consequence of the mill im- 
parting the flavor of flaxseed he could not use it as a salad 
oil, for which purpose he was confident it would be su- 
perior, when pure, to the adulterated imported olive oil. 
It was used, however, as a substitute for castor oil. All 
who used it praised it for its gently purgative effect, and 
because it was free from the nauseous taste peculiar to 
castor oil. Twenty bushels is believed to be a moderate 
estimate of the amount of the seed produced by an acre. 
It yields a gallon of oil to the bushel more than flaxseed. 

The excellent effect of the leaves steeped in water as a 
mucilage to be used in diarrhoea and dysentery is testified 
to by all persons who have used it. For this purpose two 
or three leaves are soaked in a tumbler of water and ad- 
ministered repeatedly. This plant will act as a substitute 
for gum-arabic on account of the mucilage it yields. It 
should be used in the bowel affections of children and 
among our soldiers in camp. Planters should collect and 
cure all the leaves at their disposal. At page 838 of the 
same volume another paper on the Bene is to be found. 
It is there stated that the plant will throw out a great pro- 
fusion of leaves by breaking off the top when it is half 
grown. 



453 

Nelson quotes Miller on the Bene, as cultivated by the 
African negroes in South Carolina: "The inhabitants of 

CD 

that country make an oil from the seed which will keep 
many years and not take any rancid smell or taste, but in 
two years becomes quite mild ; so that when the warm 
taste of the seed which is in the oil when first drawn is 
worn off they use it as a salad oil and for all the purposes 
of sweet oil. The seeds are also used by the negroes for 
food — which seed they parch over the fire and then mix 
with water and stew other ingredients with them, which 
makes a hearty food." Rural Cyc. 

The seeds of the Bene, the myrtle, and the tallow tree, 
with the fruit of the ground-nut (Arachis) might afford use- 
ful material to the soap manufacturers within the Confed- 
erate States. I will insert here what I have upon the 
oleiferous plants most useful to us in the present exigency. 
In Boussingault's treatise on the subject of oils, pages 135 
and 139, he says: 

" The following sums may be taken as a pretty accurate 
estimate of the average quantity of oil yielded by the dif- 
ferent oleaginous seeds : colewort, winter rape, and other 
species of cruciferous plants, from 30 to 36 and 40 per cent. ; 
sunflower about 15 per cent. ; linseed (flax) from 11 to 22 ; 
poppy from 34 to 63 ; hemp-seed from 14 to 26 ; olives 
from 9 to 11 ; walnuts 40 to 70 ; Brazil nuts 60 ; castor oil 
beans 62; sweet almonds 40 to 54; bitter almonds 25 to 46: 
Modiva sativa 26 to 28 per cent." I would refer the reader 
to a more extensive table than this in Ure's Dictionary of 
Arts. I have little doubt that the Chinese tallow tree 
(StUUngia sebifera) introduced and growing around Charles- 
ton is richer than any above mentioned. Hickory nuts, 
when bearing abundantly, broken and thrown in a vessel 
of boiling water, would no doubt yield oil abundantly and 
cheaply for soap. I have, however, upon experiment 
found it difficult to extract the oil (1862). 

The plants most commonly cultivated for the produc- 
tion of oil belong to the genus Brassica; all plants of this 
genus produce seeds containing considerable quantities of 



454 

oil, and are sometimes used for obtaining it. All the 
species are biennial, save the spring colza, or field cabbage 
(Brassica campestris). It is not, as some suppose, a degener- 
ated variety of autumnal rape or cole seed, but really a 
distinct species. "Thaer's Principles of Agriculture," p. 
449. In the description by this author of colza and rape 
(autumnal varieties), he lays great stress upon the great 
value of the colza [Brassica oleracea lacineata, a variety of 
the garden cabbage), as perhaps one of the most abundant 
in the oil it gives out. The rape, a variety of the Brassica 
napus, is less productive. The colza (Brassica campestris) 
requires a dry soil. I introduce this information here 
because the plant might be cultivated to great advantage 
in the Confederate States for supplying oil, and because 
Thaer adds at the conclusion of his paper that the seeds of 
the ruta. baga, or Swedish turnip, which is already grown 
extensively throughout the Southern states, are equally rich 
in oil. For the method of culture and gathering, see 
Thaer's work, published in New York, 1857. It is also an' 
excellent plant for fodder. The seed does not mature well 
in South Carolina. The oil is obtained by a press or oil 
mill. Even the spring rape (Brassica campestris) yields 
more than twenty pounds of oil per bushel. The rape is 
grown and produces well in Clarendon district, S. C, Mr. 
Sanders informs me. It will produce seed. 

I would particularly advise the extensive introduction 
and cultivation of the rape in the Confederate States, both 
because it grows and matures well, and because of the 
amount of oil the seeds afford, which would supply what- 
ever is necessary in making soap (for processes, see Ure's 
"Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures"), and also because 
it would allow the Southern planter to devote the tallow, 
grease, etc., which has been economized for this purpose, 
to the support of his slaves. The Bene probably yields as 
much oil as any plant we possess, as I am informed by a 
practical gardener. See, also, flaxseed, Chinese tallow tree, 
etc. 

Mustard seed oil concretes when cooled a little below 



455 

32° Fahr. The white or yellow seed (lire's Dictionary of 
Arts and Sciences, p. 285) afford thirty-six per cent, of oil, 
and the black seed eighteen per cent. I would refer the 
inquirer to Ure's Dictionary for paper on the subject of the 
oils, mode of obtaining, etc. Also to Kurten's work on 
the "Art of manufacturing Soaps, including the most 
recent discoveries — with receipts for making camphene oil, 
candles, etc. Phil.: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1854." This 
treatise gives very plain directions concerning the articles 
necessary. In Ure's Dictionary a plan of an oil mill is 
given, and information on "seed crushing" and extraction 
of all oils. Ure says that the oil of colza is obtained from 
the seeds of the Brassica campestris to the amount of thirty- 
nine per cent, of their Aveight. " It forms an excellent 
lamp oil, and is much employed in France." Hemp-seed 
oil resembles the preceding, but has a disagreeable smell 
and a mouldish taste. It is used extensively for making 
both soaps and varnishes. Linseed oil is obtained in great- 
est purity by cold pressure, but by a steam heat of 200° 
Fahr. a very good oil may be procured in larger quantity. 
"The proportion of oil," Ure adds, "usually stated by 
authors is twenty-two per cent, of the weight of the seed, 
but Mr. Blundell informs me that by his plan of hydraulic 
pressure he obtained from twenty-six to twenty-seven." 
In the Encyc. 31etropolitana, under "Oil-press," a quarter of 
seed (whose average weight is four hundred pounds) is said 
to yield twenty gallons of oil. ISTow, as the gallon of 
linseed oil weighs 9.3 pounds, the total product will be 
one hundred and eighty-six pounds, which amounts to 
more than forty-five per cent., an extravagant statement, 
about double the ordinary product in oil mills, etc., etc. 
When kept long cool, in a cask partly open, it deposits 
masses of white stearine along with a brownish powder. 
This stearine is very difficult of saponification. The 
reader is referred to the last paragraph of p. 297 of Ure's 
Dictionary, vol. ii, and all of p. 298, ending at word 
"Dutch plan," top of p. 299; and on the subject of oils, 



456 

soap, candles, starch, and sugar, I would refer to the same 
work, where many of the best processes are described. 

Chaptal, in his Chemistry applied to Agriculture, makes 
the following practical remarks on oils: "The oils are fat, 
unctuous bodies, of various degrees of fluidity, insoluble in 
water, forming soap with the alkalies, and burning and 
evaporating at different temperatures. It is the last char- 
acteristic particularly which establishes that difference 
among them by which they are divided into fixed and 
volatile oils. The fixed oils are contained in seeds and 
fruits, from which they are extracted by pressure. The 
first portion which is expressed is the purest, and is known 
by the name of virgin oil ; that which follows is rendered 
more or less impure by the mixture of other principles 
contained in the fruit submitted to compression. It is 
particularly by the mucilage, which is found in greater or 
less quantity in all vegetables, . that the purity of oil is 
affected. After all the oil which can be extracted by press- 
ure has been drawn off, it is customary to moisten the 
mash with boiling water and to subject it to another and 
more powerful pressure ; but the oil thus obtained carries 
with it a large portion of mucilage, and is usually em- 
ployed only in some of the trades. In some countries it is 
customary to collect the fruits into heaps and to subject 
them to a degree of fermentation before pressure ; by this 
means the extraction of the oil is rendered easier and the 
quantity of it is increased, but the quality of it is much 
injured. Similar results are obtained by breaking the fruit 
previous to expressing the oil. It would be hardly right 
to condemn these last methods as erroneous, because in 
the numerous soap-works, dye-houses, cloth manufactories, 
etc., this quality of oil is preferred to that which is purer. 
The learned will do well to condemn the processes now 
employed for procuring the fine oils, and to present others 
by which we may obtain them purer and of a better taste; 
but the grand consumption of the oils is in the manufacto- 
ries, and there the fine oils would but imperfectly replace 
those of a coarser kind; thus, by perfecting the produce 



457 

the usefulness of it would be lessened. ' When oil is to be 
extracted for domestic purposes it is without doubt desira- 
ble that it be obtained as pure as possible, but that which 
is destined to be employed in the trades and in manufac- 
tures, as in that of soaps for example, is the better for 
being combined with a portion of mucilage. The great 
art of manufacturing consists in appropriating the prod- 
ucts to the wants and tastes of consumers. When mucil- 
age is so abundant in an oily seed that it yields upon 
expression only a pasty combination of mucilage and oil, 
the seed is dried by fire; when the mucilage is thus de- 
prived of fluidity the oil flows off pure. In this manner 
the seeds of flax, of poppies, of henbane, etc., are prepared 
for expression. Nearly all the oils are colored, and contain 
some of the principles of the fruits from which they are 
procured; these are in some of their effects injurious to the 
oil, and great pains have been taken to find some means of 
freeing it from them. Oil is clarified to a certain degree 
merely by standing in a cool place in open earthen vessels; 
it forms a deposit, and is thus rendered purer, clearer, and 
better. If oil is exposed to the sun it gradually loses its 
color. In order to clarify the oil of mustard one per cent, 
of sulphuric acid is put into a large earthen pan into 
which the oil is thrown and carefully stirred ; the oil 
becomes green, and upon being allowed to remain at rest 
forms upon the sides and bottom of the pan a blackish 
deposit, which is principally composed of carbon ; the 
process must be repeated after a few days if the oil has not 
acquired the wished for clearness. But before using the 
oil it ia necessary that it be allowed to remain -for some 
time undisturbed. In this operation the mucilage appears 
to be precipitated and consumed by the acid. Most fixed 
oils contain some mucilage, and most of them become 
rancid. 

" Most fixed oils have but in a very slight degree the 
property of drying, but some of them acquire it by being 
combined with some metallic oxide, and this greatly in- 
creases the use of them, as they can in this way be 



458 

employed as varnishes for covering bodies which it is 
necessary <to preserve from air and water, or as the 
recipients of colors to be used in painting upon cloth, 
wood, or metal. The best drying oils are those of flax- 
seed, nuts, and poppies. Linseed oil will dissolve at 
boiling temperature one-quarter of its weight of that oxide 
of lead known in commerce by the name of litharge. It 
becomes brown in proportion as the oxide is dissolved ; 
when saturated with the oxide it thickens by cooling, and 
it is necessary to render it liquid by heat at the time of 
using it. In consequence of the numerous purposes to 
which the fixed oils are applied the consumption of them 
is immense ; they form the basis of the soaps, both soft 
and hard, according as they are combined with potash or 
soda ; they are used to fix in the most durable manner 
upon cotton the colors obtained from madder ; they are 
employed to facilitate the operations in all establishments 
for carding and spinning wool. It is by the use of oil that 
the play of all machinery is rendered more regular and 
easy, and that friction is moderated, and by it metals are 
preserved from rusting. The most important use to which 
oil has been applied is that of lighting buildings, the 
defects of the light being remedied by argands and other 
lamps which aid in the consumption of the carbon by 
admitting more air to the wick. 

"The volatile oils do not belong exclusively to any one 
part of plants; in some, as in the Bohemian angelica, the 
oil is distributed throughout the whole plant; sometimes, as 
in balm, mint, and wormwood, it is found in the leaves and 
stalks; the elecampane, florence iris, and bennet contain it 
in their roots; thyme and rosemary in their leaves and 
flower buds; lavender and the rose in their calyces; chamo- 
mile, lemon, and orange plants in their flowers; the petals 
and the rind of the fruit of the two last abound in oil ; that 
of the indigo and fennel is contained in vessels forming the 
raised lines which may be perceived on the bark. Volatile 
oils vary in color, consistency, and weight; there are some, 
as those of sassafras and the clove, for instance, which are 



459 

heavier than water; and there are some, as those of the rose 
and parsley, that remain in a concrete state at the usual 
temperature of the air, etc. 

" The volatile oils are extracted either by distillation or 
expression. When the oil is contained in vesicles upon 
the surface of the rind, as in those of the lemon and berga- 
mot, the cells may be broken and the oil caused to flow out 
by merely rubbing the rinds together; or the rinds may be 
taken off by grating, and the oil separated from the pulp by 
a light pressure, or by allowing the whole to remain undis- 
turbed for a few days, when the pulp will settle at the bot- 
tom and the oil remain floating above it. When these rinds 
are scraped with a bit of sugar, the oil combines with it, 
forming an oleosaccharum, useful in giving a pleasant flavor 
to liquors." 

Count Chaptal gives this simple process for extraction of 
oils: "With the exception of the oils of which I have just 
spoken, all the volatile oils are extracted by distillation; in 
this process the plant is put into the boiler of the alembic 
and covered with water; when the water boils the oil rises 
with the steam, and is condensed with that in the worm of 
the still, whence they flow together into the receiver ; the 
oil which swims upon the top is separated from the water, 
and this water, which has a milky appearance, is again em- 
ployed from preference in new distillations. It is customary 
to make use of a narrow straight-necked vessel as a re- 
ceiver; the oil collects in the upper part of this, while the 
water passes off" through a siphon in the side about four 
inches below the neck. In the south of Europe where 
great quantities of the volatile oils are prepared, the distil- 
lers place their portable apparatus in the open air, in those 
places which offer a plentiful harvest of aromatic plants ; 
when these are exhausted they remove elsewhere. 

" The aromatic oils are employed particularly as perfumes, 
and for this purpose are often combined with other sub- 
stances. They are likewise used in the manufacture of var- 
nishes, from the readiness with which they dissolve colors, 
and from their quick evaporation after being applied." 



460 

At Cannes, in the south of France, I have myself wit- 
nessed the operations for extraction of essence of roses, 
which are planted in great abundance. On the plantations 
in South Carolina rose-water is distilled from the petals of 
the sweet rose by a simple process. 

Bignoniace^;. (The Trumpet-flower Tribe.) 

Bignonia crucigera, Walt. (N. A.F.) 1 Rich, shaded soils; 
" capreolata, L. and Ell. Sk. / collected in St. John's, 
Berkley; vicinity of Charleston. Fl. March. 

Shec. Flora Carol. 278. See B. crucigera, Walt. The 
root and vine, in infusion or decoction, answer the purpose 
of sarsaparilla. It is detergent and alterative, aperient, 
diuretic, and sudorific, used in syphilis, chronic rheumatism, 
and in derangements arising from impurities of the blood. 
The pith is said to be divided longitudinally into four equal 
parts, so that when the stem is cut transversely it exhibits 
the appearance of a cross, and hence Walter's name. This 
vine appears to be possessed of instinct; it shoots up to the 
highest tops of trees before sending out a branch. 

Bignonia catalpa, Mx. 1 Catalpa. Grows in the upper 
Cataljja cordifolia, Ell. Sk. J and lower country of South 
Carolina; collected in St. John's. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med.; Supplem. 1846, 107. 
The physicians at Naples, after the favorable report of Thun- 
berg and Keempher, as well as those of Brera, have given 
incontestable evidence of the advantages resulting from its 
use in asthma. The decoction of the fruit is also employed. 
See Gazette Medicale, 8, 1834; Journal de Chim. Med. x, 
164. Ksempher says he also applied the leaves to the pain- 
ful part. Poultry are said to thrive on and to be fond of 
the seeds. The timber makes durable posts. I find no 
notice of the plant in the American works. The honey 
collected from the flowers is somewhat poisonous — resem- 
bling, though less active, that collected from the yellow 
jessamine. See following. 



461 

Gelseminum sempervirens, Juss. Jessamine. Grows in 
swamps; diffused through the alluvial regions. It is ob- 
served that it is gradually gaining ground in the upper 
country. I have noticed it just beyond Columbia, and 
near Norfolk, Va. 

Ell. Bot. Med. Notes, 312 ; Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 490. 
"Possessed of narcotic properties to a very considerable 
degree." A spirituous tincture of the root is used with 
success in rheumatism. It is also employed in gonorrhoea ; 
ninety drops of the bark of the root in tincture, taken in 
three doses, produce vertigo, perverted vision, etc. Its 
marked effect on the nervous system has been repeatedly 
observed. 

The root of the jessamine has been much more freely 
used since the publication of my report on the Med. Bot. 
of South Carolina, made to the Am. Med. Association, 1849. 
Special articles can be found descriptive of its uses in the 
Charleston Medical Journal. Dr. Mays, of South Carolina, 
has contributed one of these. Drs. Ford and White used 
the tincture of the root as they did that of the Vercdrum 
viride in yellow fever, for its depressing influence upon the 
circulation ; see Ch. Journal. Many employ the tincture of 
the root in fevers ; it acts in a manner similar to digitalis 
and V. viride, with the addition of some narcotic property. 
It. has to be used with caution on these accounts, and because 
it induces delirium in overdose. I regret my inability at this 
moment to make direct reference to the authorities. Stille's 
Therap. and Dunglison's New Remedies may be consulted. 
My venerable friend Dr. John Douglass, of Chester, S. C, 
writes me that he has used it repeatedly with advantage in 
gonorrhoea; see his letter which I published in Ch. Med. 
Journal. The active principle, gelseminine, is much used 
latterly by a certain school of practitioners at the North 
and West, with other substances of similar nomenclature. 

I give the following statement of the method of extract- 
ing the perfumed oil of flowers, as it may enable those 
living where the jessamine, rose, violet, and other flowers 
bloom in such abundance, to prepare it. "The essence of 



462 

rose, of jessamine, violet, etc., are possessed of a more fee- 
ble odor, and being obtained from the flowers of their re- 
spective plants, require much care in their preparation. 
This is done by spreadiug upon white wool, impregnated 
with olive oil, the petals of the flowers, and leaving them 
for some time covered over with a woollen cloth, upon 
which flowers are also scattered. The flowers are renewed 
from time to